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We performed the exposure of bovine oocytes to anethole during in vitro maturation (0 or 300 µg/ml), during in vitro embryo production (0, 30, 300 or 2000 µg/ml), or during both periods to determine the rates of 2−4 cells embryos, blastocysts rates and cells numbers, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bovine ovaries (n = 240) were collected from a local abattoir after slaughter and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) with homogeneous and non-dark cytoplasm, surrounded by two or more compact layers of cumulus cells, and an intact zona pellucida were selected for in vitro maturatuion (IVM). Mature oocytes were then submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in culture medium supplemented or not with different concentrations of anethole, as described above. Although IVM medium supplementation with 300 µg/ml anethole improved the rates of bovine blastocysts formation, we demonstrated that IVP medium supplementation with 30 µg/ml anethole, regardless of IVM medium enrichment, considerably enhanced blastocysts rates. Furthermore, ROS levels were decreased only when anethole was added to the IVP medium without previous IVM medium supplementation.
Survival and infectivity of trypanosomatids rely on cell-surface and secreted glycoconjugates, many of which contain a variable number of galactose residues. Incorporation of galactose to proteins and lipids occurs along the secretory pathway from UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). Before being used in glycosylation reactions, however, this activated sugar donor must first be transported across the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes by a specific nucleotide sugar transporter (NST). In this study, we identified an UDP-Gal transporter (named TcNST2 and encoded by the TcCLB.504085.60 gene) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. TcNST2 was identified by heterologous expression of selected putative nucleotide sugar transporters in a mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. TcNST2 mRNA levels were detected in all T. cruzi life-cycle forms, with an increase in expression in axenic amastigotes. Confocal microscope analysis indicated that the transporter is specifically localized to the Golgi apparatus. A three-dimensional model of TcNST2 suggested an overall structural conservation as compared with members of the metabolite transporter superfamily and also suggested specific features that could be related to its activity. The identification of this transporter is an important step toward a better understanding of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and the role NSTs play in this process in trypanosomatids.
To explore the extent to which micronutrient deficiencies (MND) affect children’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL), using vitamin D deficiency (VDD) as a case study.
Proxy valuation study to estimate the impact of VDD on the HRQoL of younger (0–4 years) and older (>4 years) children. We used the Child Health Utility 9 Dimension (CHU9D) questionnaire to estimate HRQoL for children within six VDD-related health states: ‘hypocalcaemic cardiomyopathy’, ‘hypocalcaemic seizures’, ‘active rickets’, ‘bone deformities’, ‘pain and muscle weakness’ and ‘subclinical VDD’.
Sampling was not restricted to any particular setting and worldwide experts were recruited.
Respondents were paediatric bone experts recruited through network sampling.
Thirty-eight experts completed the survey. The health state with the largest detrimental impact (mean score (se)) on children’s HRQoL was hypocalcaemic cardiomyopathy (0·47 (0·02)), followed by hypocalcaemic seizures (0·50 (0·02)) and active rickets (0·62 (0·02) in young children; 0·57 (0·02) in older children). Asymptomatic VDD had a modest but noticeable negative impact on HRQoL, attributed mostly to tiredness in both age groups and pain in the older paediatric population.
Elicitation of HRQoL from clinical experts suggests a negative impact of VDD on HRQoL, even if there is no recognizable clinical manifestation. HRQoL data from populations of patients with MND will inform public health policy decisions. In some settings, routine collection of HRQoL data alongside national nutrition surveys may help capture the full burden of MND and prioritize resources towards effective prevention.
In the framework of coupled cell systems, a coupled cell network describes graphically the dynamical dependencies between individual dynamical systems, the cells. The fundamental network of a network reveals the hidden symmetries of that network. Subspaces defined by equalities of coordinates which are flow-invariant for any coupled cell system consistent with a network structure are called the network synchrony subspaces. Moreover, for every synchrony subspace, each network admissible system restricted to that subspace is a dynamical system consistent with a smaller network called a quotient network. We characterize networks such that: the network is a subnetwork of its fundamental network, and the network is a fundamental network. Moreover, we prove that the fundamental network construction preserves the quotient relation and it transforms the subnetwork relation into the quotient relation. The size of cycles in a network and the distance of a cell to a cycle are two important properties concerning the description of the network architecture. In this paper, we relate these two architectural properties in a network and its fundamental network.
Materials science is a growing research area in Uruguay. In order to obtain a brief overview of the research done we collected information about research in this field. As a starting point, we searched in the Scopus database for the keywords: affiliation country: “Uruguay” and subject: “Materials Science” (using the “Timbó” platform). We inspected the records and we analyzed them to construct a timeline. The data show that we are in a steady state regime of number of publications that we expect to increase together with the number of students in the area, with the generation of long term policies (grants, funding opportunities), and, if we get involved in a community that promotes this area of interest.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoke and pH cycling on the chemical composition and surface/cross-sectional enamel microhardness. A total of 40 dental blocks obtained from bovine incisors were divided into four groups (n=10): no treatment (control); exposure to cigarette smoke (CS); exposure to pH cycling (PC); and exposure to cigarette smoke and pH cycling (CS-PC). The samples were analyzed by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence, bench mode X-ray fluorescence, as well as surface microhardness (SMH) and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) testing. The SMH results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. The CSMH results were evaluated using split-plot ANOVA and Tukey’s test. A high amount of Cd and Pb and traces of Ni and As were observed in enamel and dentin after exposure to cigarette smoke (CS and CS-PC). The SMH and CSMH of CS were statistically higher when compared with the control. The PC and CS-PC showed lower SMH and CSMH. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke promoted heavy metal deposition in enamel/dentin. In addition, it increased the enamel microhardness but did not promote a protective effect on the in vitro development of caries. The clinical significance of this work is that there is significant bioaccumulation of heavy metals from cigarette smoke on the surface and in the enamel and dentin.
Soluble phosphate availability is a major limiting factor for plant growth, development, and yield. To assure a constant phosphorous supply, plants employ both high- and low-affinity phosphate acquisition mechanisms. Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used throughout the world, and previous studies have suggested that it can be transported across the plasma membrane via phosphate transporters in herbaceous species. The effects of phosphate status on glyphosate uptake were investigated in the tree grand eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maid.). Eucalyptus grandis’s putative phosphate transporters showed differential gene expression in leaves and roots in response to phosphate limitation. Overall, the expression of high-affinity phosphate transporters increased in phosphate-limiting treatments, particularly in roots. More [14C]glyphosate was absorbed and translocated in phosphate-limiting plants compared with control plants grown in phosphate-replete treatments. In leaf mesophyll protoplast assays, rapid uptake of [14C]glyphosate into protoplasts was observed, and addition of phosphate to the assays competed with [14C]glyphosate uptake. These data indicate that phosphate transporters represent one mechanism of glyphosate uptake in E. grandis. These results have implications for best management practices for weed control and glyphosate application under phosphate application regimes.
SnS2 has adequate properties for photovoltaic applications in solar cells. For this purpose, we studied the influence of the capping agents pyridine and aniline in the nanoparticles hydrothermal syntheses. These capping agents are suitable for use in hybrid organic- inorganic solar cells. Different ratios of these agents with respect to the metal precursor were tested. Hexagonal and disc-type nanoparticles were obtained. Lower concentrations of capping agent increased the proportion of hexagons, while diminishing their size. The obtained products are adequate in size, dispersion of size, and stabile in suspension in chloroform to use them in hybrid solar cells. Moreover, the use ofpyridine allowed for more stable suspensions, and therefore better results for this application.
Although we are sensitive to the advantages of reactive attitudes as a starting point, we are concerned that confusion on the level of analysis can easily plague this type of account. We argue that what is needed here is a serious appraisal of the effects on the promotion of values of moralistic responses toward different types of agency.
The study of the mechanical properties of nanostructured systems has gained importance in theoretical and experimental research in recent years. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the strongest nanomaterials found in nature, with Young’s Modulus (EY) in the order 1.25 TPa. One interesting question is about the possibility of generating new nanostructures with 1D symmetry and with similar and/or superior CNT properties. In this work, we present a study on the dynamical, structural, mechanical properties, fracture patterns and EY values for one class of these structures, the so-called pentagraphene nanotubes (PGNTs). These tubes are formed rolling up pentagraphene membranes (which are quasi-bidimensional structures formed by densely compacted pentagons of carbon atoms in sp3 and sp2 hybridized states) in the same form that CNTs are formed from rolling up graphene membranes. We carried out fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field. We have considered zigzag-like and armchair-like PGNTs of different diameters. Our results show that PGNTs present EY ∼ 800 GPa with distinct elastic behavior in relation to CNTs, mainly associated with mechanical failure, chirality dependent fracture patterns and extensive structural reconstructions.
Recently, a new 2D carbon allotrope structure, named phagraphene (PG), was proposed. PG has a densely array of penta-hexa-hepta-graphene carbon rings. PG was shown to present low and anisotropic thermal conductivity and it is believed that this anisotropy should be also reflected in its mechanical properties. Although PG mechanical properties have been investigated, a detailed and comprehensive study is still lacking. In the present work we have carried out fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field, to investigate the mechanical properties and fracture patterns of PG membranes. The Young’s modulus values of the PG membranes were estimated from the stress-strain curves. Our results show that these curves present three distinct regimes: one regime where ripples dominate the structure and mechanical properties of the PG membranes; an elastic regime where the membranes exhibit fully planar configurations; and finally am inelastic regime where permanent deformations happened to the PG membrane up to the mechanical failure or fracture.
The present study aimed to identify food patterns among 2–9-year-olds and investigate sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural predictors of less healthy dietary patterns.
Cross-sectional study. Parents of 2–9-year-olds completed an FFQ and factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural characteristics of parents and children, including parental feeding practices.
Participants were recruited from private schools of Campinas and São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between April and June 2014.
Parents of 2–9-year-olds (n 929).
Two dietary patterns emerged: ‘traditional food’ and ‘ultra-processed food’. Lower maternal education (OR=2·05, P=0·010) and higher maternal weight status (OR=1·43, P=0·044) were associated with a greater likelihood of the ultra-processed food pattern. Lower perceived parental responsibility for adequacy of food group intake (OR=2·41, P=0·020), and lower scores on the parental feeding practices of ‘Healthy Eating Guidance’ (OR=1·83, P<0·001) and ‘Monitoring’ (OR=2·52, P<0·001), were also associated with the presence of this pattern, as was higher child’s screen use during mealtimes (OR=1·61, P=0·004).
The present study is the first to evaluate associations between less healthy dietary patterns of Brazilian 2–9-year-olds and parental feeding practices. Our findings highlight sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors within families that could be used to target tailored policies to at-risk populations.
The identification, characterization, and mapping of large areas of stabilized eolian features along the tropical northeastern Brazilian coast enabled recognition of the existence of one of the largest Quaternary dune fields (16,000 km2) in South America. This paleodune system is observed inland of the Lençóis Maranhenses transgressive dune field (2.5°S, 43°W) and comprises deflation plains, stabilized parabolic dunes, and barchanoid chains developed under the action of northeast (NE) trade winds. Optically stimulated luminescence ages coupled with geomorphological analysis were used to constrain the time of dune field stabilization. Ages of stabilization of parabolic dunes and barchanoid chains throughout this paleodune system range between 19 to 14 ka showing heterogeneous dune stabilization by vegetation growth during a 5 ka time interval. Dune field stabilization is related to a decrease in NE trade wind strength and increase in precipitation as a consequence of the southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the Heinrich stadial 1 event (18–15 ka), which resulted in a lower eolian drift potential, less sand input by alongshore transport, and low sediment availability to eolian transport, due to an increase in moisture to support vegetation growth and rising relative sea level.
This study aimed to evaluate the community composition and structure of the helminths found in 13 anuran species, and to evaluate whether this parasite community is determined by anuran characteristics. We found that the helminth fauna of the amphibians from five anuran families consisted of 13 taxa and that Cosmocercidae gen. sp. was the most prevalent taxon, followed by Oswaldocruzia subauricularis. Host body size was a determining factor of the composition and structure of the parasitic fauna. Helminth abundance and richness were positively correlated with host body size. The host Leptodactylus latrans had the highest helminth richness (n = 8). The frog Hypsiboas faber had the greatest helminth diversity (H′ = 0.711). The mean helminth species richness and diversity differed significantly between host species (P < 0.05). Taken together, our data indicate that, in sympatric species of amphibians, the morphological and behavioural characteristics of the hosts are important for structuring the helminth parasite communities.
Here we report on the material chemistry following crystallization in the presence of water vapor of chlorinated formamidinium lead-triiodide (NH2CH = NH2PbI3−xClx) perovskite films. We found in-situ exposure to water vapor reduces, or possibly eliminates, the retention of chlorine (Cl) inside NH2CH = NH2PbI3−xClx crystals. There is a strong tendency toward Cl volatility, which indicates the sensitivity of these materials for their integration into solar cells. The requisite for additional efforts focused on the mitigation of water vapor is reported. Based on the in situ results, hot casting (<100 °C) in dry conditions demonstrates improved film coverage and Cl retention with efficiencies reaching 12.07%.