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As a country of origin of coffee, Ethiopia is endowed with an immense diversity of the crop in its diverse coffee-growing agro-ecologies. Amaro Kelo is one of the major coffee production agro-ecologies in Ethiopia, where the genetic diversity of its landrace coffee germplasm was not properly characterized previously. The study aimed to characterize 64 Amaro Kelo local coffee accessions to understand the potential of the accessions for utilization in future coffee genetic improvement efforts. The experiment was laid out in an 8 × 8 simple lattice design with two replications at Awada Agricultural Research Sub-Center. Data were collected on 19 quantitative and 10 qualitative traits, and subjected to multivariate analyses, i.e. cluster and principal component analyses. The cluster analysis identified five clusters based on the quantitative characters, and the distances between most of the clusters were highly significant at P < 0.01. Principal component analysis revealed the first six principal components with Eigenvalues greater than one accounted for 77.7% of the total variation. The first two principal components with respective contributions of 23.32 and 18.85% cumulatively accounted for 42.2% of the total variation in the accessions. In addition, high values of Shannon-diversity index were found for the qualitative traits: branching habit, growth habit, fruit shape, overall appearance and stem habit. In general, the multivariate analyses confirmed the presence of high variation among the studied Amaro-Kelo coffee accessions that might serve as an important genetic resource for future coffee genetic improvement or conservation efforts.
This paper examines the effect of national income on the total fertility rate (children born per woman). We estimate the effects on fertility of shocks to national per capita income using plausibly exogenous variations in oil price shock as an instrument for income and using instrumental variable generalized quantile regressions (IV-GQR). Using data for a panel of 122 countries spanning the period 1965–2020, our results show that national per capita income has generally a negative and significant effect on the total fertility rate. Looking at the entire spectrum of the fertility distribution, the IV-GQR estimates exhibit considerable heterogeneity in the impact of income on fertility. The income elasticity of fertility is relatively low at the upper tail of the distribution (for countries with high fertility) compared to the value at the median.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Children with medical complexity (CMC) experience frequent transitions of care (e.g., hospital to home) and are at increased risk for medication-related harm. This study aimed to identify transition-related medication safety barriers experienced by family caregivers, as they shoulder most of the caregiving responsibility following discharge. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted semi-structured qualitative research interviews of 6 family caregivers and 10 healthcare professionals with roles assisting families during hospital discharge. Interviews focused on identifying key stages of the hospital-to-home transition period as well as medication-related tasks, decisions, and contexts. Transcribed audio interviews and research meeting notes were content analyzed to develop journey maps visually depicting key phases of the families experiences managing medication at home and their decision points and unmet needs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Journey mapping identified key decision points, medication management needs, and way points navigated by family caregivers during the hospital-to-home transition. Findings were salient for each phase of the family journey: 1) initial admission/intra-unit transfer; 2) in-patient care; 3) peri-discharge planning; 4) discharge; 5) immediate post discharge period (we termed post-discharge configuration); and 6) period of ongoing tasks and needs. Illustrative examples will be presented and discussed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Family caregivers of CMC have needs that evolve throughout the medication use journey, suggesting a need for interventions that account for the time variant nature of this work. Findings lay a foundation for the next step of our study which aims to develop a prototype medication safety intervention that will be evaluated with family caregivers.
Riverine ecosystems are highly exposed to different forms of human activities and fish distribution in such habitats can be affected by different features of water. Tributaries of the Abbay and Tekeze Basins are supporting all life requesting activities in Ethiopia. Fisheries of these habitats are also the mainstay of livelihoods. However, brutal human activities are affecting these ecosystems and the fish therein. This study was thus undertaken to examine fish distribution and community structure in relation to water parameters in Ayima, Gelegu and Shinfa Rivers. 2719 fish specimens identified into 43 species were sampled using gillnets, cast nets and electro-fishing on a seasonal campaign. Based on frequency of occurrence (%FO), 5 species fell in the category of ‘euconstant occurrence’ or their FO was ≥75%, while many species were laid in the ‘constant occurrence’. Among others, site depth, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and river channel diameter were key environmental factors determining fish community structure. Similarity percentage produced an overall average Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of 60.8% between the fish communities of the three rivers. The final model accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in fish composition, and all canonical axes were significant (Monte Carlo test 499, p = 0.002). Generally, this study was conducted in areas where no ecological studies are undertaken and the results obtained from this study could be important for sustainable utilization of Ethiopian fisheries.
Rubella is a highly contagious mild viral illness. It is a leading cause of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine data of rubella do not exist in Ethiopia. However, laboratory-based conformation of rubella cases from measles negative samples were collected from a measles surveillance system. The current study was to analyse the epidemiological distribution of rubella cases from measles-suspected cases in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2015. National-based secondary data analysis of rubella through measles-based surveillances was carried out. Measles-suspected cases were investigated using the case investigation form, and a serum sample collected and sent to the Ethiopian laboratory for conformation. Samples tested for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) were tested for rubella. The investigation results were entered into an electronic database using SPSS version 25 for analysis. Out of 11749 samples tested for rubella IgM from 2011 to 2015, 2295 (19.5%) were positive for rubella IgM and 51% of rubella-positive cases were female. Five per cent of all cases were female aged between 15 and 49. Cases were confirmed from all regions, two administrative towns and seasonal variations were observed with peaks in the first and fourth seasonal periods of the years. As fear of congenital abnormality (CRS), the Ethiopian government should focus on rubella syndrome surveillance with the aim of starting a rubella vaccine.
Schwartz Centre Rounds (SCRs) provide a structured forum for staff from all disciplines to meet and discuss the difficult emotional and social challenges that arise in caring for patients. Research into the implementation of SCRs has shown that staff who attend report increased insight into the emotional and social aspects of care; greater understanding of the roles of their colleagues; improved teamworking and decreased feelings of isolation and stress. However, little research has explored the implementation of SCRs within forensic settings, and no research has focused solely on the experiences of panel members. Three focus groups were facilitated with participants who had participated in a SCR panel within a forensic mental health service. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was utilised to analyse the transcripts, and four key themes were identified. These themes were: feeling vulnerable, the importance of validation, exposure to intense emotional experiences and improved understanding and connection. We conclude that SCRs can be an emotionally challenging but rewarding experience, with the potential to enhance teamworking and general well-being. Limitations and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
The future of food value chains has increasingly been reliant on the wider adoption of sustainable farming practices that include organic agriculture. Organic farming in developed countries is standardized and occupies a niche in agro-food systems. However, such a standard model, when transferred to developing countries, faces difficulty in implementation. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the expansion of organic agriculture in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern context, and analyzes the economic performance of organic tomato among smallholder farmers. Accordingly, the study was able to determine the production costs, map the organic value chain and assess the profitability of organic tomato by comparing it with the conventional tomato in the same value chain. The study finds organic farming being increasingly expensive primarily due to the inherently high cost of production in Lebanon and the inefficient organization of the organic value chain. As a result, we suggest a blended approach of organic farming with other models, in particular agro-tourism, as a local solution to the sustainability of organic farming in developing countries with limited resources (land and labor) and characterized by long marketing channels. In countries such as Lebanon, a country endowed with rich cultural heritage and natural and beautiful landscapes, the agro-tourism model can harness organic farming and tourism activities. We also propose the adoption of local collective guarantee systems for organic production as a way to alleviate the costs of third-party auditing in Lebanon.
Malnutrition remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children, particularly in Ethiopia. The present study aimed to assess determinants of severe acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months in the pastoral community of Liban District, Southeastern Ethiopia. A case–control study design was conducted on 89 cases and 177 controls from 1–30 December 2020. A simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data collected using interviewer-administered structured questionnaire were used, and anthropometric measurements were done by standardised calibrated instruments to collect data. Data were entered into EPI data version 3.1 and then exported to SPSS version 25.0 software for analysis. All candidate variables with P < 0⋅25 in bivariate analysis were then entered into multivariable logistic regression. Associated factors were identified at P < 0⋅05 and 95 % CI. A total of 266 (89 cases and 177 controls) having a response rate of 96⋅6 % being underweight [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 11⋅8, 95 % CI 3⋅17, 43⋅89], illness previous 2 weeks (AOR = 3⋅47, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅34, 8⋅99), family member with malnutrition (AOR = 4⋅52, 95 % CI 1⋅45, 14⋅01), greater than five family size, (AOR = 5⋅33, 95 % CI 2⋅08, 13⋅66), mothers unable to read and write (AOR = 3⋅66, 95 % CI 1⋅27, 10⋅56), mothers with low decision autonomy (AOR = 5⋅67, 95 % CI 2⋅26, 14⋅27), not handwashing at all critical time (AOR = 7⋅23, 95 % CI 2⋅74, 19⋅07), not feeding child animal source (AOR = 7⋅13, 95 % CI 1⋅98, 25⋅59), bottle feeding (AOR = 7⋅06, 95 % CI 2⋅34, 21⋅28) and being married (AOR = 0⋅05, 95 % CI 0⋅02, 0⋅19) were significantly associated with acute malnutrition. The present study has confirmed the association of acute malnutrition with maternal education, underweight, family size and inappropriate infant caring practices.
Vulture populations are in severe decline across Africa and prioritization of geographic areas for their conservation is urgently needed. To do so, we compiled three independent datasets on vulture occurrence from road-surveys, GPS-tracking, and citizen science (eBird), and used maximum entropy to build ensemble species distribution models (SDMs). We then identified spatial vulture conservation priorities in Ethiopia, a stronghold for vultures in Africa, while accounting for uncertainty in our predictions. We were able to build robust distribution models for five vulture species across the entirety of Ethiopia, including three Critically Endangered, one Endangered, and one Near Threatened species. We show that priorities occur in the highlands of Ethiopia, which provide particularly important habitat for Bearded Gypaetus barbatus, Hooded Necrosyrtes monachus, Rüppell’s Gyps rüppelli and White-backed Gyps africanus Vultures, as well as the lowlands of north-eastern Ethiopia, which are particularly valuable for the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. One-third of the core distribution of the Egyptian Vulture was protected, followed by the White-backed Vulture at one-sixth, and all other species at one-tenth. Overall, only about one-fifth of vulture priority areas were protected. Given that there is limited protection of priority areas and that vultures range widely, we argue that measures of broad spatial and legislative scope will be necessary to address drivers of vulture declines, including poisoning, energy infrastructure, and climate change, while considering the local social context and aiding sustainable development.
Eating behaviours have been associated both with being underweight or overweight and poor growth. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviours. The instrument is, however, mostly validated in high-income countries, with a scarcity of evidence among developing countries such as Ethiopia. The present study aims to assess the cultural adaptability and validity of the CEBQ to be used in Ethiopia. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study among 542 caregivers of children aged 3–6 years in selected preschools. Tests of factorial validity, convergent validity and reliability were performed. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model indicated that eight subscales provided the best fit (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0⋅05 (90 % CI 0⋅045, 0⋅055); Comparative Fit Index = 0⋅92 and Tucker–Lewis Index = 0⋅90) after seven items from the original CEBQ were removed. Convergent validity with child's weight status was found for emotional overeating, food fussiness, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating subscales. Reliability, measured using Cronbach's α, provided values between 0⋅50 and 0⋅79. The eight-factor structure of the CEBQ showed adequate content validity and provided factorial, discriminant and convergent validity among preschool children. Further replication of the study among low-income countries is essential to improve the literature on children's eating behaviours.
Feeding is a source of interaction and communication. It affects children's physical and psychological/emotional development. The present study aims to examine the association between caregiver and child characteristics and caregivers' feeding practices among preschools in Addis Ababa. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 542 caregivers of children aged between 3 and 6 years old in selected preschools. We used the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to measure caregivers' feeding practices. Multiple linear regression was used for analysis. Caregivers who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅20, P < 0⋅001), who were more concerned about their child being overweight (β 0⋅11, P < 0⋅001) and who had more depressive symptoms (β 0⋅23, P 0⋅05) were associated with food restriction practice. Caregivers who were less concerned about their child being overweight (β −0⋅10, P < 0⋅001) and who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅25, P < 0⋅001) were associated with pressure to eat practice. Caregivers who had higher education (β 0⋅29, P < 0⋅05), who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅47, P < 0⋅001), who were more concerned about their child being overweight (β 0⋅15, P < 0⋅001) and who were less concerned about their child underweight (β −0⋅06, P < 0⋅05) were associated with monitoring feeding practice. In addition, as the children have gotten older (β 0⋅08, P < 0⋅05), there is increased use of monitoring feeding practice. This study is one of few studies that show the association between caregiver and child characteristics and feeding practices in developing countries such as Ethiopia. It is essential to include responsive feeding components in national nutritional programmes to improve preschool children's nutritional status in Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study will generate preliminary data to address a critical, care transition-related patient safety gap involving medication use among children with medical complexity. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objectives of this study are: (1) to understand care transition-related medication safety risks for children with medical complexity (CMC), and (2) through a participatory, human centered design (PD) approach, to develop an early prototype intervention to address identified safety risks. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study population includes children with medical complexity (CMC), a medically fragile pediatric population with intensive healthcare needs. CMC rely on multiple and complex medication regimens and/or medical devices for optimal functioning. Parents of CMC report multiple unmet healthcare needs. For Aim 1, we will conduct observations and interviews with ˜15 clinicians as well as semi-structured interviews with ˜30 family caregivers during three care transition experiences: from Cardiac ICU to home, Neonatal ICU to home, and those between primary care/specialty clinic to home. For Aim 2, we will conduct participatory design sessions with up to 5 participants (separately for clinicians and family caregivers) from each of the three care transition settings to co-design a prototype intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The study is currently recruiting family caregivers of CMC for aim 1 research activities, with interviews planned to be completed in February/March 2021. Transcribed interviews will be used to inform development of patient journey maps. A patient journey map helps to visually depict healthcare services through the patient and family lens, and highlights important ‘touch points’ along the patient journey (e.g., decisions, encounters, constraints, emotional states, etc.) that shape the patient and family experience. The journey map will distill findings from qualitative data and generate a concise visual story focused on the medication use experience of CMC as they transition between the hospital and their home. Individual journey maps will also be combined to generate a consolidated journey map. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: An-in-depth understanding of medication safety risks unique to the context of CMC care would be essential to develop interventions that are useful, scalable, and sustainable. This is even more important because current interventions are primarily adopted from adult care settings with mixed outcomes.
African yam bean (AYB) is an affordable protein source capable of diversifying the food base in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research efforts made towards the crop's improvement and in expanding production are limited. This study characterized 169 AYB accessions at Jimma, Ethiopia, using 31 phenotypic characters. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) differences for days to 50% flowering, days to first flowering, leaf area, number of seeds per pod, pod length, seed thickness, total seed weight, petiole length and significant (P < 0.05) difference for terminal leaf length. Accession TSs62B produced the highest number of seeds per pod (17.65) and recorded the highest 100 seed weight (25.30 g), while 3A was the earliest to flower at an average of 84.50 d. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative traits attributed 77.6% of observed variations to the first five principal components, of which the first two PC axes accounted for 53.6% of total variations. Cluster analysis and PCA biplot distinctly grouped the accessions into two major groups, cluster I had the highest number of accessions (108). The analytical approaches used confirmed considerable diversity across the germplasm with a distance matrix ranging from 0.37 to 0.85. The extent of diversity reflected in the current study provides breeders the baseline information to design breeding strategies, which might help identify materials for release as variety or parental lines for hybridization programmes.
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important legume crop with high commercial value widely cultivated globally. Thus, the genetic characterization of the existing soybean germplasm will provide useful information for enhanced conservation, improvement and future utilization. This study aimed to assess the extent of genetic diversity of soybean elite breeding lines and varieties developed by the soybean breeding programme of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. The genetic diversity of 65 soybean genotypes was studied using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The result revealed that 2446 alleles were detected, and the indicators for allelic richness and diversity had good differentiating power in assessing the diversity of the genotypes. The three complementary approaches used in the study grouped the germplasm into three major clusters based on genetic relatedness. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 71% (P < 0.001) variation was due to among individual genotypes, while 11% (P < 0.001) was ascribed to differences among the three clusters, and the fixation index (FST) was 0.11 for the SNP loci, signifying moderate genetic differentiation among the genotypes. The identified private alleles indicate that the soybean germplasm contains diverse variability that is yet to be exploited. The SNP markers revealed high diversity in the studied germplasm and found to be efficient for assessing genetic diversity in the crop. These results provide valuable information that might be utilized for assessing the genetic variability of soybean and other legume crops germplasm by breeding programmes.
Liben Lark Heteromirafra archeri is a ‘Critically Endangered’ species threatened by the loss and degradation of grassland at the Liben Plain, southern Ethiopia, one of only two known sites for the species. We use field data from nine visits between 2007 and 2019 and satellite imagery to quantify changes over time in the species’ abundance and in the extent and quality of its habitat. We estimate that the population fell from around 279 singing males (95% CL: 182–436) in 2007 to around 51 (14–144) in 2013, after which too few birds were recorded to estimate population size. Arable cultivation first appeared on the plain in the early 1990s and by 2019 more than a third of the plain had been converted to crops. Cultivation was initially confined to the fertile black soils but from 2008 began to spread into the less fertile red soils that cover most of the plain. Liben Larks strongly avoided areas with extensive bare ground or trees and bushes, but the extent of these did not change significantly over the survey period. A plausible explanation for the species’ decline is that grassland degradation, caused before 2007 by continuous high-pressure grazing by livestock, reduced its rates of reproduction or survival to a level that could not support its previous population. Since 2015, communal kalos (grazing exclosures) have been established to generate forage and other resources in the hope of also providing breeding habitat for Liben Larks. Grass height and density within four grassland kalos in 2018 greatly exceeded that in the surrounding grassland, indicating that the plain retains the potential to recover rapidly if appropriately managed. Improvement of grassland structure through the restitution of traditional and sustainable rangeland management regimes and the reversion of cereal agriculture to grassland are urgently needed to avert the species’ extinction.
Striga hermonthica infestation causes significant losses of maize yield in the Nigerian savannas and several technologies have been developed and promoted to control Striga in maize. However, since no single technology has been found to be effective against Striga, integrated management is needed to achieve satisfactory and sustainable Striga control. Both on-station and on-farm trials were undertaken from 2013 to 2015 in Bauchi and Kano States of Nigeria to evaluate the performance of integrated Striga control technologies. In the on-station trials, a soybean–maize rotation did not suppress Striga in maize in either location. However, nitrogen application suppressed and reduced Striga infection, except in Bauchi in 2014. The soybean–maize rotation accompanied by N application reduced Striga damage in both locations. On farmers’ fields, rotating soybean with maize significantly reduced Striga infection. At the same time, the use of maize varieties with a combined tolerance to drought and resistance to Striga parasitism also increased maize grain yield on farmers’ fields, probably due to three factors: a reduction in Striga infection, reduced effects of a mid-season moisture deficit, and increased uptake of nutrients from the soil. We concluded that the use of Striga-resistant maize varieties in combination with the application of N fertilizer and rotation with soybean could increase the productivity of maize in Striga-infested fields in the Nigerian savannas.
Is ethnic federalism good or bad for Ethiopia? Scholars of various kinds disagree. For some consequentialists, ethnic federalism deepens ethnic differences and leads to separatism; for others, it is preferred to the forced integration of distinctive ethnic groups and the suppression of group rights. To some constitutionalists, ethnic federalism will succeed with greater fidelity to the Ethiopian Constitution, yet others view the Constitution as limiting ethnic federalism’s efficacy. Whatever the perspective, no consensus exists on its merits. This chapter examines ethnic federalism as an institutional design mechanism to balance the tension between the Constitution’s transformational and preservative elements. Although the Constitution was initially transformational, ethnic federalism was likely the most attractive preservative institutional design mechanism for the ruling elite to maintain power. The tension became clear during the 2005 election, marking the end of the first period of transformational Ethiopian constitutionalism. The chapter views the adoption of ethnic federalism as a preservative tool consistent with the ruling elite’s incentives.
Community-based breeding programs (CBBPs) for small ruminants have been suggested as alternatives to centralised, government-controlled breeding schemes which have been implemented in many developing countries. An innovative methodological framework on how to design, implement and sustain CBBPs was tested in three sites in Ethiopia: Bonga, Horro and Menz. In these CBBPs, the main selection trait identified through participatory approaches was 6-month weight in all three sites. In Horro and Bonga, where resources such as feed and water permitted larger litter sizes, twinning rate was included. Ten-year (2009 to 2018) performance data from the breeding programs were analysed using Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood method (AI-REML). Additionally, the socioeconomic impact of CBBPs was assessed. Results indicated that 6-month weight increased over the years in all breeds. In Bonga, the average increase was 0.21 ± 0.018 kg/year, followed by 0.18 ± 0.007 and 0.11 ± 0.003 kg/year in Horro and Menz, respectively. This was quite substantial in an on-farm situation. The birth weight of lambs did not improve over the years in Bonga and Horro sheep but significant increases occurred in Menz. Considering that there was no direct selection on birth weight in the community flock, the increased weights observed in Menz could be due to correlated responses, but this was not the case in Bonga and Horro. The genetic trend for prolificacy over the years in both Bonga and Horro flocks was positive and significant (P < 0.01). This increase in litter size, combined with the increased 6-month body weight, increased income by 20% and farm-level meat consumption from slaughter of one sheep per year to three. The results show that CBBPs are technically feasible, result in measurable genetic gains in performance traits and impact the livelihoods of farmers.
The pastoral systems of Eastern Africa have been affected by the alternated incidence of recurrent drought and flood for the last decades, aggravating poverty and local conflicts. We have introduced an innovation to convert floods to productive use using water spreading weirs (WSW) as an entry point to capture and spread the torrential flood emerging in the neighboring highlands into rangelands and crop fields of low-lying pastoral systems in Afar, Ethiopia. The productivity and landscape feature have changed from an abandoned field to a productive landscape within 3 years of intervention. The flood patterns and sediment loads created at least four different crop management zones and productivity levels. Based on moisture and nutrient regimes, we developed land suitability maps for integrating crops and forages fitting to specific niches. The outcome was a fast recovery of landscapes, with 150% biomass yield increment, increased access to dry season feed and food. These positive outcomes could be attributed to the proper design of weirs, joint planning and execution between pastoralists, researchers and development agents, identification and availing best-fitting varieties for each management zone and developing simple GIS-based parcel level maps to guide development agents and pastoralists. The major ‘agents’ were community leaders (‘Kedoh Abbobati’) who keenly debated potential benefits and drawbacks of innovations, enforced customary rules and byelaw and suggested changes in approaches and choices of interventions. In general, an innovation system approach helped to create local confidence, attract attention of government institutions and helped local actors to identify investment areas, develop implementation strategies to increase productivity, define changes as it occurs and minimize conflicts between competing communities. However, the risk of de facto use of a plot of communal land translating into long-term occupation and ownership may be impacting a communal territory and social cohesion that was subject to other collective choice customary rules.
Afar in Ethiopia is a drought prone area characterized by low rainfall, high temperature and suffering from flash flood emerging from adjacent mountains. We introduced a flood barrier, water spreading weirs (WSWs) in 2015 to convert floods to a productive use and assessed its effect in 2016 and 2017. WSWs resulted in deposition of sediments where sand deposition was higher in the upside of upstream weir whereas silt and clay deposition was prominent at the central location between the two weirs. There was a moisture gradient across farming fields with volumetric water content (VWC) at 20 cm depth varying between 10 and 22% depending on the relative position/distance of fields from the WSWs, consequently, effecting significant difference in yield between fields. There was a positive relationship between VWC made available by WSWs at planting and the yield (P < 0.001, r = 0.76) and biomass productivity (P < 0.005, r = 0.46). WSWs created differing farming zone following soil moisture regime, affecting grain and biomass yield. In good potential zones with high moisture content, the WSW-based farming enabled to produce up to 5 and 15 t ha−1 yr−1 of maize grain and biomass, respectively, while in low potential zones there was a complete crop grain failure. The system enabled pastoralists to produce huge amount of biomass and grain during Belg (short) and Meher (long) growing seasons that was stored and utilized during succeeding dry periods. Furthermore, the practice ensured a visible recovery of degraded rangelands. This was evident from the filling up of the riverbed as well as the two WSW wings with 1 m high and about 450 m length each with fertile sediment from Belg and Meher seasons of 2016 and 2017. Hence, future studies should analyze the sustainability and the potential of flood-based development at large scale.