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Is ethnic federalism good or bad for Ethiopia? Scholars of various kinds disagree. For some consequentialists, ethnic federalism deepens ethnic differences and leads to separatism; for others, it is preferred to the forced integration of distinctive ethnic groups and the suppression of group rights. To some constitutionalists, ethnic federalism will succeed with greater fidelity to the Ethiopian Constitution, yet others view the Constitution as limiting ethnic federalism’s efficacy. Whatever the perspective, no consensus exists on its merits. This chapter examines ethnic federalism as an institutional design mechanism to balance the tension between the Constitution’s transformational and preservative elements. Although the Constitution was initially transformational, ethnic federalism was likely the most attractive preservative institutional design mechanism for the ruling elite to maintain power. The tension became clear during the 2005 election, marking the end of the first period of transformational Ethiopian constitutionalism. The chapter views the adoption of ethnic federalism as a preservative tool consistent with the ruling elite’s incentives.
Community-based breeding programs (CBBPs) for small ruminants have been suggested as alternatives to centralised, government-controlled breeding schemes which have been implemented in many developing countries. An innovative methodological framework on how to design, implement and sustain CBBPs was tested in three sites in Ethiopia: Bonga, Horro and Menz. In these CBBPs, the main selection trait identified through participatory approaches was 6-month weight in all three sites. In Horro and Bonga, where resources such as feed and water permitted larger litter sizes, twinning rate was included. Ten-year (2009 to 2018) performance data from the breeding programs were analysed using Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood method (AI-REML). Additionally, the socioeconomic impact of CBBPs was assessed. Results indicated that 6-month weight increased over the years in all breeds. In Bonga, the average increase was 0.21 ± 0.018 kg/year, followed by 0.18 ± 0.007 and 0.11 ± 0.003 kg/year in Horro and Menz, respectively. This was quite substantial in an on-farm situation. The birth weight of lambs did not improve over the years in Bonga and Horro sheep but significant increases occurred in Menz. Considering that there was no direct selection on birth weight in the community flock, the increased weights observed in Menz could be due to correlated responses, but this was not the case in Bonga and Horro. The genetic trend for prolificacy over the years in both Bonga and Horro flocks was positive and significant (P < 0.01). This increase in litter size, combined with the increased 6-month body weight, increased income by 20% and farm-level meat consumption from slaughter of one sheep per year to three. The results show that CBBPs are technically feasible, result in measurable genetic gains in performance traits and impact the livelihoods of farmers.
The pastoral systems of Eastern Africa have been affected by the alternated incidence of recurrent drought and flood for the last decades, aggravating poverty and local conflicts. We have introduced an innovation to convert floods to productive use using water spreading weirs (WSW) as an entry point to capture and spread the torrential flood emerging in the neighboring highlands into rangelands and crop fields of low-lying pastoral systems in Afar, Ethiopia. The productivity and landscape feature have changed from an abandoned field to a productive landscape within 3 years of intervention. The flood patterns and sediment loads created at least four different crop management zones and productivity levels. Based on moisture and nutrient regimes, we developed land suitability maps for integrating crops and forages fitting to specific niches. The outcome was a fast recovery of landscapes, with 150% biomass yield increment, increased access to dry season feed and food. These positive outcomes could be attributed to the proper design of weirs, joint planning and execution between pastoralists, researchers and development agents, identification and availing best-fitting varieties for each management zone and developing simple GIS-based parcel level maps to guide development agents and pastoralists. The major ‘agents’ were community leaders (‘Kedoh Abbobati’) who keenly debated potential benefits and drawbacks of innovations, enforced customary rules and byelaw and suggested changes in approaches and choices of interventions. In general, an innovation system approach helped to create local confidence, attract attention of government institutions and helped local actors to identify investment areas, develop implementation strategies to increase productivity, define changes as it occurs and minimize conflicts between competing communities. However, the risk of de facto use of a plot of communal land translating into long-term occupation and ownership may be impacting a communal territory and social cohesion that was subject to other collective choice customary rules.
Afar in Ethiopia is a drought prone area characterized by low rainfall, high temperature and suffering from flash flood emerging from adjacent mountains. We introduced a flood barrier, water spreading weirs (WSWs) in 2015 to convert floods to a productive use and assessed its effect in 2016 and 2017. WSWs resulted in deposition of sediments where sand deposition was higher in the upside of upstream weir whereas silt and clay deposition was prominent at the central location between the two weirs. There was a moisture gradient across farming fields with volumetric water content (VWC) at 20 cm depth varying between 10 and 22% depending on the relative position/distance of fields from the WSWs, consequently, effecting significant difference in yield between fields. There was a positive relationship between VWC made available by WSWs at planting and the yield (P < 0.001, r = 0.76) and biomass productivity (P < 0.005, r = 0.46). WSWs created differing farming zone following soil moisture regime, affecting grain and biomass yield. In good potential zones with high moisture content, the WSW-based farming enabled to produce up to 5 and 15 t ha−1 yr−1 of maize grain and biomass, respectively, while in low potential zones there was a complete crop grain failure. The system enabled pastoralists to produce huge amount of biomass and grain during Belg (short) and Meher (long) growing seasons that was stored and utilized during succeeding dry periods. Furthermore, the practice ensured a visible recovery of degraded rangelands. This was evident from the filling up of the riverbed as well as the two WSW wings with 1 m high and about 450 m length each with fertile sediment from Belg and Meher seasons of 2016 and 2017. Hence, future studies should analyze the sustainability and the potential of flood-based development at large scale.
Cross-sectional data show elevated levels of circulating cytokines in psychiatric patients. The literature is divided concerning anti-inflammatory drugs’ ability to relieve symptoms, questioning a causal link between inflammatory pathways and psychiatric conditions. We hypothesised that the development of circulating cytokine levels is related to mental distress, and that this relationship is affected by the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
The study was a longitudinal assessment of 12-week inpatient treatment at Modum Bad Psychiatric Center, Norway. Sera and self-reported Global Severity Index (GSI) scores, which measure psychological distress, were collected at admission (T0), halfway (T1) and before discharge (T2). Other variables known to distort the neuroimmune interplay were included. These were age, gender, diagnosis of PTSD, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs. A total of 128 patients (92 women and 36 men) were included, and 28 were using anti-inflammatory medication. Multilevel modelling was used for data analysis.
Patients with higher levels of IL-1RA and MCP-1 had higher GSI scores (p = 0.005 and p = 0.020). PTSD patients scored higher on GSI than non-PTSD patients (p = 0.002). These relationships were mostly present among those not using anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 99), with higher levels of IL-1RA and MCP-1 being related to higher GSI score (p = 0.023 and 0.018, respectively). Again, PTSD patients showed higher GSI levels than non-PTSD patients (p = 0.014).
Cytokine levels were associated with level of mental distress as measured by the GSI scores, but this relationship was not present among those using anti-inflammatory drugs. We found no association between cytokine levels and development of GSI score over time.
The need to diversify the biomedical research workforce is well documented. The importance of fostering the careers of fledgling underrepresented background (URB) biomedical researchers is evident in light of the national and local scarcity of URB scientists in biomedical research. The Career Education and Enhancement for Health Care Research Diversity (CEED) program at the University of Pittsburgh Institute for Clinical Research Education (ICRE) was designed to promote career success and help seal the “leaky pipeline” for URB researchers. In this study, we aimed to quantify CEED’s effect on several key outcomes by comparing CEED Scholars to a matched set of URB ICRE trainees not enrolled in CEED using data collected over 10 years.
We collected survey data on CEED Scholars from 2007 to 2017 and created a matched set of URB trainees not enrolled in CEED using propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio. Poisson regression was used to compare the rate of publications between CEED and non-CEED URB trainees after adjusting for baseline number of publications.
CEED has 45 graduates. Seventy-six percent are women, 78% are non-White, and 33% are Hispanic/Latino. Twenty-four CEED Scholars were matched to non-CEED URB trainees. Compared to matched URB trainees, CEED graduates had more peer-reviewed publications (p=0.0261) and were more likely to be an assistant professor (p=0.0145).
Programs that support URB researchers can help expand and diversify the biomedical research workforce. CEED has been successful despite the challenges of a small demographic pool.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The need to diversify the biomedical research workforce is well documented. The Career Education and Enhancement for Health Care Research Diversity (CEED) program at the University of Pittsburgh Institute for Clinical Research Education (ICRE) promotes success and helps seal the “leaky pipeline” for under-represented background (URB) biomedical researchers with a purposefully designed program consisting of a monthly seminar series, multilevel mentoring, targeted coursework, and networking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Over 10 program years, we collected survey data on characteristics of CEED Scholars, such as race, ethnicity, and current position. We created a matched set of URB trainees not enrolled in CEED during that time using propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since 2007, CEED has graduated 45 Scholars. Seventy-six percent have been women, 78% have been non-White, and 33% have been Hispanic/Latino. Scholars include 20 M.D.s and 25 Ph.D.s. Twenty-eight CEED Scholars were matched to non-CEED URB students. Compared with matched URB students, CEED graduates had a higher mean number of peer-reviewed publications (9.25 vs. 5.89; p<0.0001) were more likely to hold an assistant professor position (54% vs. 14%; p=0.004) and be in the tenure stream (32% vs. 7%; p=0.04), respectively. There were no differences in Career Development Awards (p=0.42) or Research Project Grants (p=0.24). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Programs that support URB researchers can help expand and diversify the biomedical research workforce. CEED has been successful despite the challenges of a small demographic pool. Further efforts are needed to assist URB researchers to obtain grant awards.
Computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy (CCBT) helps improve mental health outcomes in White populations. However, no studies have examined whether CCBT is acceptable and beneficial for African Americans.
We studied differences in CCBT use and self-reported change in depression and anxiety symptoms among 91 African Americans and 499 White primary care patients aged 18–75, enrolled in a randomised clinical trial of collaborative care embedded with an online treatment for depression and anxiety.
Patients with moderate levels of mood and/or anxiety symptoms (PHQ-9 or GAD-7≥10) were randomised to receive either care-manager-guided access to the proven-effective Beating the Blues® CCBT programme or usual care from their primary care doctor.
Compared with White participants, African Americans were less likely to start the CCBT programme (P=0.01), and those who did completed fewer sessions and were less likely to complete the full programme (P=0.03). Despite lower engagement, however, African Americans who started the CCBT programme experienced a greater decrease in self-reported depressive symptoms (estimated 8-session change: −6.6 v. −5.5; P=0.06) and similar decrease in anxiety symptoms (−5.3 v. −5.6; P=0.80) compared with White participants.
CCBT may be an efficient and scalable first-step to improving minority mental health and reducing disparities in access to evidence-based healthcare.
An exploratory survey to phenotypically characterize indigenous chicken populations was carried out in Metekel zone of Northwestern Ethiopia in April 2013. A total of 69 males and 244 females were sampled to record their qualitative and quantitative traits. Eight quantitative and 16 qualitative variables were measured. Sampling included three districts representing different agroecological zones. Coefficient of variation for quantitative variables ranged from 6.38 to 52.37 percent in male sample populations and 4.59–21.4 percent in females. The chi-square tests for plumage colour of the neck, ear lobe colour and skeletal variant type were highly significant (χ2 < 0.05). The correct classification percentage from discriminant analysis was 93.73 and 98.41 percent for male and female sample populations, respectively, indicating the homogeneity of the chicken populations within districts. The stepwise discriminant analysis identified five variables for male and three variables for female sample populations, which had the highest discriminating power. Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between indigenous chicken populations were highly significant (P <0.0001). The results obtained from on-farm performance evaluation indicated that the average age at first lay of hens, number of chicks weaned and mean number of eggs laid per bird per year were 5.5 months, 6.5, 50.1, respectively. This information will constitute the basis for further characterization and development of conservation strategies for indigenous chicken populations of Northwestern Ethiopia.
The death of a child from cancer is an intense and life-changing loss for a parent. Guided by the principles of patient- and family-centered care, hospital-based caregivers developed a program to provide bereavement support for parents through phone calls and mailings. The aim of the present qualitative phenomenological study was to understand how parents experienced participating in this bereavement program.
A total of eight parents from six families participated in a focus-group evaluation of the two-year hospital-based bereavement program. Two social work clinicians/researchers independently analyzed the transcript of the focus group to define themes.
Four themes were identified: (1) lived experience of grief, (2) importance of relationships with the hospital-based team, (3) bereavement support from hospital-based providers, and (4) extending bereavement care.
Significance of Results:
Participants indicated the value of ongoing communication and connection with members of the healthcare team, who were often central to a family's life for years during their child's cancer treatment. Parents also provided suggestions for extending bereavement support through continued contact with providers and informal annual gatherings, as well as through a peer (parent-to-parent) support program.
REDD + is one of the tools under development to mitigate climate change, but it is not yet clear how to appropriately bring in the approximately 25 per cent of developing country forests that are managed by communities. Drawing on the economics of collective action literature, the authors attempt to shed light on whether forest collective action itself sequesters carbon. Using satellite imagery combined with household and community data from Ethiopia, they examine whether community forests (CFs) with high levels of collective action attributes known to be associated with better management have more carbon than other systems. Although these results should be considered indicative due to the nature of the data, the analysis suggests that in the absence of dedicated sequestration policies the quality of local-level collective action offers at best marginal carbon benefits. Specific incentives like REDD + may therefore play important roles in delivering climate change benefits from CFs in low-income countries.
Stagnant early growth and mortality are the major constraints for goat production in Ethiopia. We evaluated the effects of non-genetic factors on early growth performance of kids in Halaba district of southern Ethiopia, on-farm monitoring with 587 kids owned by 60 households from 2008 to 2009. Body weight (kilograms) of kids at birth, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days were 2.34, 4.39, 6.61, 9.85, 11.8 and 13.7, respectively, while the average daily gain (ADG; gram) from birth to 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days were 68.3, 70.4, 82.3, 78.3 and 75.0, respectively. Season had profound effect on body weights of kids at all ages (except at 120 days) and ADG. There was significant sex effect on body weights from 30 to 120 days (P < 0.05). Parity influenced body weights of kids at birth (P < 0.01) and 30, 60, 120 and 150 days (P < 0.05). Type of birth affected pre-weaning body weights (P < 0.05) and ADG from birth to 30, 60 days (P < 0.01) and birth to 90 days (P < 0.05). There were significant (P < 0.05) effects of parity by sex and parity by type of birth on body weights and ADG at weaning. The non-genetic factors evaluated in this study are important sources of variation and need to be taken into account in the improvement plan of Halaba goats under semi-arid tropical conditions.
This review highlights studies conducted in murine models to evaluate the efficacy of compounds targeting Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 of malaria. Both advances achieved and limitations that exist are highlighted.
A solid stream of cases have been submitted to the quasi-judicial and judicial treaty monitoring bodies making up the African regional human rights system, namely the African Commission, the African Children's Rights Committee and the African Human Rights Court, and also to sub-regional courts in Africa. Allowing amicus curiae briefs to supplement the parties' pleadings can enhance the soundness of the factual and legal findings of these bodies, especially given their institutional and practical constraints. Thus far, the use of amicus curiae interventions before the African regional human rights bodies has been negligible. In order to ensure greater participation by amici, this article suggests that the possibility of amicus intervention should be unequivocally provided for under each of the applicable legal regimes, that the grounds for accepting or rejecting interventions should be clearly articulated, and that access to information about pending cases should be provided routinely.
Populations of many frogs have declined alarmingly in recent years, placing nearly one third of the > 6,000 species under threat of extinction. Declines have been attributed largely to habitat loss, environmental degradation and/or infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis. Many frogs undergo dramatic natural population fluctuations such that long-term data are required to determine population trends without undue influence of stochastic factors. We present long-term quantitative data (individuals encountered per person hour of searching) for four monotypic frog genera endemic to an Afromontane region of exceptional importance but growing conservation concern: one endemic to the Ethiopian highlands (Spinophrynoides osgoodi) and three endemic to the Bale Mountains (Altiphrynoides malcolmi, Balebreviceps hillmani, Ericabatrachus baleensis), collected during 15 field trips to the Bale Mountains between 1971 and 2009. Only a single confirmed sighting of S. osgoodi has been made since 1995. The other three species have also declined, at least locally. E. baleensis appears to have been extirpated at its type locality and at the same site B. hillmani has declined. These declines are in association with substantial habitat degradation caused by a growing human population. Chytrid fungus has been found on several frog species in Bale, although no dead or moribund frogs have been encountered. These results expose an urgent need for more amphibian surveys in the Bale Mountains. Additionally, we argue that detrimental human exploitation must be halted immediately in at least some parts of the Harenna Forest if a conservation crisis is to be averted.
Two indigenous chicken breeds: naked neck (N) and local white (W) feathered chicken called Netch as sire lines and two exotic chicken breeds: Fayoumi (F) and Rhode Island Red (R) as dam lines were crossed with the objective of producing 4-way cross-bred chicken population, which will later be used as base population to produce synthetic chickens. They were tested under on-station conditions in a college farm and under on-farm conditions at several typical village farms. Mortality during brooding period was lower under on-farm than on-station conditions, which may be owing to housing of the chicks in hay box-brooder on-farm and the coccidiosis infection on-station. However, higher on-farm mortality was observed during the laying period than on-station; mainly because of predation. There was a significant difference between the two systems in recorded body weight from early age to maturity. Age at first egg was lower on-farm than on-station. Average number of eggs produced was not significantly different; although chickens on-station laid more eggs than those on-farm. Hen-housed egg production was lower on-farm than on-station owing to higher mortality in the on-farm system.