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IN the early seventeenth century, the scholars of Christ Church College at Oxford University experienced a series of devastating losses: the much-beloved Prince Henry (1612), then Queen Anne (1619), King James I (1625), the firstborn child of King Charles I (1629), the Christ Church College butler, Owen (c. 1630s), and many other individuals both famous and local died. In many instances, the bereaved scholars marked these losses with one or several epitaphs, and these poetical reminiscences could take one of several forms. Joshua Scodel notes the early epitaphic contrasts between “small” and “great,” both in terms of literary genres and societal divisions, and there were many other epitaphic subgenres as well. The compiler of two elaborate manuscripts called some of the potentially “great” verses—particularly those describing deceased nobility—“Epitaphs: Laudatory,” and separated out a second selection of poems under the label, “Epitaphs: Merry and Satirical.” Texts in the former group might often be confused with elegies (also often “great” or laudatory), the form's affiliation with tombstones often afforded them comparative brevity. Although the historical, classical epitaph might, as Ian McFarlane suggests, convey a “morbid humour,” many merry, satirical, or otherwise “light” epitaphs might not have been welcome within the gravity of a church or even a graveyard. While authorial introspection, such as reflection on the poet's own feelings of loss, is common in classical and Renaissance epitaphs, most merry and satirical epitaphs elevate their authors’ wittiness far above actual commemoration of their subjects’ lives or virtues. We know very little about the “one Whose Name Was Moore,” for instance; his epitaph reads (in its entirety): “Here lies Moore, and no moore but Hee; / Moore, and no moore: how can that bee.” Moore's gender can be inferred from the pronoun in the first line, but only his surname and its punning opposition to his mortal state were necessary for the amusement of the witty author and appreciative compilers. Many other merry and satirical epitaphs likewise prioritize jests and puns over specific commemorative statements. Some rare few merry epitaphs, however, celebrate specific, named individuals, whose commemorative verses describe essential roles their subjects held within local communities, or these same subjects’ dominant or most memorable character traits.
In the Federal Republic of Germany about 3 million people suffer from tinnitus/are hit by tinnitus, numerous of them depend on intensive medical care. The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is considered to be an innovative and promising therapy in tinnitus treatment. Low frequency stimulation is meant to reduce the abnormal neural activity in the auditory cortex. This study focuses on the efficacy of rTMS with tinnitus patients in the course of a multi disciplinary / an interdisciplinary therapy concept.
From November 2008 to June 2009 29 outpatients with chronic tinnitus were treated by low frequency rTMS (1 Hz frequency, 2000 impulses, intensity 110%) for 10 proceedings, stimulating the sinistral auditory cortex with a figure-of-eight-coil. Prior to and afterwards the proceedings questionnaires and assessments of a psychologist took place, afterwards statistical analyses were conducted, the data was explored and systematically discussed.
The severity index of the tinnitus as well as the depression symptoms of the subjects improved significantly. The average reduction rate of the tinnitus score is set at 7 points. With a response criterion at the minimum of 5 points, 57% were declared as responder, 29% as non-responder and 4 patients (14%) described an increase of the tinnitus loudness/annoyance.
The results show that the rTMS works as a helpful treatment tool with tinnitus patients and should be considered as an option in the routine tinnitus treatment.
Patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea often report depressive symptoms, such as low mood, loss of interest and reduction of drive. In this study we examined the frequency of significant depressive symptoms amongst patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea over a one year period.
From January to December 2008 we screened 1260 consecutive patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (AHI > 9) seen at our Center for Sleep Medicine were screened for depression. Based on self-administered questionnaires, patients with significant depressive symptoms were defined as having either a BDI II score ≥ 14 or WHO-5 ≤ 13. Additionally, severity of depression was rated based on BDI II scores.
Depressive symptoms were reported frequently. Based on BDI-II, 27.9% of patients report significant depressive symptoms. Of these, 46.2% were mild, 35.9% moderate and 17.9% severe. In addition, 52.6% of patients self-reported feeling unwell based on their WHO-5 scores.
Significant depressive symptoms measured by standardised self-rating scales were detected in over a quarter of our patients with untreated sleep apnea. It remains unknown whether treatment of OSA alone abolishes depressive symptoms, or whether depressive mood may reduce the compliance with treatment. Patients may need an interdisciplinary approach to initial treatment.
The Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Nuremberg established rTMS as a standard tool in the treatment of patients with depressive disorder since 2001. The stimulation protocol was modified in October 2008 to match the current standard procedure reported in the literature. The pulse number was heightened form 800 to 2000 per proceeding. This study examines the effects of the modified stimulation protocol and contrasts the results with the former stimulation efficacy.
The authors compared patients suffering from depression, who were treated by rTMS with 800 pulses/day and with 2000 pulses/day. The results of psychological examinations (MADRS, HAMD, BDI, grading, cognitive screening) prior to and afterwards the three-weeks-rTMS-cycle were submitted. Variance analyses were used for statistical reason.
The subsamples were comparable by sex, age, premorbid intellectual level as well as by self- and other-rated depression severity at treatment beginning. Statistical analyses showed a significant reduction of the depression symptoms in both stimulation protocol groups. Solely the HAMD score reduction in the 2000 pulse sample exceeded the decrease in the 800 pulse sample. Analogically the grading of human functions partly differed depending on the sample affiliation. Concerning the screening of cognitive functioning neither group was impaired.
rTMS still seems to be a well-functioning tool in the treatment of depressive disorders in the bounds of daily psychiatric health care. Although the modified stimulation protocol didn’t show many advantages in respect to improving depression symptoms, the results indicate the continual adjustment of the stimulation parameter to meet the current standards.
The clinic of psychiatry and psychotherapy and the clinic of otolaryngology of the clinic of Nuremberg offer an interdisciplinary consultation for patients suffering from tinnitus aurium and comorbid major depression and/or insomnia.
Prediction variables are needed regarding the treatment of subjective ear noises by low frequency rTMS.
The aim of the present study was to examine
a) if rTMS responders and non-responders differ in significant parameters prior to the rTMS treatment
b) and if improvement of tinnitus complaints is associated with mood change.
From June 2008 to July 2010 109 outpatients with chronic tinnitus were treated with rTMS (1 Hz, 2000 impulses, intensity 110% motor-treshold, 10 proceedings, stimulation of left auditory cortex). Prior to and afterwards the proceedings clinical assessment regarding the severity of tinnitus (TQ) and depressive symptoms (BDI II, MADRS) took place.
Response to rTMS was defined as reduction in the TQ score of ≥ 5 points (54 responder, 18 female, 36 male; 55 non-responder, 16 female, 39 male). The samples did not differ in age (MR = 56,4, SDR = 13,3; MNR = 57,3, SDNR = 12,2). The subsamples differed significantly regarding depression symptoms before rTMS, as non-responder being more depressive than rTMS-responder (table 1; MADRS: p = 0.008 **; BDI II: p = 0.01**).
Furthermore there is a significant interaction between BDI and the response/non-response criterion indicating a higher decrease of depression symptoms in rTMS responders.
This study examined the complex interrelationships among work related stressors associated with managed care mental health services and burnout of social workers. The recent national trends in mental health care in the USA, driven by the rising costs of inpatient treatment have resulted in a reduced psychiatric inpatient census, increase in outpatient clients with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI), new regulations and constraints, and increases in management activities and paperwork. The new economic decisions about mental health care have also resulted in changes in the work roles of social workers as well as other helping professionals (psychiatrists, psychologists), and in new ethical dilemmas, and disillusionment regarding mental health practice. A total of 591 social workers practicing in mental health agencies in New York State completed self-administered and anonymous questionnaire packets that included several measures: Level of conflict that workers experience when interfacing with managed care organizations (CMC), organizational commitment, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intentions. Results showed that CMC had statistically significant correlations with organizational commitment and with emotional exhaustion. The researcher discusses the role of social work schools and other related academic programs as well as agencies in offering new educational opportunities and training in order to improve workers’ skills which are necessary for communicating and negotiating with managed care organizations.
As Industry 4.0 will greatly challenge employee mental workload (MWL), research on objective wearable MWL-monitoring is in high demand. However, numerous research lines validating such technology might become redundant when employees eventually object to its implementation. In a pilot study, we manipulated two ways in which employees might perceive MWL-monitoring initiatives. We found that framing the technology in terms of serving intrinsic goals (e.g., improving health) together with an autonomy-supportive context (e.g., allowing discussion) yields higher user acceptability when compared to framing in terms of extrinsic goals (e.g., increasing productivity) together with a controlling context (e.g., mandating use). User acceptability still panned out neutral in case of the former, however - feeding into our own and suggested future work.
The British educated classes have long worried and fantasized about working-class religious belief and unbelief. Anglican churchmen feared Methodist “enthusiasm” in the eighteenth century, radicalism in the aftermath of the French Revolution, and urban, industrial irreligion after the 1851 Religious Census on churchgoing. In a mirror image of these old anxieties, most labour historians have wished away Christianity in the twentieth century. The long-standing shared socialist teleology of Marxists and Fabians leads to the modern, socialist labour movement. In this Marxian take on secularization theory, a new, more cohesive proletariat or singular “working class” forms, with an anti-capitalist, “socialist” consciousness reflected in the political, trade union, and co-operative institutions of the “labour movement”. Suddenly, economic, social, and political history find a single, unified subject. At the level of belief, socialism displaces those old Victorian pretenders for working-class hearts and minds: conservatism, liberalism, and Christianity. Sometime between 1914 and 1918, the Christian religion disappears from ordinary lives, as in Selina Todd's recent, The People, where popular religious faith is barely worth talking about.
Australia’s laid-back, sun-drenched beach lifestyle has been a celebrated and prominent part of its official popular culture for nigh on a century, and the images and motifs associated with this culture have become hallmarks of the country’s collective identity. Though these representations tend towards stereotype, for many Australians the idea of a summer holiday at the beach is one that is intensely personal and romanticised – its image is not at all urbanised. As Douglas Booth observed, for Australians the beach has become a ‘sanctuary at which to abandon cares – a place to let down one’s hair, remove one’s clothes […] a paradise where one could laze in peace, free from guilt, drifting between the hot sand and the warm sea, and seek romance’.1 Beach holidays became popular in the interwar years of the twentieth century, but the most intense burst of activity – both in touristic promotion and in the development of tourism infrastructure – accompanied the postwar economic boom, when family incomes were able to meet the cost of a car and, increasingly, a cheap block of land by the beach upon which a holiday home could be erected with thrift and haste. In subtropical southeast Queensland, the postwar beach holiday became the hallmark of the state’s burgeoning tourism industry; the state’s southeast coastline in particular benefiting from its warm climate and proximity to the capital, Brisbane. It was here – along the evocatively named Gold Coast (to Brisbane’s south) and Sunshine Coast (to its north)  – that many families experienced their first taste of what is now widely celebrated as the beach lifestyle . As one reflection has it:
In the era before motels and resorts, a holiday at the Gold and Sunshine coasts usually meant either pitching a tent and camping by the beach or staying in a simple cottage owned by family or friends […] Simplicity, informality, individuality […] were the hallmarks of these humble places.2
Permaculture is an international sustainability movement and agroecological design system. Using ecological management practices and locally-adapted solutions, permaculture claims to benefit several ecosystem services including provisioning of diverse crop yields, regulating hydrological cycles and soil quality, supporting wildlife conservation, and biocontrol of pests, weeds and diseases. Despite limited attention by the academic community, grassroots permaculture adoption has been reported in at least 45 countries worldwide thus creating a unique opportunity for in-situ research. This study characterized plant communities on ten applied permaculture farms and found that independent adopters consistently implemented predominately perennial species (73% of species richness), polycultures (mean 42 crop species per site), and zone design. These practices resulted in commercial farms characterized by perennialization, crop diversification, landscape heterogeneity and nature conservation. Grassroots adopters were remarkably consistent in their interpretation and application of an unregulated agricultural model suggesting that such movements may exert considerable influence over local agroecological transitions. While this characterization does not provide an exhaustive depiction of applied permaculture, it is recommended that future research acknowledge these traits as a minimum for study designs investigating the effects of permaculture management on ecosystem function.
From 1973 to 1987, Volkswagen's (VW) 140,000 hectare 'pioneer' cattle ranch on the Amazon frontier laid bare the limits of capitalist development. These limits were not only economic, with the core management of a multinational company engaged in the 'integration' of an extreme world periphery, but they were also legal and ethical, with the involvement of indentured labor and massive forest burning. Its physical limits were exposed by an unpredictable ecosystem refusing to submit to VW's technological arsenal. Antoine Acker reveals how the VW ranch, a major project supported by the Brazilian military dictatorship, was planned, negotiated, and eventually undone by the intervention of internationally connected actors and events.