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Both vitamin D and Fe micronutrient deficiencies are common in Saudi Arabia but the association between them is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether Fe indices are associated with vitamin D status and other metabolic markers in Arab adolescents.
Single-centre, cross-sectional study gathering anthropometrics, glucose and lipid profile. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), Fe, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (%) and other parameters were measured.
Vitamin D School Project Database, King Saud University (2014–2016).
Arab adolescents aged 10–17 years randomly selected from the Vitamin D School Project Database (170 Saudi students; 100 girls, seventy boys).
Among Fe indices, only TIBC was found to be significantly and inversely associated with 25(OH)D (r = −0·20; P < 0·01) and only in girls (r = −0·20; P < 0·05). Among cardiometabolic parameters, serum Fe was associated with TAG in boys (r = 0·36; P < 0·01) and inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol in girls (r = −0·29; P < 0·05). Age was the most significant predictor of serum Fe for all participants, accounting for 5 % (R2 = 0·05; P = 0·004) of variance perceived. Serum 25(OH)D and age, on the other hand, were the most significant predictors for TIBC, accounting for 10·1 % (R2 = 0·10; P < 0·001) of variance perceived.
Among healthy Arab adolescents, the association between vitamin D and Fe indices, particularly TIBC, is modest, inverse and sex-dependent. Larger studies with inclusion of markers such as hepcidin and ferritin, vitamin D metabolites and endogenous sex hormones may provide a clearer view of this complex association.
A point prevalence survey was conducted on May 11, 2017, among inpatients at 6 hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The overall point prevalence was 6.8% (114 of 1,666). The most common types of infections were pneumonia (27.2%), urinary tract infections (20.2%), and bloodstream infections (10.5%). Approximately 19.2% of healthcare-associated infections were device associated.
Continental paleoclimate proxies with near-global coverage are rare. Land snail δ18O is one of the few proxies abundant in Quaternary sediments ranging from the tropics to the high Arctic tundra. However, its application in paleoclimatology remains difficult, attributable in part to limitations in published calibration studies. Here we present shell δ18O of modern small (<10 mm) snails across North America, from Florida (30°N) to Manitoba (58°N), to examine the main climatic controls on shell δ18O at a coarse scale. This transect is augmented by published δ18O values, which expand our coverage from Jamaica (18°N) to Alaska (64°N). Results indicate that shell δ18O primarily tracks the average annual precipitation δ18O. Shell δ18O increases 0.5–0.7‰ for every 1‰ increase in precipitation δ18O, and 0.3–0.7‰ for every 1°C increase in temperature. These relationships hold true when all taxa are included regardless of body size (ranging from ~1.6 to ~58 mm), ecology (herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores), or behavior (variable seasonal active periods and mobility habits). Future isotopic investigations should include calibration studies in tropical and high-latitude settings, arid environments, and along altitudinal gradients to test if the near linear relationship between shell and meteoric precipitation δ18O observed on a continental scale remains significant.
Archaeological evidence for a Sasanian presence in the ‘Uman region of Eastern Arabia is sparse. Recent excavations at the site of Fulayj in Oman have, however, revealed it to be a Late Sasanian fort, the only securely dated example in Arabia, or indeed on the western shores of the Indian Ocean more generally. AMS dating supports the ceramic chronology proposed for the site, demonstrating occupation until the Islamisation of South-eastern Arabia in the early seventh century AD, and also briefly into the very Early Islamic period. Fulayj fort provides new insights into Sasanian military activities during this crucial period of Arabian history.
In this present study, different volume percentages of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were added as dispersions in commercially pure magnesium using the blend-press-sinter powder metallurgy process followed by hot extrusion. The physically blended titanium dioxide nanoparticles dispersoid induced a significant grain refinement in the extruded magnesium matrix. Characterization of the mechanical properties revealed that the increasing volume percentage of titanium oxide nanoparticles dispersion was effective in enhancing the ductility of magnesium without disturbing the strength under tensile loading and enhancing the strength of magnesium without disturbing the ductility under compressive loading. The dominating deformation mechanism in pure magnesium was the dislocation slip, which was subdued by the tensile twinning deformation mechanism due to the increasing presence of titanium dioxide dispersion. The effect of shift in the dominating deformation mechanism was displayed by the elimination of tensile-compressive asymmetry in magnesium when dispersed with 1 vol% of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.
The consumption of n-3 PUFAs is low, particularly the long chain (>18 carbon atoms) fatty acids that are most commonly found in fish oils. These dietary fatty acids have been shown to have a great effect on the health and immune status of different species including humans, rats and poultry. The current paper reviews studies on the effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on B- and T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of poultry.
Magnesium based nanocomposites containing 0.66 vol% of different types of oxide (i.e., Al2O3, Y2O3, and ZrO2) nano particles. The nano oxide particles were dispersed using melt processing. Microstructural characterization reveled that Y2O3 and ZrO2 nano particles were relatively better magnesium matrix grain refiner compared to nano-size Al2O3 particles. Mechanical characterization revealed that the oxides used in this study as reinforcement have strong strengthening effect on the magnesium matrix, where Y2O3 particles were most effective and Al2O3 particles were least effective. Ductility and resistance to fracture of magnesium was significantly improved by Al2O3 nano particles, unaffected by Y2O3 nano particles, and adversely affected by ZrO2 nano particles.
In Kuwait, poultry meat is popular and a major source of dietary protein. Despite the increase in local production, importation to Kuwait has increased, to cover the high local demand for poultry meat. Self-sufficiency has, however, reached 20% of the local demand for poultry meat. This is mainly due to the continuous rise in human population and an increased demand for poultry meat with an average of 75.3 kg/capita/yr from year 2000 to 2011. Conversely, local egg production reached 42000 tons in 2011 with self-sufficiency of 101%. The poultry industry in Kuwait depends on the import of major feed ingredients such as corn and soybean from Unite States of America (USA) and India. In addition, the industry imports one day old chicks for layer and broiler hatching from Europe. Therefore, any changes in the quality or price in Europe and USA will affect the local poultry industry in Kuwait. As a result, the major challenges facing the poultry industry in Kuwait include high production costs, improvements in production efficiency, health monitoring programmes, environmental impact, and changes in policies and trade practices in the country. Solutions to these challenges are discussed in this paper. It can be concluded that more development and improvement in poultry meat production is needed through technology transfer as well as research and development relative to local production. This can be done by working closely with the local scientific institutions and government organisations to enhance and develop the poultry sector's capability to reduce production cost and improve profit.
This paper evaluates a model of community mental health service (CMHS) in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. The hospital records were reviewed and the total number of patient admissions and duration of in-patient care before and after enrolment in the CMHS were documented. Patient satisfaction with the CMHS was assessed using a questionnaire. The total number of admissions and the number of days that the patient spent in hospital per year were significantly reduced by the CMHS. Patients had high satisfaction rates with the information and advice they received, with their relationships with CMHS workers, with their access to mental health services and with their drug treatment.
Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity.
To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders.
Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews.
Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0–19.9%) than other (7.1–14.0%) disorders.
Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders.
Background: Awareness programs are highly recommended to educate smokers and help them to quit. The aim of this study is to evaluate dental professionals' awareness and utilisation of the 5As in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia on 102 dental care providers (DCPs) in 2010 to assess awareness of 5As. Many factors were included in the survey such as demographic characteristics, working place, years of experiences, level of education and country of graduation. Results: Only 23 (22.5%) of our sample know about the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange), and less than 7% of DCPs assist their patients to quit smoking. In addition, 19 (18.6%) of DCPs were smokers, and of them 6 (31.6%) smoked in front of their patients. Conclusion: Most of the dental practitioners were not aware of the 5As for smoking cessation. Most of them they did not pay attention to the willingness of their patients to quit smoking.
Chickens are the most popular poultry worldwide and are now used for both meat and egg production. There is only a sporadic information in the literature on chicken taxonomy; and there is a lack of a single concise document that deals with different issues related to this important topic. The present document contains detailed information on the tree taxonomy of chickens. In addition, process of domestication and its effect on chicken genetic diversity, physiology and behaviour are also discussed. The major conclusions are as follows: 1) Chickens are classified as: order: Galliformes, family: Phasianidae, genus: Gallus (junglefowl). Four species of junglefowl are recognized. These are: a) Gallus gallus (red junglefowl), b) Gallus varius (green junglefowl), c) Gallus sonneratii (grey junglefowl) and d) Gallus lafayetii (Ceylon junglefowl). The current chickens that are used for both meat and egg production commercially are domesticated fowl and are the descendants of the red junglefowl species. 2) Domestication process is a complicated one and involves intensive breeding and selection programmes. During this process, genetic diversity is still maintained, yet reduced, so careful attention is needed in the future to maintain the diversity of specialized chicken species. 3) Domestication resulted in basic changes in the behaviour, physiology and production of the bird, but still there are some similarities between the ancestor and the current chickens.
The poultry industry in Kuwait is one of the leading food industries in the country. It consists of several poultry companies that vary between large, medium and small size poultry producers. The majority of poultry production concentrates on chicken meat and eggs, due to consumers' demand. An estimated 60% of the local broiler production is marketed live, 5% chilled and the rest as frozen. The poultry industry in Kuwait is moving towards production of specialty food such as eggs enriched with omega-3-fatty acids which, it seems, will take part of the market share in the future. Per capita consumption of poultry meat in Kuwait reached 63.3, 61.2, and 60.8 Kg in the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 respectively. Average per capita consumption of poultry meat before the invasion by Iraq was 22 Kg and after liberation per capita consumption increased. Before the invasion, chicken meat was considered as the second most popular meat consumed after lamb and mutton. However, after liberation, red meat consumption was reduced in the years 1996 to 2002. This could be due to concern about the so-called ‘Mad Cow’ disease that shifted consumer preferences from red meat to poultry. In addition, increased consumers' health awareness and presence of the coalition troops in Kuwait and near Iraq increased the demand for poultry meat. Since local producers supplied only 47% of the poultry meat and 55% of table eggs consumed and the remainder of the local poultry consumption imported from other countries, more development and improvement in production is needed in the industry in order to gain confidence of their consumers and increase their share in the market.
This article explores political, cultural and musical issues surrounding the dispute between Palestinians and Israelis, particularly over Jerusalem, which each party uses to symbolise and promote their own perception of the conflict. Specifically, I examine selected popular musical landmarks that capture the essence of the struggle from the ultra-nationalistic tones of the 1960s and 1970s to the more reconciliatory ones in the 1990s advocating peace. Special attention is given to musical cooperation between Israeli and Palestinian singers who played a strong role in the promotion of peace within a utopian dream of coexistence between Arabs and Jews.
We aimed to validate the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) in Arabic.
Subjects were chosen randomly from female school students. Only healthy Saudi students were included. They were asked to fill the EDI and undergo a semi-structured interview by a psychiatrist who was unaware of the EDI scores. Of 146 students approached 12 did not meet our criteria and were excluded; 16 other students were excluded for incomplete responses.
The difference between the two diagnostic methods in the proportion of caseness was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The scores on Perfectionism, Maturity Fears and Interoceptive Awareness were significantly higher in the Saudi students compared with Canadians (P < 0.05).
The EDI-DT subscale has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85%. Despite its low positive predictive value of 5%, it may be useful for screening large non-clinical groups for eating disorders.
The ability of males of Ephestia cautella to mate and transfer sperms aftergamma radiation as 5–6–day old pupae was investigated. The results indicate that gamma radiation had no significant effect on mating, sperm transfer and percentage of egg hatch.
Partial sterility induced by gamma irradiation of Ephestia cautella adult males was studied in five laboratory strains (A,B,C,D and E) which exhibit conspicuous genetic variation in the adult forewing pigmentation. Four of these strains had been reared in the laboratory for more than 80 generations, while the fifth strain has been reared for only 10 generations. When males irradiated with 0.2 kGy were crossed with untreated females, the per cent egg hatch was reduced significantly as compared to the unirradiated control crosses. Strain C showed the highest reduction in the per cent egg hatch followed by a gradual decrease in radiation sensitivity in strains A,E,D and B, respectively. Fecundity and mating frequency appeared not to be affected but the sex ratios were clearly distorted (about two males to one female) in all strains. F1 progeny of all strains were either sterile when mated together (per cent egg hatch = 0.0%), but semi sterile when F1 males were mated to normal females (per cent egg hatch = 0.03–3.95 %). Low fertility was observed when F1 females were mated with normal males (per cent egg hatch = 1.30–15.04%). The cytogenetical investigations showed spermatogenesis to proceed normally in the F1 males, whose fathers had been irradiated (0.2 kGy). However, the primary spermatocyte cells carried multiple chromosomal translocations which were the main cause of the sterility in the F1 males.
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