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Pairwise comparison is basically used to prioritize alternatives and select a solution in product development. Decision errors can happen when the amount of processing information increases. This research proposes an assisted decision tool to prioritize alternatives by using the pairwise comparison technique and a Quicksort algorithm. This software was evaluated in the product development workshop that aims to select the component to further develop in the new product generation. This tool provides high-reliability results, reduces procedure time and is a user-friendly interactive interface.
More than 15 years after the publication of the agile manifesto of software development, agile development approaches have also reached the processes of physical product development. Because of the boundary conditions and requirements here, which differ strongly from those of pure software development, these approaches often reach their limits. However, research and practice have quickly recognized that hybrid approaches integrate the strengths of agile and plan-driven development. This paper presents 25 hybrid development approaches that have been identified in a Systematic Literature Review.
When developing new systems, there is always some kind of reference to existing systems. Various approaches aim at describing qualitatively different characteristics of such connections, often depicted as some form of variation. Among other things, this is done with regard to innovation potential and development risk. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which established methods of risk management refer to modelling approaches for variations by means as mentionend above. After a litertaure search 11 methods and method clusters are analyzed more in detail within a method benchmark.
The model of PGE describes the emergence of new systems based on reference by the activities carryover, embodiment and principle variation - qualitatively different manifestations of a transfer process. We investigate indicators which constitute these different manifestations measurably for different types of systems. We propose generalized variation operators to describe system development with respect to different product elements and system types. We use case studies from automotive, production systems and simulation models.
Maturity levels of components in early phases of product development are often assessed with Technology Readiness Levels. However, developing Multi-Material-Design (MMD) concepts for lightweight design, not only the manufacturability of the individual components is decisive, but also their joinability with each other and their integration into the rest system. This paper presents an approach for the evaluation of maturity levels of MMD concepts on the basis of cardinal coefficients considering a time forecast of the manufacturing and joining technologies required in the concept.
The development of a new motor can be a high effort. In this paper, Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is applied to model the second generation of an electronic compact actuator (ECA). This paper focuses on the traceability between model elements from previous product generations. By integrating the approach of the PGE - Product Generation Engineering in MBSE, developers can store more relevant information in the model; they can accomplish automatic calculations of derived factors and build models more efficiently in further product developments.
The advantages of distributed development teams help companies to address megatrends like globalization and individualization. However, development teams are facing challenges according to increasing requirements on communication processes. This approach provides a methodology to identify and address improvement potentials in communication processes of distributed product development by including the dimensions technology, organization and human involved in the development process. The validation of the methodology's process steps was carried out together with a machine tool manufacturer.
In this paper, a method is presented, that supports the developer in the development of hybrid electrical vehicle drivetrains. The developer gets support in the early stage of product generation engineering, beginning with the definition of the system of objectives, via the automated synthesis and investigation of the drivetrain topologies, ending with a topology ranking, which is related to the system of objectives, and a similarity analysis. As the method is implemented in a tool, the results of the tool and its usability are investigated within two comprehensive descriptive studies.
A prototype of an innovative split-single two stroke engine is presented. With the aim of increasing the power-to-weight ratio for later mobile use, the individual engine components have to be revised. The focus is on the development process for the redesign of the crankcase. Through a preliminary examination of the necessary CAx systems, an iterative process chain that combines suitable synthesis and analysis tools is derived. This includes the design of the machine elements, a numerical strength verification using FEM and preparing the model for machining.
A reference process should consider to the needs and behaviours of the process users, as well as all relevant restrictions and boundary conditions within the company and its environment. Therefore, this contribution provides a method to synthesize relevant requirements on reference processes and supports the consideration of these requirements during the design of a new, company-specific reference process based on meta-models. The developed method was used to design a reference process for automotive predevelopment projects and its applicability and usefulness was evaluated successfully.
Purposeful qualitative modelling of embodiment function relations is a challenge in embodiment design. This contribution investigates the applicability and usefulness of the Contact and Channel Approach as a qualitative modelling approach in a survey study. From 23 development and research projects, advantages and challenges regarding applicability and usefulness are identified. A further result is that many different models are used additionally to the Contact and Channel Approach. Based on the findings, research potential for optimization and development of links to other models emerges.
Following a typological classification of metrical systems, word stress in most Germanic languages can be described as characterized by trochaic rhythm, rightmost main stress, left-oriented secondary stress, and quantity-sensitivity. Most Germanic languages, after contact with languages of the Romance type and incorporation of vast amounts of loanwords into their lexicon, place main stress on one of the last three syllables of the word. For most of them it has furthermore been observed that heavy syllables influence the assignment of stress, even though not necessarily in all phonological contexts. Exceptions are Icelandic and Faroese, where main stress falls consistently on the leftmost syllable of the word and syllable weight does not play any role in stress assignment. For those Germanic languages for which secondary stress has been described, parsing of left-aligning secondary stress feet can be assumed.
We present the first general metric for attractor overlap (MAO) facilitating an unsupervised comparison of flow data sets. The starting point is two or more attractors, i.e. ensembles of states representing different operating conditions. The proposed metric generalizes the standard Hilbert-space distance between two snapshot-to-snapshot ensembles of two attractors. A reduced-order analysis for big data and many attractors is enabled by coarse graining the snapshots into representative clusters with corresponding centroids and population probabilities. For a large number of attractors, MAO is augmented by proximity maps for the snapshots, the centroids and the attractors, giving scientifically interpretable visual access to the closeness of the states. The coherent structures belonging to the overlap and disjoint states between these attractors are distilled by a few representative centroids. We employ MAO for two quite different actuated flow configurations: a two-dimensional wake with vortices in a narrow frequency range and three-dimensional wall turbulence with a broadband spectrum. In the first application, seven control laws are applied to the fluidic pinball, i.e. the two-dimensional flow around three circular cylinders whose centres form an equilateral triangle pointing in the upstream direction. These seven operating conditions comprise unforced shedding, boat tailing, base bleed, high- and low-frequency forcing as well as two opposing Magnus effects. In the second example, MAO is applied to three-dimensional simulation data from an open-loop drag reduction study of a turbulent boundary layer. The actuation mechanisms of 38 spanwise travelling transversal surface waves are investigated. MAO compares and classifies these actuated flows in agreement with physical intuition. For instance, the first feature coordinate of the attractor proximity map correlates with drag for the fluidic pinball and for the turbulent boundary layer. MAO has a large spectrum of potential applications ranging from a quantitative comparison between numerical simulations and experimental particle-image velocimetry data to the analysis of simulations representing a myriad of different operating conditions.
Samsung recently introduced a new smartphone display with increased breaking resistance, which will probably be relevant for future cars as well. This example shows that subsystems, in general artefacts from former development processes can be relevant for subsequent projects. Their integration has to be planned, i.a. even before the original product is in the market and across branches. The research on supporting methods requires a suitable description model for this phenomenon. Research in design reuse and PGE – product generation engineering addresses this only partially yet. Design reuse focuses on the informational aspect, PGE refers primarily to reference products. This contribution aims at closing this gap as a basis for future research. Two case studies from industry projects by the authors and an example from foresight and product planning show the role of artefacts from former development processes in running projects. It is described which artefacts are used as a reference, why they are used and when. Based on these findings the authors propose the term “reference system” to depict the whole set of artefacts, which serves as a basis for every product development project.
Many activities in the new product development requires the decision making to find the final solution from multiple alternatives and make an evaluation. Even methods to support decision maker are available, the decision can go to the wrong direction because of heuristics. “Decoy effect” is a heuristic that appears in a comparison when 2 of 3 alternatives are similar but different in quality. The alternative that is similar but better in quality is possibly selected. The paper aims to understand the decoy effect by investigating it in the pairwise comparison that is a powerful technique for comparing alternatives. In an experiment, 3 ideas for the next generation of apple peeler are compared in pairs with different sequences. An impact of the decoy alternative on the comparison between other two alternatives, is investigated. Results show low impact of the decoy effect in the pairwise comparison, but this effect induces a high chance of selecting the decoy alternative when comparing the results from this study and the previous study by proposing 3 alternatives in the same sequence. Applying pairwise comparison to avoid decoy effect is thus an idea that will be further investigated.
One challenge in product development is the megatrend of product individualization in the automotive supplier industry. Requirements for a variant by the customer may differ from those by the provider wherefore conflicting goals can arise. To cope with variant requests in the quotation phase systematically, a method to evaluate variants is necessary. Based on evaluation criteria the requirements from the stakeholders are valued. While evaluating, an already criterion can have an impact on assessing the remaining criteria. For this reason, the present investigation emphases the interdependencies between the evaluation criteria in industrial practice representing interdependencies within goals, requirements and boundary conditions in an early stage of product development. Analysing decisive factors supports to identify subsequent activities in the development process of a variant. Experts of an international automotive supplier developed impact matrices and a scenario technique tool is used to interpret the matrices. In context of the model of PGE - Product Generation Engineering, findings derive to ensure a comprehensive basis for decision-making concerning a variant-request.
In the uncertain process of product development, the developer is decisively responsible for product success. He operates in a complex environment that directly influences his synthesis and analysis activities. The context of the socio-technical system of product development has already been extensively researched and defined by a large number of factors. However, the developer is described as part of the context and not as the centre, which means that many of these factors have no interaction with the developer. For the design of methods and tools that support the developer in his activities in the development process, a summarizing understanding of the influences on and by the developer is necessary. In order to create a unified understanding of the developer at the centre of product development, a Systematic Literature Review was conducted. In this article, the procedure and findings are presented. The aim was to identify factors from the literature that significantly influence the interaction of the developer in his environment. As a result, these were documented in a model, which represents the basis for further, human-centred research in the context of product development.
During the process of product engineering, decisions with uncertain consequences have to be made about future development (Albers et al., 2017a). Customer, user and vendor requirements that are already known and those who are relevant for the future have to be recognized and transferred into consistent projects. Classical approaches like customer surveys or market analyses are only partially useful for anticipating or validating future product requirements since they rather evaluate todays situation. Methods of foresight are preferably applied to make decisions under circumstances of uncertainty and to generate future knowledge. The following work treats thus a system that enables the user to deduce future requirements based on trend analyses. The system which was first mentioned in Albers et al. and further developed in Marthaler et al. will serve as the basis. (Albers et al., 2018a; Marthaler et al., 2019). The goal is to present and evaluate a system based on the analysis and identification of trends that allows to identify robust requirements for future product generations and to transfer them into concrete development agreements in the form of a development road map.
The context of product development can be understood as transformation of needs into technical solutions under the continuous handling of uncertainties. These result particularly in early development phases from a lack of technical knowledge. In order to counter the uncertainties, companies are increasingly implementing agile approaches, which mostly originate in the area of software development. Although these are suitable for flexible handling of project management activities and lead to an increased reactivity of the development team, they do not address the early and continuous integration of technical knowledge into the process. With the aim of optimizing mechatronic systems with regard to their lightweight design potentials, in this article a method is developed that supports agile development with the goal of lightweight design. Therefore, it combines a method for functional modelling with a function-based lightweight design method. The targeted integration of technical knowledge has shown that lightweight design potentials can be optimized iteratively in agile approaches. As an initial validation, the applicability of the method was demonstrated in a development project.
This contribution presents a systematic for the elicitation of objectives and the utilization of objectives to identify reference products. The systematic is based on existing meta models. The model of objectives as proposed in this research eases decision-making and outlines the next validation activities. A key success factor is the project transferability between teams, which is often necessary in predevelopment. This is ensured through comprehensibility of objectives which benefits from the linkage between the model of objectives and the knowledge base. The proposed systematic is applied to a predevelopment project which is used as case study. In the case study it has been shown that objectives can be used to identify reference products. The approach is validated in a live-lab setting with seven engineering teams with six graduate students, two engineers of an industrial partner and a research associate. Several workshops were used to train all members of the teams in the systematic. The effects of the systematic are assessed in dedicated interviews, a survey as well as with observation of the engineering teams during milestones and engineering activities between milestones.