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Whichever way one looks at it, studying ancient minds is a challenge. This is largely because the main investigative strategies that have proven to be so successful in unravelling the secrets of modern minds are rendered unavailable. Long-dead subjects cannot sign up for reaction time laboratory experiments, and decomposed brains aren’t suitable for neuroimaging. Call this epistemological quandary ‘the problem of ancient minds’. Given that the questions addressed by this volume concern the existence and character of changes in consciousness and cognition at the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük, there seems little doubt that the problem of ancient minds will be prowling the pages of the various chapters, just itching to make a nuisance of itself.
Recent years have seen a surge in interest in mental healthcare and some reduction in stigma. Partly as a result of this, alongside a growing population and higher levels of societal distress, many more people are presenting with mental health needs, often in crisis. Systems that date back to the beginning of the National Health Service still form the basis for much care, and the current system is complex, hard to navigate and often fails people. Law enforcement services are increasingly being drawn into providing mental healthcare in the community, which most believe is inappropriate. We propose that it is now time for a fundamental root and branch review of mental health emergency care, taking into account the views of patients and the international evidence base, to ‘reset’ the balance and commission services that are humane and responsive – services that are fit for the 21st century.
It is widely recognized among state leaders and diplomats that personal relations play an important role in international politics. Recent work at the intersection of psychology, neuroscience, and sociology has highlighted the critical importance of face-to-face interactions in generating intention understanding and building trust. Yet, a key question remains as to why some leaders are able to ‘hit it off,’ generating a positive social bond, while other interactions ‘fall flat,’ or worse, are mired in negativity. To answer, we turn to micro-sociology – the study of everyday human interactions at the smallest scales – an approach that has theorized this question in other domains. Drawing directly from US sociologist Randall Collins, and related empirical studies on the determinants of social bonding, we develop a model of diplomatic social bonding that privileges interaction elements rather than the dispositional characteristics of the actors involved or the material environment in which the interaction takes place. We conclude with a discussion of how the study of interpersonal dyadic bonding interaction may move forward.
The effect of length scale on mechanical strength is a significant consideration for semiconductor materials. In III-V semiconductors, such as InSb, a transition from partial to perfect dislocations occurs at the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (∼150 °C for InSb). High temperature micro-compression reveals InSb to show a small size effect below the transition, similar to ceramics, while in the ductile regime it shows a size effect consistent with fcc metals. The source truncation model is found to agree with the observed trends in strength with size once the change in Burgers vector and bulk strength are taken into account.
This paper is a retrospective exploration of the long-term and deep-reaching impact of an educational aspirations program, Burunga M Gambay (Learning together) (BMG, 2012), on the career pathways and life-long learning of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander high school students. The current project, where are the Ghundus (children)? (2017) follows a phenomenological research design by seeking to describe and interpret the long-term effectiveness of BMG through the experiences of the participants and the career pathways they have followed since the program. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed iteratively using nVivo 11. The program influenced the participants positively in four major areas: cultural identity, sharing culture, motivation and future aspirations. Notably, all participants completed senior school and added to their qualifications since school and are currently in paid employment. The implications of these findings suggest that future educational aspirations programs be co-constructed with the community to ensure cultural validity and a sense of connectedness. This will, as a result, ensure that the positive effects of such programs are long-lasting and deep-reaching in the educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
A major limitation in nanoindentation analysis techniques is the inability to accurately quantify pile-up/sink-in around indentations. In this work, the contact area during indentation is determined simultaneously using both contact mechanical models and direct in situ observation in the scanning electron microscope. The pile-up around indentations in materials with low H/E ratios (nanocrystalline nickel and ultrafine-grained aluminum) and the sink-in around a material with a high H/E ratio (fused silica) were quantified and compared to existing indentation analyses. The in situ projected contact area measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy using a cube-corner tip differs significantly from the classical models for materials with low H/E modulus ratio. Using a Berkovich tip, the in situ contact area is in good agreement with the contact model suggested by Loubet et al. for materials with low H/E ratio and in good agreement with the Oliver and Pharr model for materials with high H/E ratio.
A new family of exact solutions to the two-dimensional steady incompressible Euler equation is presented. The solutions provide a class of hybrid equilibria comprising two point vortices of unit circulation – a point vortex pair – embedded in a smooth sea of non-zero vorticity of ‘Stuart-type’ so that the vorticity
and the stream function
are related by
are constants. We also examine limits of these new Stuart-embedded point vortex equilibria where the Stuart-type vorticity becomes localized into additional point vortices. One such limit results in a two-real-parameter family of smoothly deformable point vortex equilibria in an otherwise irrotational flow. The new class of hybrid equilibria can be viewed as continuously interpolating between the limiting pure point vortex equilibria. At the same time the new solutions continuously extrapolate a similar class of hybrid equilibria identified by Crowdy (Phys. Fluids, vol. 15, 2003, pp. 3710–3717).
The high precision offered by small-scale mechanical testing has allowed the relationships between mechanical behavior and specific microstructural features to be determined to an unprecedented degree. However, of most interest to scientists and engineers is often the behavior of materials under service conditions in an extreme environment, such as high/low temperatures, high strain rates, hydrogen atmosphere, or radiation. In this article, we detail progress made to adapt nanomechanical testing systems and techniques to observe materials behavior in situ in extreme environments.
Conservation of biodiversity is growing in interest, and wetlands are disappearing at an alarming rate, so understanding how communities are assembled and how interactions among species and ecosystems influence evolution is critical to the management of threatened habitats. We compared diversity and assemblages of peatland Diptera within and between ecoregions in Québec, Canada. We then determined the phylogenetic structure of peatland Diptera communities and how the structure differed with spatial scale (trap, site, ecoregion). Finally, we tested alpha and beta diversity along environmental and spatial gradients to determine which processes influence Diptera communities and diversity. Bogs across the three ecoregions support similar abundance, species richness, and functional diversity. We found that the major forces structuring Diptera assemblages in bogs across Québec are stochastic processes such as dispersal limitations. However, those random patterns change to clustering when anthropogenic disturbances modify the landscape. Assembly rules are mostly dictated by patch and landscape parameters specific to each ecoregion affecting dispersal and establishment between sites. Conservation of mobile organisms in habitats such as bogs will depend on conservation plans focusing on both patch quality and surrounding landscape, and that different conservation strategies need to be applied in different ecoregions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Emergency (911) dispatchers are the first link in the chain of care for the estimated 240 million emergency calls made each year. Yet even as emergency medicine, public safety, and public health have seen increasing study, emergency dispatch has very seldom been included in that research. Part of the reason is that, while emergency medicine is connected with hospital physicians and public health with university departments, emergency dispatch is largely invisible, not represented in university programs, and staffed by professionals without research training–and often without higher education or academic degrees. The purpose of our Dispatch Research Workshop is to engage these professionals in guided research projects of their own design, with the ultimate aims of both engaging more emergency dispatchers in research and increasing the field’s overall capacity to generate evidence-based practice. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The workshop is help in tandem with a national Emergency Dispatch conference. Participants are recruited through advertisements in professional journals and relevant social media sites. The workshop is co-led by members of a partnership between the nonprofit organizations the International Academies of Emergency Dispatch and the UCLA Prehospital Care Research Forum, along with the dispatch data aggregation company FirstWatch. The Workshop occurs over two eight-hour days, and participants generally have no research experience or background. By the end of the second day, groups have developed research questions and methods, begun to write IRB proposals, and created data collection and analysis plans. Throughout the remainder of the year, research mentors support the completion of the project, and completed projects are presented at the following year’s conference and submitted (if desired) for publication. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: During the first two years of the workshop, 36 attendees participated (17 the first year and 19 the second). Three successful attendees of the first workshop helped lead the second as research mentors. Three research projects were completed from the first year; all three were presented as posters and are now being prepared for publication as manuscripts. Four projects have emerged from the second year’s workshop. Assessments and one-on-one interviews with participants at the end of each workshop have led to continuous change and improvement in the delivery of the material, as well as the outline of a year’s worth of support materials, which is currently in development. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Developing a true evidence base for practice in emergency dispatch will serve all of our communities, and feedback from our participants (as well as significant existing research in practitioner-engaged research) indicates that those who participate in research have a better understanding of the value of evidence-based practice, are more likely to adopt it, and are more likely to raise questions and test theories in their own professional life. Also, providing these practitioners the opportunity to conduct and publish research raises their stature and the stature of their profession, helping it achieve its rightful place alongside other professions in public safety and health.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-engaged research can provide important input to researchers to understand the impact of health services on diverse communities. In emergency (911) dispatch research, most studies have focused on specific health conditions, especially on identifying and managing those conditions remotely and identifying the most appropriate resources to send. Community-engaged research can add a needed component to these studies, identifying not only what happens when someone calls 911, but who calls and who doesn’t, what barriers community members encounter when they call, and what they expect from their 911 service. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A recent study published in the Journal of Clinical and Translational Science outlined a method for identifying and evaluating the needed competencies and readiness of individual researchers to do effective community-engaged research. The investigators involved in an ongoing study on community attitudes toward 911 propose to use the methods outlined in that study to receive feedback from their Community Advisory Board on their own competencies and readiness. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that 13 people will be involved in providing feedback to the investigators, including all official member of the Community Advisory Boards and all supportive academic staff and faculty. The feedback will be gathered using a survey instrument developed from the recently-published study and will include questions about the purpose of the research, openness to feedback, communication, cultural sensitivity, community presence, power sharing, recognizing partner contributions, and developing community capacity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Identifying the most appropriate resources to send to any given emergency is the primary role of the emergency dispatcher. However, they are also public servants, providing care and comfort in a time of stress to members of many diverse communities. As such, it is critical that they understand the needs and expectations of those communities, as well as the barriers they face in calling 911. The proposed study adds value to an ongoing community-engaged research project by providing feedback about readiness and competency to the investigators.
The history of the management of Colorado River involves a complex evolution of agreements and rivalries, both on a federal level among the seven Basin States of the United States and within an international context between the United States and Mexico (Figure 8.1). Commonly referred to as the Law of the River, the regulatory framework that determines how water is managed is actually a compilation of compacts, treaties, amendments, federal laws, court decisions and decrees, contracts and operational guidelines that have been developed over the course of approximately 100 years. The conditions during which the various intranational and international arrangements were developed varied significantly over time, as did the rationale and urgency to reach agreements between parties (Fleck 2016). The three enabling conditions as described in this book – a recognized interdependence between parties, a willingness to explore conflicting values and creative solutions and the willingness to create mechanisms for monitoring and adaptation – have been present to varying degrees at different stages throughout the basin. Agreements have historically emerged in the absence of all three elements simultaneously existing, but some modern agreements have been predicated on these elements. The objective of this chapter is to describe the contexts of the major agreements on the Colorado River, compare them with the enabling conditions of this book and consider any adaptations to this thesis.
Prior to any analysis, it is important to acknowledge that the drivers for intranational and international agreements are distinctly different for Colorado River. Early in the history of water development of rivers in the western United States, Congress authorized the Basin States to enter into compacts that would devolve much of the decision- making authority to state- level governance. The relationships among the Basin States over the river have largely been motivated by a desire to retain a high degree of regional autonomy and thus avoid involvement or interference from the bureaucracy and political ebbs and flows in Washington DC. As long as the rules of sharing and allocation are clear, mutually agreed upon by the parties and follow all federal laws, the US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) under the Department of the Interior would administer the river according to the intranational agreements reached among the Basin States.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) is increasingly prevalent. We sought to determine the clinical outcomes associated with community-onset ESC-resistant (ESC-R) EB urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system.
Retrospective cohort study.
All patients presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) or outpatient practices with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included. Exposed patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Unexposed patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched to exposed subjects 1:1 on study year. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ESC-R EB UTI and the outcomes of clinical failure and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT).
A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, with 151 exposed and unexposed. On multivariable analyses, UTI due to an ESC-R EB was significantly associated with clinical failure (odds ratio [OR], 7.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16–15.82; P<.01). Other independent risk factors for clinical failure included infection with Citrobacter spp and need for hemodialysis. UTI due to an ESC-R EB was also significantly associated with IIAT (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.64–7.33; P<.01).
Community-onset UTI due to an ESC-R EB organism is significantly associated with clinical failure, which may be due in part to IIAT. Further studies are needed to determine which patients in the community are at high risk for drug-resistant infection to help inform prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic prescribing for ESC-R EB.
The rapid growth of passenger and freight traffic in the Asia-Pacific region has come in hand with greater environmental concerns. Affirming its growing influence, the Asia-Pacific has widely contributed to recent ICAO actions to develop multilateral bases for market-based environmental measures in international aviation as an avenue to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. States in the Asia-Pacific regions also have engaged in some laws and policies aimed at contributing to climate change mitigation, in particular by reducing GHG emissions. Yet, there is no broad consistency in the measures undertaken, or a particular focus on international aviation. Individual states in the Asia-Pacific region have approached the objective of mitigating aviation impacts very differently, from countries that have only adopted embryonic climate laws to countries with fully operational carbon-pricing schemes. Given the spirit of the Chicago Convention 1944, it is principally important to make every effort to come up with a global approach through the ICAO. However, alternative approaches should also be considered. The alternatives may well stem from the “bottom-up” collective linkages being created between regional or single-state ETSs, such as the bilateral trade link that will be forged between the EU and Australia. This model of cooperation could be an alternative to stalling multilateral negotiations on a global regime.