Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) infection in swine may cause granulomatous lesions in lymph nodes that must undergo differential diagnosis with those caused by M. tuberculosis complex members. Moreover, MAH outbreaks can lead to severe economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. A number of potential sources of infection for animals can usually be identified in contaminated farms. This report describes the application of several molecular characterization techniques in order to identify the possible environmental sources of MAH infection in an outbreak involving four breeding farms and six fattening farms. Molecular profiles obtained from MAH strains suggested a likely epidemiological link between clinical and environmental isolates cultured from sawdust and cooling systems from one breeding farm. These results highlight the potential risk posed by these environmental elements in the spread of infection and the need for implementation of adequate management practices in order to minimize this risk.