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Experts in data analytics and power engineering present techniques addressing the needs of modern power systems, covering theory and applications related to power system reliability, efficiency, and security. With topics spanning large-scale and distributed optimization, statistical learning, big data analytics, graph theory, and game theory, this is an essential resource for graduate students and researchers in academia and industry with backgrounds in power systems engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.
Persistent left superior vena cava is a thoracic venous return anomaly. Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common congenital anomalies seen with persistent left superior vena cava. We are presenting a successful cardiac resynchronisation therapy device implantation in a patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and persistent left superior vena cava combination which has not been previously reported in the literature.
Prognosis of the transposition of the great arteries has completely changed since the introduction of the arterial switch. Time limit to perform this intervention is still controversial. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the early and late outcome of primary arterial switch operation beyond the age of months.
We included all patients with the diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum beyond the age of 8 weeks who underwent primary arterial switch operation. The procedures were performed by the same surgeon, in two different institutes. Patients who had transposition of the great arteries and associated anomalies (except atrial septal defect and persistent arterial duct) were excluded. Ventricular shape, geometry, and mass were not considered during the decision on procedure type.
In the study, 11 patients with the diagnosis of simple d-transposition of the great arteries beyond 8 weeks were undergone primary arterial switch operation with a mean age of 90.63 days (60–137 days), and 7 patients had a Rashkind procedure. All patients had squashed left ventricle shape with preserved function. The sternum was left open in 10 patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was necessary in 45.45% of cases. The mean mechanical ventilation time was 7.27 days (1–16 days). No mortality was recorded until now. Post-operatory left ventricular function was preserved in 90.9% of the patients. Only one patient had mild myocardial dysfunction at the time of discharge.
Primary arterial switch procedure can still be the best surgical option in patients with the diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum beyond 8 weeks of age, providing that mechanical circulatory support and an expert cardiac intensive care unit service are available.
This study investigated relationships among spirituality, hope, and overall quality of life in Muslim women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional descriptive design with a convenience sample of 145 Malay patients was used. The mediating role of hope in the relationship between spirituality and quality of life as well as the moderating effect of education level on the spirituality hope link were examined.
Participants with higher self-reported spirituality reported more hope (b = 6.345, p < 0.001) and higher levels of quality of life (b = 1.065, p < 0.001). Higher educational attainment weakened relationships between spirituality and hope (b = −1.460, p < 0.001).
Significance of results
The role of advanced education in contributing to lessened hope in relation to spirituality emphasizes the importance of skilled and personalized spiritual counseling in the respective socio-cultural religious context.
To demonstrate the usefulness of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as an early biomarker of carbon monoxide-induced myocardial injury in children. It also aimed to identify the correlation between NT-proBNP and left ventricular systolic dysfunction findings shown by echocardiography.
Prospective, observational study conducted at a paediatric emergency department between October 2017 and April 2019 which involved children aged 0–17 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on severity; mild, moderate and severe groups. The patient characteristics, carboxyhaemoglobin, CK-MB Mass (CKMB-M), troponin-T, and NT-proBNP levels were measured, and echocardiography was performed and left ventricular ejection fraction was measured.
Sixty-nine patients and 60 healthy controls were included. Male gender, younger age, higher carboxyhaemoglobin levels, and altered mental status were found as independent predictors of carbon monoxide-induced myocardial injury. If the cut-off value for NT-proBNP level is >480 pg/ml, the sensitivity–specificity for decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, which is the strongest carbon monoxide-induced myocardial injury sign, were 100–96%, respectively. A high negative correlation was found between NT-proBNP levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (r = −0.769, p < 0.01) in the carbon monoxide poisoning group, and there was a positive correlation between the carboxyhaemoglobin and NT-proBNP levels (r = 0.583, p < 0.01).
Echocardiography is an ideal tool and very sensitive, but its routine use is limited due to its non-availability. An increased level of NT-proBNP (>480pg/ml) may be useful as an ideal biomarker for early detection of carbon monoxide-induced myocardial injury sign and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction which is the most crucial point in making a decision on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Studies have reported a sex bias in case fatalities of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is observed that men have a higher risk of developing a severe form of the disease compared to women, highlighting the importance of disaggregated data of male and female COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, other factors (eg, hormonal levels and immune functions) also need to be addressed due to the effects of sex differences on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. An insight into the underlying causes of sex differences in COVID-19 patients may provide an opportunity for better care of the patients or prevention of the disease. The current study reviews the reports concerning with the sex differences in COVID-19 patients. It is explained how sex can affect angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), that is a key component for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and summarized the gender differences in immune responses and how sex hormones are involved in immune processes. Furthermore, the available data about the impact of sex hormones on the immune functions of COVID-19 cases are looked into.
This article presents the first archaeological survey of the ornate Kidichi baths on Zanzibar. The baths were built either for or by Shihrazad, a wife of Zanzibar’s nineteenth-century ruler Said bin Sultan (1806–56). Laser scanning the ornate plaster stucco clarified two inscriptions, the precise meaning of which had been lost. By combining archaeological survey results with historical research and a translation of the inscriptions, a new narrative is presented in which the main protagonist is, unusually, female. Her story raises a host of questions relating to heritage, gender, religion and politics in modern-day Africa and beyond.
Catatonia is a frequent, complex and severe identifiable syndrome of motor dysregulation. However, its pathophysiology is poorly understood.
We aimed to provide a systematic review of all brain imaging studies (both structural and functional) in catatonia.
We identified 137 case reports and 18 group studies representing 186 individual patients with catatonia. Catatonia is often associated with brain imaging abnormalities (in more than 75% of cases). The majority of the case reports show diffuse lesions of white matter, in a wide range of brain regions. Most of the case reports of functional imaging usually show frontal, temporal, or basal ganglia hypoperfusion. These abnormalities appear to be alleviated after successful treatment of clinical symptoms. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging studies are very scarce in the catatonia literature, mostly showing diffuse cerebral atrophy. Group studies assessing functional brain imaging after catatonic episodes show that emotional dysregulation is related to the GABAergic system, with hypoactivation of orbitofrontal cortex, hyperactivation of median prefrontal cortex, and dysconnectivity between frontal and motor areas.
In catatonia, brain imaging is abnormal in the majority of cases, and abnormalities more frequently diffuse than localised. Brain imaging studies published so far suffer from serious limitations and for now the different models presented in the literature do not explain most of the cases. There is an important need for further studies including a better clinical characterisation of patients with catatonia, functional imaging with concurrent catatonic symptoms and the use of novel brain imaging techniques.
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Limited data are available on the occurrence of T. gondii in women especially pregnant women in Pakistan. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and risk factors associated with T. gondii in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Punjab Province, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 593 samples were collected from pregnant (n = 293) and non-pregnant (n = 300) women of District Headquarter Hospitals of Chiniot, Faisalabad, Jhang and Okara, Pakistan. Data related to demographic parameters and risk factors were collected using a pretested questionnaire on blood sampling day. Serum samples were screened for antibodies (IgG) against T. gondii using ELISA. A univariant and binomial logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between seropositive and explanatory variables considering the 95% confidence interval. P value ⩽0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analysis. Out of 593, 44 (7.42%) women were seropositive for T. gondii IgG antibodies. Occupation, age, sampling location, socioeconomic status, contact with cat, pregnancy status and trimester of pregnancy were significantly associated with seropositivity for T. gondii antibodies. Location and trimester of pregnancy were identified as potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity based on binomial logistic regression. Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Therefore, now a necessitated awareness is required to instruct the individuals about these infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis) and their control strategies to maintain the health of human population. Moreover, health awareness among public can help the minimization of T. gondii infection during pregnancy and subsequent risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.
There is a fundamental concern regarding the prediction of kiwifruit yield based on the concentration of nutrients in the leaf (2–3 months before fruits harvesting). For this purpose, the current study was designed to employ an artificial neural network (ANN) to evaluate the kiwi yield of Hayward cultivar. In this regard, 31 kiwi orchards (6–7 years old) in different parts of Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, with 101 plots (three trees in every plot) were selected. The complete leaves of branches with fruits were harvested, and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium measured. After fruit harvesting in late November, the fruit yield of each plot was evaluated along with the fresh and dry weights of the fruit. The ANN analyses were carried out using a multi-layer perceptron with the Langburge-Marquardt training algorithm. Using calcium (Ca) as input data (Ca-model) was more accurate than using nitrogen (N-model). The maximum R2 and the lowest root mean square error was obtained when all nutrients and related ratios were considered as input variables. Since the difference between the proposed model and the model fitted by the calcium variable (Ca-model) was only about 6%, the Ca-model is recommended.
Studies have revealed that the timing of macronutrient ingestion may influence body weight and glucose tolerance. We aimed to examine the effect of high protein versus high carbohydrate intake at the evening meal on metabolic parameters of patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a single-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial. 96 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 32-65 years with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into one of these three groups: Standard evening meal (ST), High carbohydrate evening meal (HC), and High protein evening meal (HP). Then, the patients were followed for 10 weeks. HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), diastolic blood pressure, body weight, body fat percentage, and waist circumference decreased significantly in all three groups (P < 0.05). HbA1c showed more improvement in the ST compared with the HP group (- 0.45 ± 0.36 vs. - 0.26 ± 0.36). Reductions in BMI and body weight were significantly higher in the ST compared with the HP group (P < 0.05). Reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and systolic blood pressure were significant in all groups, except for the HP group. Non-HDL-C/HDL-C remained unchanged in all groups. The results of the present study revealed that even distribution of carbohydrates and protein among meals compared with reducing carbohydrates and increasing protein at dinner may have a more beneficial effect on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.
This paper discusses the design and fabrication of a low-profile Hilbert-shaped metamaterial (MTM) array-based antenna, forming a rectangular patch with partial ground plane backing; the rest is slotted with traces for RF energy harvesting. The antenna is mounted on a 28 mm × 32 mm indium nickel oxide polymerized palm fiber (INP) substrate and compared to the identical one based on FR4 substrate. The two prototypes are printed with silver nanoparticles. Numerical and experimental tests are applied to the antenna performance in terms of S11 and radiation patterns. The obtained antenna gain bandwidth product of the INP prototype is found to be significantly better than the FR4 prototype. The proposed INP antenna gain at 5.8 and 8 GHz frequencies is found to be about 4.56 and 7.38 dBi, respectively, while the FR4 antenna gain is found to be 4.56 and 6.85 dBi at 5.8 and 8 GHz, respectively. Finally, the resultant DC voltage and the efficiency of conversion from harvested RF energy are measured experimentally at 5.8 and 8 GHz for both proposed prototypes.
Primary pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare. We report a 14-year-old girl with primary cardiac Hodgkin lymphoma. The large right atrial tumor extended upward and occluded the superior caval vein and left innominate vein.