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The food composition of whiting, Merlangius merlangus, caught around the sea-cage fish farms off the coast of Perşembe, was analysed and compared with the diet of whiting from a control site off the coast of Fatsa (Ordu Province, south-eastern Black Sea). A total of 815 stomach samples were collected during the study, and of these, 195 (23.9%) were empty. According to the percentage of relative importance index (IRI%), pellet food (47.8%) and Annelida (25%) were the main prey groups of whiting in the sea-cage fish farms area, while unidentified teleost (85.3%) and Engraulis encrasicolus (8.2%) were dominant in the control site. The other prey groups in both areas were Crustaceans (Mysidae, Amphipoda, Upogebia sp.), Sprattus sprattus and Gobius spp. Seasonally, pellet food was the most consumed food in all seasons, but Mysidae was the first preference of whiting around the sea-cage fish farms in spring. In the control site, unidentified teleost was the first preference in all seasons, except winter, where E. encrasicolus was the first choice, followed by crustaceans and S. sprattus in winter. Bray–Curtis analysis shows that seasonally, there is no significant difference in the sea-cage fish farms, while there is significant difference in the control site, and two-dimensional nMDS of IRI% revealed a clear separation between both sites. SIMPER analysis revealed that the most contributing factors to the differences between seasons were pellet food in the sea-cage fish farms, and E. encrasicolus in the control site.
Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in the development of the offspring. Both protein content and source in maternal diet affect neonatal health, but the long-term effects of maternal low-quality protein diet on the offspring are less clear. This study aimed to examine the effects of maternal low-quality protein diet on offspring’s growth, development, circulating metabolites and hepatic expression of methyltransferases. Virgin Wistar rats were mated at 11 weeks of age. Dams were then maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein as the control group (C), or a low-quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten as the experimental group (WG) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all offspring were fed a control chow diet until the age of 20 weeks. Male WG offspring had significantly lower body weight and energy intake, whereas female WG offspring had significantly higher body weight and energy intake when compared with controls. Early life exposure to WG diet had no significant effect on circulating metabolites. However, fasting insulin concentrations and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were decreased in WG male and female offspring. Maternal low-quality protein diet increased plasma aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, cystathione and decreased lysine in male WG offspring. Conversely, the same amino acids were reduced in female WG offspring. Adult offspring exposed to WG diet had significantly upregulated hepatic DNMT3a and DNMT3b expressions. Our study showed that there were differential effects of maternal poor-quality protein diet upon adult offspring’s metabolism.
This study aimed to evaluate patients with tinnitus in terms of mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width, and to explore neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, recently reported in the literature as being possible inflammation markers.
This study comprised 64 tinnitus patients and 64 age-matched healthy controls. Statistical significance level was accepted as p < 0.05.
Mean platelet volume (t = 3.245, p = 0.002) and platelet distribution width (Z = 3.945, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the patient group than the control group.
The results suggest that a prothrombotic condition might play a role in the pathophysiology of tinnitus.
In vitro methods for laboratory estimations of feed degradation are important tools for studying ruminant nutrition. These methods measure either substrate disappearance or fermentation products, the exact nature of which depends on the nature of the feed and the system being used to determine the digestibility. Consequently, there is a need for comparisons of in vitro and in vivo results, especially when new feeds are being assessed. The following study compared the gas production procedure to whole tract digestibility measurements for a range of alternative crop silages.
Round bale silages were prepared from five different alternative crops, red clover, lucerne clover, lotus, kale and a barley/pea bicrop, harvested at difference growth stages (Table 1). Freshly cultured Lactobacillus plantarum was used as an inoculant on half the material from each kale and barley/pea bi-crop harvest, and applied at a rate of 106 colony forming units per gram fresh forage.
The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study.
Materials and methods
In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age–sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels.
The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=−3.89, p<0.001). A receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to compare the schizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821.
We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.
Current attempts to reform financial markets presume that shareholder empowerment benefits shareholders. We investigate the wealth effects associated with the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rule to facilitate director nominations by shareholders. Our results are not in line with shareholder empowerment creating value: The average daily abnormal returns surrounding events that increase (decrease) the probability of the proposal’s passage are significantly negative (positive). Furthermore, given an increase in the probability of the proposal’s passage, firms whose shareholders are more likely to use the rule to nominate directors experience more negative abnormal returns.
In addition to being a risk factor for adverse outcomes of pregnancy, maternal obesity may play a role in determining the long-term disease patterns observed in the resulting offspring, with metabolic and dietary factors directly programming fetal development. The present study evaluated the potential for feeding rats an obesogenic cafeteria diet (O) pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy, during lactation and for the offspring post-weaning, to programme glucose tolerance. Early-life exposure to an O diet had no significant effect on offspring food intake. Early-life programming associated with O feeding to induce maternal obesity was associated with reduced adiposity in offspring weaned onto low-fat chow. Adult offspring exposed to an O diet in early life and weaned on a chow diet had low fasting glucose and insulin concentrations and appeared to be more sensitive to insulin during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. When weaned on an O diet, male offspring were more prone to glucose intolerance than females. On the basis of the area under the glucose curve, maternal O feeding at any point from pre-mating to lactation was associated with impaired glucose tolerance. The mechanism for this was not identified, although increased hepatic expression of Akt2 may have indicated disturbance of insulin signalling pathways. The observations in the present study confirm that maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for metabolic disturbance in the resulting offspring. Although the effects on glucose homeostasis were independent of offspring adiposity, the programming of a glucose-intolerant phenotype was only observed when offspring were weaned on a diet that induced greater fat deposition.
Specimens of twaite shad, Alosa fallax were sampled from commercial purse seiners and trammel netters in Izmir Bay during November and December 2007. A total of 287 prey items from 14 taxa from 208 stomachs were recorded. The primary food of twaite shad was found to be fish, especially anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, which was the most frequent (%F = 66.11) and abundant (%N = 63.64) prey item, and also had the highest percentage by weight (%W = 81.91). Decapoda, Isopoda, Ostracoda and Copepoda (Calanus spp., Candocia armata, Temora stylifera from Calanoida and Corycaeus spp. from Cyclopodia), were recorded occasionally with low values for all indices. The study showed that in the Aegean Sea Alosa fallax is a predator of small pelagic fish, E. encrasicolus, A. boyeri, S. pilchardus, and some crustaceans. Benthopelagic P. acarne and demersal S. hepatus were first recorded in diet of twaite shad.
We report the growth and characterization of thin germanium-carbon layers grown directly on Si (111) by ultra high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The thickness of the films studied is 8-20 nm. The incorporation of small amount (less than 0.5%) of carbon facilitates 2D growth of high quality Ge crystals grown directly on Si (111) without the need of a buffer layer. The Ge1−xCx layers were grown in ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition chamber, at a typical pressure of 50 mTorr and at a growth temperature of 440 °C. CH3GeH3 and GeH4 gases were used as the precursors for the epitaxial growth. The Ge1−xCx films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The AFM rms roughness of Ge1−xCx grown directly on Si (111) is only 0.34 nm, which is by far the lowest rms roughness of Ge films grown directly on Si (111). The dependence of growth rate and rms roughness of the films on temperature, C incorporation and deposition pressure was studied. In Ge, (111) surface orientation has the highest electron mobility; however, compressive strain in Ge degrades electron mobility. The technique of C incorporation leads to a low defect density Ge layer on Si (111), well above the critical thickness. Hence high quality crystalline layer of Ge directly on Si (111) can be achieved without compressive strain. The fabricated MOS capacitors exhibit well-behaved electrical characteristics. Thus demonstrate the feasibility of Ge1−xCx layers on Si (111) for future high-carrier-mobility MOS devices that take advantage of high electron mobility in Ge (111).
The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007–2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum,G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of one abnormal fetus in a twin pregnancy, to compare impact of chorionicity and clinical outcome of intervention and expectant management. Thirty-seven dichorionic (DC) twins and 18 monochorionic (MC) twins complicated with one malformed fetus were evaluated for gestational age, birthweight and perinatal outcome. Six hundred and forty-two twin pregnancies were evaluated in the database. The control groups consisted of 429 DC and 86 MC twins without anomalous fetus. Mean birthweight and gestational age at birth for DC control group were (n = 429; 2137g and 34.71 weeks), DC study group, n = 37; 2117g (p = .338) and 33.97 weeks (p = .311), and DC study group with major malformations, n = 30; 2019g (p = .289) and 33.3 weeks (p = .01), and showed only significance for gestational age. There was no statistical significance between MC control group, n = 86; 2097g and 34.93 weeks, and MC study group, n = 18; 2237g (p = .338), and 34.42 weeks (p = .502). Because of limited data, the preliminary evaluation for expectant management and intervention, and survival of at least one normal fetus showed no impact. We conclude that, although, all DC twin pregnancies have a risk for preterm delivery, DC twins complicated with major malformation of one twin, have a lower mean gestational age at birth. Preliminary results for intervention does not improve fetal outcome for DC and MC twins and needs further evaluation with greater studies of impact or review.
Age and growth of adult gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata were determined from 332 specimens (total N = 476), collected from purse-seiners, in the south-eastern Aegean Sea from November 2006 to January 2007. The fork length and body wet weight ranged from 26.5 to 51.5 cm (mean: 36.6 ± 0.18) and from 375 to 2600 g (mean: 1009.2 ± 14.16), respectively. Age groups were varied between 2 and 7. Growth parameters were estimated as L∞ = 64.97 ± 12.93 cm, K = 0.14 ± 0.07 year−1, t0 = −2.47 ± 1.09 year−1, and index of phi-prime was Φ′ = 2.772 ± 0.51. The length–weight relationship equation of all fish was calculated as W = 0.0515 × L2.737 (r2 = 0.95). The mean condition factor was estimated as 2.058. Mortalities (M, F and Z) and exploitation rate (E) of gilthead seabream from the Aegean Sea were 0.34 year−1, 0.77 year−1, 1.11 year−1and 0.69 year−1, respectively. The result of E indicated that the population was overexploited.
Obesity during pregnancy has major consequences for maternal and neonatal health, but the long-term effects on the offspring are less clear. It is not known whether the effects observed in animal models are a result of maternal obesity per se or of the high-fat diets used to induce obesity. This investigation aimed to develop a model for the evaluation of the independent effects of cafeteria feeding and maternal obesity, considering their impact on plasma volume expansion, circulating metabolites, and fetal and placental growth. Wistar rats were fed a control or cafeteria diet from weaning. After 8 weeks, all animals were mated and half of the animals within each group were crossed-over to the alternative diet. This generated four treatment groups, differing in their pre-gestational and gestational diets. Half of the animals were culled at day 5 of gestation and the remainder at day 20. Maternal body composition, blood volume and circulating glucose, TAG and cholesterol were determined. Cafeteria feeding was effective in inducing obesity, as demonstrated by increased fat depot weights and total body fat, without impacting upon reproductive success or circulating lipid concentrations. The study successfully demonstrated that there were differential effects of maternal body fatness and diet upon fetal and placental growth, with pre-gestational obesity leading to lower fetal weight at day 20 of gestation (P < 0·001). The model will provide a useful vehicle for the investigation of the complex interactions between dietary- and obesity-related factors during pregnancy in their effects on fetal development and postnatal metabolic function.
A specimen of the musky octopus, Eledone moschata, of 188 mm mantle length and 1414 g total body weight, was caught on 12 February 2007 by trammel net in İzmir Bay. The given sizes are the maximal for this species at the present time.
Reproductive properties of Eledone moschata from the north-eastern Aegean Sea are reported for the first time. A total of 471 specimens was collected during monthly samplings from December 2004 to November 2005. The mantle lengths of the species were between 4.5 and 15.0 cm with an average of 8.1 cm ±0.15 for 204 males, and between 2.7 and 14.0 cm with an average of 7.8 cm ±0.12 for 267 females. The annual sex ratio (males: females) of the sampled specimens was 1:1.31. Maturity stages were recorded on a monthly basis in both sexes. The highest monthly percentage of mature females (21%) and males (46%) was recorded in January 2005 and June 2005, respectively. The monthly and seasonal gonadosomatic index (GSI) results indicated that E. moschata shows two annual reproduction peaks for each sex. For males, the first spring peak occurs in March–June and the second, autumn peak is in November. For females, the first summer peak occurs in May–June and the second, winter peak is in January, respectively. On the other hand, the reproductive season extends from November to July with two peaks in the Aegean Sea. Total oocyte stock varied from 273 to 2896 with a mean of 836 ±193 oocytes. The mean size of the oocytes was 6.26 ±0.10 mm. The maximum oocyte size found was 10.7 mm. The mean length of spermatophores was of 13.66 ±0.08 mm (range: 7.3–18.3) and their average number was 52 ±6 (range: 6–172).
This was a retrospective study of patients who did or did not receive post-operative radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
The rates of local and regional recurrences, distant metastases and second primaries were evaluated in 236 patients who received radiotherapy following surgery. These rates were evaluated and compared with those from 294 patients treated with surgery alone.
Multivariate analysis of irradiated patients revealed that local and regional recurrences were determined independently by tumour (T) and pathologic node (pN) stages (p < 0.05). The distant metastasis rate significantly depended on N stage (p < 0.05). Multiple primary tumours were not significantly affected by any of the factors studied (p > 0.05).
Analysis of both irradiated and non-irradiated patients revealed that local and regional recurrence was determined independently by pathologic T (pT) stage, tumour localization, radiation status and pN stages (p < 0.05). The distant metastasis rate significantly depended on N stage and tumour localization (p < 0.05) and the rate of formation of multiple primary tumours was significantly affected by the patient's age and radiation status (p < 0.05).
In conclusion irradiation of laryngeal cancer patients independently increases the risk of local and regional recurrence, and also increases the risk of multiple primary tumours while not significantly influencing the risk of distant metastasis. The risk of distant metastasis is affected by determinants of advanced lesions and tumour localization.
Behcet's disease is the association of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with genital ulceration and eye disease. Neurologic involvement patterns include meningomyelitis, a brain stem syndrome, pyramidal and extrapyramidal abnormality and stroke. In the present study, subclinical involvement was investigated by using P300 in Behcet's patients without neurological manifestation.
Fifteen patients and 15 healthy volunteers were accepted for the study. P300 from vertex (Cz) electrode sites of the 10-20 system using electrodes and motor response time were recorded.
Patients had significantly prolonged latencies of P300 as compared to normal controls (p=0.013) but no significant differences in amplitude (p=1.000). Patients showed a significantly delayed motor response time than controls (p=0.006). Nine patients (60 %) had P300 latency and eight patients (53.3 %) had motor response time values exceeding the mean of controls by two standard deviations.
The findings suggest that the P300 measures and motor response time may reflect subclinical neurologic involvement in Behcet's disease.