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For forty years, successive editions of Ethical Theory and Business have helped to define the field of business ethics. The 10th edition reflects the current, multidisciplinary nature of the field by explicitly embracing a variety of perspectives on business ethics, including philosophy, management, and legal studies. Chapters integrate theoretical readings, case studies, and summaries of key legal cases to guide students to a rich understanding of business ethics, corporate responsibility, and sustainability. The 10th edition has been entirely updated, ensuring that students are exposed to key ethical questions in the current business environment. New chapters cover the ethics of IT, ethical markets, and ethical management and leadership. Coverage includes climate change, sustainability, international business ethics, sexual harassment, diversity, and LGBTQ discrimination. New case studies draw students directly into recent business ethics controversies, such as sexual harassment at Fox News, consumer fraud at Wells Fargo, and business practices at Uber.
The new compound (4R)-methyl-3-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonyl)thiazolidin-4-carboxylate was synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between (4R)-methyl-3-propionyl-thiazolidin-4-carboxylate (1) and 4-chlorophenylazide using the click chemistry approach. Molecular characterization was carried out by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray powder diffraction study determined that the title compound crystallized in an orthorhombic system with unit-cell parameters a = 20.876 (2) Å, b = 12.111 (1) Å, and c = 6.288 (9) Å. The volume of the unit cell is V = 1589.7 (2) Å3. All measured diffraction maxima were indexed and are consistent with the P2221 space group (No. 17). No detectable impurities were observed.
In India the 1918–19 influenza pandemic cost at least twelve million lives, more than in any other country; it caused widespread suffering and disrupted the economy and infrastructure. Yet, despite this, and in contrast to the growing literature on recovering the ‘forgotten’ pandemic in other countries, remarkably little was recorded about the epidemic in India at the time or has appeared in the subsequent historiography. An absence of visual evidence is indicative of a more general paucity of contemporary material and first-hand testimony. In seeking to explain this absence, it is argued that, while India was exposed to influenza as a global event and to the effects of its involvement in the Great War, the influenza episode needs to be more fully understood in terms of local conditions. The impact of the disease was overshadowed by the prior encounter with bubonic plague, by military recruitment and the war, and by food shortages and price rises that pushed India to the brink of famine. Subsumed within a dominant narrative of political unrest and economic discontent, the epidemic found scant expression in official documentation, public debate and/or even private correspondence.
To detect modest associations of dietary intake with disease risk, observational studies need to be large and control for moderate measurement errors. The reproducibility of dietary intakes of macronutrients, food groups and dietary patterns (vegetarian and Mediterranean) was assessed in adults in the UK Biobank study on up to five occasions using a web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n 211 050), and using short FFQ recorded at baseline (n 502 655) and after 4 years (n 20 346). When the means of two 24-h assessments were used, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for macronutrients varied from 0·63 for alcohol to 0·36 for polyunsaturated fat. The ICC for food groups also varied from 0·68 for fruit to 0·18 for fish. The ICC for the FFQ varied from 0·66 for meat and fruit to 0·48 for bread and cereals. The reproducibility was higher for vegetarian status (κ > 0·80) than for the Mediterranean dietary pattern (ICC = 0·45). Overall, the reproducibility of pairs of 24-h dietary assessments and single FFQ used in the UK Biobank were comparable with results of previous prospective studies using conventional methods. Analyses of diet–disease relationships need to correct for both measurement error and within-person variability in dietary intake in order to reliably assess any such associations with disease in the UK Biobank.
In patients with β-lactam allergies, administration of non–β-lactam surgical prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of infection. Although many patients self-report β-lactam allergies, most are unconfirmed or mislabeled. A quality improvement process, utilizing a structured β-lactam allergy tool, was implemented to improve the utilization of preferred β-lactam surgical prophylaxis.
Some studies found that providing micronutrient powder (MNP) causes adverse health outcomes, but modifying factors are unknown. We aimed to investigate whether Fe status and inherited Hb disorders (IHbD) modify the impact of MNP on growth and diarrhoea among young Lao children. In a double-blind controlled trial, 1704 children of age 6–23 months were randomised to daily MNP (with 6 mg Fe plus fourteen micronutrients) or placebo for about 36 weeks. IHbD, and baseline and final Hb, Fe status and anthropometrics were assessed. Caregivers provided weekly morbidity reports. At enrolment, 55·6 % were anaemic; only 39·3 % had no sign of clinically significant IHbD. MNP had no overall impact on growth and longitudinal diarrhoea prevalence. Baseline Hb modified the effect of MNP on length-for-age (LAZ) (P for interaction = 0·082). Among children who were initially non-anaemic, the final mean LAZ in the MNP group was slightly lower (–1·93 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·97)) v. placebo (–1·88 (95 % CI –1·83, –1·92)), and the opposite occurred among initially anaemic children (final mean LAZ –1·90 (95 % CI –1·86, –1·94) in MNP v. –1·92 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·96) in placebo). IHbD modified the effect on diarrhoea prevalence (P = 0·095). Among children with IHbD, the MNP group had higher diarrhoea prevalence (1·37 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·59) v. 1·21 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·41)), while it was lower among children without IHbD who received MNP (1·15 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·39) v. 1·37 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·64)). In conclusion, there was a small adverse effect of MNP on growth among non-anaemic children and on diarrhoea prevalence among children with IHbD.
What is ‘heresy’? One answer would be, ‘that which orthodoxy condemns as such’; though we may also wish to consider when conscious dissent invites such a condemnation. The main ‘heresy’ in late medieval England was that usually termed Lollardy, understood to be inspired by the radical theological thought of John Wyclif (1328-1384), which among other things emphasised the overwhelmingly importance of Scripture, and of lay access to Scripture, through vernacular translation. Orthodox repression of heresy began in the late fourteenth century and developed in various ways in the fifteenth. There are small traces of these much wider battles in Chaucer’s oeuvre, but it would be very hard to say quite how he saw them. We might instead see the fluidity of attitude toward aspects of religion in Chaucer as a sign of his times. ‘Dissent’ can encompass more than that which is solidly decried as heresy, and ‘orthodoxy’ can turn out to be more than one mode of religious thought and expression.
The article proceeds from the observation that in the contemporary British cultural imagination, the figure of the coal miner tends to be presented as the embodiment of anti-urban and organicist qualities that in continental Europe are more commonly associated with the peasantry. Drawing on the theoretical insights of Raymond Williams, the article traces the genealogy of this ‘structure of feeling’ back to the time of the miners’ strike of 1984/85 and further back in the 1970s. It argues that the ‘ruralized’ miner was one imaginary in a complex power struggle over the ‘real’ identity of miners that was waged between the industry and the state, the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and the National Coal Board (NCB), and, crucially, inside the NUM itself. ‘Ruralization’ was most vigorously promoted by union militants who sought to displace an alternative vision, championed jointly by the Coal Board and union moderates, which had situated miners firmly at the heart of industrial modernity. It was only in the wake of the defeat of the miners in the 1984/85 strike, and during the subsequent cultural reworking of this strike, that this structure finally gained dominance.
Background: There is an unmet need for blood-based biomarkers that can reliably detect MS disease activity. Serum Biomarkers of interest includ Neurofilament-light-chain (NfL), Glial-fibrillary-strocyte-protein(GFAP) and Tau. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is reserved for aggressive forms of MS and has been shown to halt detectable CNS inflammatory activity for prolonged periods. Significant pre-treatment tissue damage at followed by inflammatory disease abeyance should be reflected longitudinal sera collected from these patients. Methods: Sera were collected from 23 MS patients pre-treatment, and following BMT at 3, 6, 9 and 12-months in addition from 33 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Biomarker quantification was performed with SiMoA. Results: Pre-AHSCT levels of serum NfL and GFAP but not Tau were elevated compared to controls (p=0.0001), and NfL correlated with lesion-based disease activity (6-month-relapse, MRI-T2 and Gadolinium-enhancement). 3-months post-treatment, while NfL levels remained elevated, Tau/GFAP paradoxically increased (p=0.0023/0.0017). These increases at 3m correlated with MRI ‘pseudoatrophy’ at 6-months. NfL/Tau levels dropped to that of controls by 6-months (p=0.0036/0.0159). GFAP levels dropped progressively after 6-months although even at 12-months remained higher than controls (p=0.004). Conclusions: NfL was the closest correlate of MS disease activity and treatment response. Chemotherapy-related toxicity may account for transient increases in NfL, Tau and MRI brain atrophy post-BMT.
Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus and sun bear Helarctos malayanus populations are declining throughout South-east Asia as a result of habitat loss and human disturbance. Knowledge of the distribution and status of each species is limited and largely anecdotal. Range maps are coarse, compiled by expert opinion, and presence or absence is unknown over large portions of South-east Asia. These two species co-occur in Lao People's Democratic Republic and may be faring better there than in neighbouring countries. During 2010–2013 we searched for bear sign along 99 transects within eight study sites throughout Lao. To explore countrywide relative abundance and habitat suitability, we modelled bear sign as a log-linear function of biological and anthropogenic predictors that were associated with habitat assemblages and human disturbance. Bears favored higher elevations and rugged terrain in areas less accessible to humans, and were most abundant in the north and east of Lao. Suitable habitats were rare in the southern lowland plains where bear abundance was relatively low. Our model predicted that Nam Et–Phou Louey National Protected Area had the largest areas of suitable bear habitat, followed by the Nakai-Nam Teun and Nam Ha National Protected Areas. Using transects to survey for bear sign, we created a replicable geographical information system based assessment tool for bears in Lao that can be used to identify conservation opportunities and monitor changes in bear distribution over time.
Language development requires children to learn how to understand ambiguous pronouns, as in Panda Bear is having lunch with Puppy. He wants a pepperoni slice. Adults tend to link he with Puppy, the prior grammatical subject, but young children either fail to exhibit this bias (Arnold, Brown-Schmidt & Trueswell, 2007) or do so more slowly than adults (Hartshorne et al., 2015a; Song & Fisher, 2005). In the current study, we test whether language exposure affects this bias in elementary-school-age children. Children listened to stories like the one above, and answered questions like “Who wants a pepperoni slice?” which reveal their pronoun interpretation. Individual variation in the rate of selecting the subject character correlated with measures of print exposure, such that children who read more are more likely to follow the subject bias. This is the first study to establish that print exposure affects spoken pronoun comprehension in children.
Music is an agreeable harmony for the honour of God and the permissible delights of the soul.
Music is one of the most glorious gifts of God … for it removes from the heart the weight of sorrow, and the fascination of evil thoughts.
We have considered how the theological connection between faith and music might be meaningful to those, either within or outside the Church, who do not hold traditional or orthodox Christian beliefs, or indeed any Christian beliefs at all. We have also heard the voices of three Anglican clerics with their divergent musical tastes and theological stances. I now turn to explore two interviews with lay women who have contrasting experiences of cultural, national and denominational aspects of Church.
Firoozeh Willans is of Iranian descent, was educated in France and travelled widely with her family before settling in England. She now worships at the charismatic evangelical Hillsong church. Her Sunday morning experience of worship involves being part of a large congregation who meet in a hall with a worship band performing and accompanying the songs. There is also a commitment to social outreach work and study groups during the week. In addition, however, Firoozeh and her husband Olly have a son, Sacha, who is a chorister, and so they also regularly attend services in Magdalen College Chapel, where they hear the classical repertoire of Western sacred music. This forms an interesting mix of musical and liturgical encounters in the Willans family.
Shanika Ranasinghe, on the other hand, is a Roman Catholic of Sri Lankan descent who has lived in London for most of her life. She is a PhD student in music at Royal Holloway, University of London. Her field of research is pop music, and in particular an ethnomusicological approach to the phenomenon of the Swedish pop band ABBA. She is also a classically trained pianist and, like Firoozeh, to some extent, came to know classical sacred music well at an Oxford college chapel when studying as an undergraduate at Worcester College. I began by asking Shanika how she came to enjoy music as a child and discovered that singing was an important part of her musical development.
Sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs among yourselves, singing and making melody to the Lord in your hearts.
One of the most obvious connections between music and faith is literature – the writings of those whose words are set to music in hymns, songs, plays, operas, oratorios, anthems and canticles. Words about music can be obtuse and meaningless in their analysis, compared with words within music, where poetry or prose is transformed into musical sound and the colour of each word is enhanced by musical painting. Think of a Schubert song, where even ordinary poetry can be transported into profound significance by the skilful use of melody and harmonic scoring, economically composed for a pianist and singer to interpret.
Writers have long made a close connection between the created order and divinity, from the garden of Eden in the book of Genesis, to the Hellenic world of Pythagoras, Plato and Plotinus, to Christ's incarnation itself. Many a poet has perceived God in nature and none more so than Thomas Traherne (1636/7–74), the seventeenth-century English Metaphysical poet, priest and theologian, in his beloved Herefordshire. For him the beauty of God was directly connected to the beauty of nature:
My Love's the mountain range,
The valleys each with solitary grove,
The islands far and strange,
The streams with sounds that change,
The whistling of the lovesick winds that rove.
For Traherne, nature was Christ to him and he wanted nothing more than to be in the natural world and therefore dwell within Christ himself. The creativity that this ‘natural’ faith inspired spilled over into his poetry, which in turn has inspired composers such as Gerald Finzi to craft musical settings and responses to Traherne's words of faith. Both music and poetry have now inspired a third art form in Thomas Denny's visual tributes to both Traherne and Finzi in his Hereford and Gloucester cathedrals stained glass. Of the windows in Hereford Cathedral's Audley Chapel [Figure 1], Christopher Gibbs writes:
In his glorious windows … Natural wonders abound. He evokes the Herefordshire landscape, the wooded hill that hangs above the church at Credenhill and its distant prospects. We glimpse the city of Hereford, made celestial.
In our Rectory garden we are fortunate to have a lawn shaded by three large flowering cherry trees. Last year my wife Emma, who is the parish priest, suggested that the garden would make a marvellous place for a labyrinth. There are many examples of labyrinths around the world which are used for spiritual purposes. Perhaps the most famous is in Chartres Cathedral, but others are created in natural environments, such as mowed into lawns. I thought the idea of having a labyrinth in our garden that anyone could come and walk would be an excellent idea and I relished the challenge of researching how to make one. Having found a suitable pattern and method, I set about creating it one sunny spring afternoon: measuring and marking the centre, the boundaries, twists and turns, and making sure that each path was even and clear. It took all afternoon for me to make sure that the labyrinth was properly mapped out before I started to mow. The process was totally absorbing. I had to concentrate entirely on the project in hand and I had no other concerns or interests while engaged in it. I believe that my mind had gone into what the psychologists call a ‘flow’ state of complete focus – a state I have known partially in other physically demanding and absorbing situations, such as long-distance walking or cycling. Once the mowing and the labyrinth were complete, I felt that I had spent a thoroughly fulfilling and purposeful afternoon [Figure 8].
The joy of the experience was not so much in the completion of the project. Indeed, I could have asked someone else more professional to complete the task and then I would simply have had to admire it. The joy was in the process. Likewise now, when anyone walks the circular route of the labyrinth, finding their way slowly to the centre, where they find the meagre rewards of a water-filled bird bath, the benefit of the experience is not in the final destination, which after all is only another piece of lawn, it is in the journey. It is the thought processes, prayers, meditations and the focus of the mind through the walking that makes a labyrinth a worthwhile spiritual exercise.