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In Ancient Egyptian Phonology. James Allen studies the sounds of the language spoken by the ancient Egyptians through application of the most recent methodological advances for phonological reconstruction. Using the internal evidence of the language, he proceeds from individual vowels and consonants to the sound of actual ancient Egyptian texts. Allen also explores variants, alternants, and the development of sound in texts, and touches on external evidence from Afroasiatic cognate languages. The most up to date work on this topic, Ancient Egyptian Phonology is an essential resource for Egyptologists and will also be of interest to scholars and linguists of African and Semitic languages.
Little is known about impacts of soilborne pathogen legacies on reestablishment of native plant species in abandoned agricultural fields. We tested whether pathogens found in abandoned citrus orchards affect growth of native and invasive plant species in a controlled greenhouse experiment. In previous research, we identified several species of ascomycete (Fusarium spp.) and oomycete (Pythium spp.) pathogens from field roots and soils. The invasive annual grass, ripgut brome [Bromus diandrus (Roth.)], and native forbs, common fiddleneck [Amsinckia intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey.], coastal tidytips [Layia platyglossa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) A. Gray], and California goldfields [Lasthenia californica (DC. ex Lindl.)], were grown together in four different field soil treatments. Using pesticides on soils collected from abandoned citrus fields, we created four soil treatments that excluded different groups of potential pathogens: (1) untreated control (2) metalaxyl (oomyceticide) (3) fludioxonil (fungicide), and (4) steam-sterilized. Fludioxonil increased aboveground biomass of L. platyglossa (P = 0.005) and L. californica (P= 0.02) compared with sterile and metalaxyl-treated soils. Lasthenia californica had decreased arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with metalaxyl, suggesting metalaxyl has non-target effects on mycorrhizae. Fludioxonil decreased potential pathogens in L. californica roots while having no effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Bromus diandrus had higher biomass in sterile and fludioxonil-treated soils than untreated soils (P = 0.0001), suggesting a release from soilborne pathogens. The release from soilborne pathogens with the use of fludioxonil in both native forbs and B. diandrus, combined with overall higher biomass across treatments in B. diandrus, suggests that pathogen impacts in a field setting are insufficient to reduce success of this invasive grass, and use of a fungicide would not benefit native species in mixed stands with B. diandrus.
To understand non-adherence to medically recommended diets among Mayans with diabetes.
Using partially sequential mixed methods, questionnaires, semi-structured brief and in-depth interviews were applied. Questionnaire data were analysed with Pearson’s χ2 and Student’s t tests and qualitative interviews with grounded theory microanalysis.
Rural, predominantly Mayan communities in Chiapas, Quintana Roo and Yucatan, Mexico, 2008–2012.
Purposive sample of Mayans with type 2 diabetes; using public health care; 168 women and twenty-seven men; age 21–50+ years.
Participants understood diabetes as caused by negative emotions, divine punishment, revenge via spells, chemicals in food and high sugar/fat consumption. Eliminating corn, pork, sugary beverages and inexpensive industrialized foods was perceived as difficult or impossible. More Mayans reporting not understanding physician instructions (30 v. 18 %) reported difficulty reducing red meat consumption (P = 0·051). Non-adherence was influenced by lack of patient–provider shared knowledge and medical recommendations misaligned with local culture. Men whose wives prepared their meals, women who liked vegetables and young adults whose mothers prepared their meals reported greater adherence to dietary recommendations. Partial adherents said it made life tolerable and those making no physician-recommended dietary changes considered them too restrictive (they meant ‘starving to death’). Over half (57 %) of participants reported non-adherence; the two principal reasons were dislike of recommended foods (52·5 %) and high cost (26·2 %).
Adherence to dietary regimens in diabetes treatment is largely related to social and cultural issues. Taking cultural diversity, food preferences, local food availability and poverty into consideration is essential when developing health-promotion activities related to diabetes.
The classical Monge–Kantorovich (MK) problem as originally posed is concerned with how best to move a pile of soil or rubble to an excavation or fill with the least amount of work relative to some cost function. When the cost is given by the square of the Euclidean distance, one can define a metric on densities called the Wasserstein distance. In this note, we formulate a natural matrix counterpart of the MK problem for positive-definite density matrices. We prove a number of results about this metric including showing that it can be formulated as a convex optimisation problem, strong duality, an analogue of the Poincaré–Wirtinger inequality and a Lax–Hopf–Oleinik–type result.
Ecological inference (EI) is the process of learning about individual behavior from aggregate data. We relax assumptions by allowing for “linear contextual effects,” which previous works have regarded as plausible but avoided due to nonidentification, a problem we sidestep by deriving bounds instead of point estimates. In this way, we offer a conceptual framework to improve on the Duncan–Davis bound, derived more than 65 years ago. To study the effectiveness of our approach, we collect and analyze 8,430
EI datasets with known ground truth from several sources—thus bringing considerably more data to bear on the problem than the existing dozen or so datasets available in the literature for evaluating EI estimators. For the 88% of real data sets in our collection that fit a proposed rule, our approach reduces the width of the Duncan–Davis bound, on average, by about 44%, while still capturing the true district-level parameter about 99% of the time. The remaining 12% revert to the Duncan–Davis bound.
Alcibiades relates Socrates' warning on his proposal for a reciprocal exchange of beauty; he should take a better look (ἄμεινον σκόπει) in case he is mistaken about Socrates' beauty and true worth: ἥ τοι τῆς διανοίας ὄψις ἄρχεται ὀξὺ βλέπειν ὅταν ἡ τῶν ὀμμάτων τῆς ἀκμῆς λήγειν ἐπιχειρῆι· σὺ δὲ τούτων ἔτι πόρρω, ‘the sight of the mind, you know, begins to see sharply when the sight of the eyes attempts (?) to fade from its prime—but you (are) still far from these (developments).’
Rather than trawl through medieval philosophical texts for references to selfhood, I analyse a story Chaucer knew well: that of Narcissus and Echo. Narcissus’s fatal encounter with his own reflection suggests a number of points: i) that self-awareness is associated with sight (the word ‘introspection’ means ‘looking within’); ii) that beauty also is associated with sight; iii) that love makes one self-aware (Narcissus understands that his love-object is himself, not that that helps him any); iv) that sight can be ironically linked to moral blindness. Chaucer explores all these points, often with reference to mirrors, and to women in love or being loved. Medieval mirrors were usually small and convex, requiring the viewer to stand close to interpret the distorted images from multiple angles that they generated. Chaucer especially represents women experiencing how it feels to ‘be me’, making of his own poetry a mirror that reflects from oblique positions.
To evaluate the association between novel pre- and post-operative biomarker levels and 30-day unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery.
Children aged 18 years or younger undergoing congenital heart surgery (n = 162) at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Collected novel pre- and post-operative biomarkers include soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A model based on clinical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgery database was developed and evaluated against two augmented models.
Unplanned readmission or mortality within 30 days of cardiac surgery occurred among 21 (13%) children. The clinical model augmented with pre-operative biomarkers demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over the clinical model alone with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.754 (95% confidence interval: 0.65–0.86) compared to 0.617 (95% confidence interval: 0.47–0.76; p-value: 0.012). The clinical model augmented with pre- and post-operative biomarkers demonstrated a significant improvement over the clinical model alone, with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.802 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.89; p-value: 0.003).
Novel biomarkers add significant predictive value when assessing the likelihood of unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. Further exploration of the utility of these novel biomarkers during the pre- or post-operative period to identify early risk of mortality or readmission will aid in determining the clinical utility and application of these biomarkers into routine risk assessment.
This bare-bones formulation may raise as many questions as it settles, and it is often glossed by reference to the only somewhat more expanded account that Hegel gave of art’s role in the concluding sections on Absolute Spirit as that came to be sketched in the Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences.
Hegel’s treatment of art in the Encyclopaedia’s section on Absolute Spirit in its final (1827/30) form is only eight paragraphs, but it does contain arguably the most systematic and mature account Hegel gave of art, in particular, the relation between the philosophy of art and the philosophy of spirit.2 While these paragraphs are often appealed to as providing the philosophical justification of Hegel’s more wide-ranging treatment of artistic and aesthetic topics in the Berlin Lectures on the Philosophy of Art, their genesis has not received correspondingly much treatment – an unfortunate fact, since Hegel actually revised a number of elements of this eight-paragraph account as his view of the systematic place of art changed in significant ways over the decades following the publication of the final part of the Science of Logic. In particular, one can see over the three published versions of the Encyclopaedia (the 1817 Heidelberg version and the 1827 and 1830 Berlin versions) Hegel’s attempts to resolve some of the more difficult aporiai raised by the positioning of art as a mode of Absolute Spirit.