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Throughout the Japanese colonial period, Korea's reading public paid close attention to Chinese revolutions against Japanese and Western empires. Korean nationalists viewed China's revolutionary struggles as important for liberating Korea from Japan, a stance that reveals a transnational basis of Korean nationalism in the colonial era. One such nationalist was Sin Ŏnjun (1904–38), Tong'a Ilbo’s Shanghai-based correspondent, who played a critical role in conveying the momentous events in contemporary China to colonized Koreans. Drawing on Sin's example, this article shows how Sino-Korean transnationalism constituted Korea's left-wing, progressive nationalism in the 1930s. Although Sin Ŏnjun was a nationalist rather than a communist, he highlighted the communist struggles in China in his dispatches. He saw communism as the only viable way of solving China's internal and external problems, although he, at the same time, disapproved of Chinese communists’ “terrorist methods.” This article argues that this position also reflected his stance in favor of a broad communist-nationalist alliance in the Korean independence movement. He saw Korea's liberation agenda as closely related to the revolutionary events in China, thus accomplishing a synthesis between Korean nationalistic and social aspirations and an East Asia–wide transnational paradigm of a universal emancipatory struggle.
We study criteria for the uniform convergence of trigonometric series with general monotone coefficients. We also obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for a given rate of convergence of partial Fourier sums of such series.
To describe seafood consumption patterns in First Nations (FN) in British Columbia (BC) and examine lifestyle characteristics associated with seafood consumption; to identify the top ten most consumed seafood species and their contributions to EPA and DHA intake; and to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene.
Dietary and lifestyle data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 1103 FN living in twenty-one communities across eight ecozones in BC, Canada, were analysed. Seafood consumption was estimated using a traditional FFQ. Seafood samples were analysed for contaminant contents.
Seafood consumption patterns varied significantly across BC ecozones reflecting geographical diversity of seafood species. The top ten most consumed species represented 64 % of total seafood consumption by weight and contributed 69 % to the total EPA+DHA intake. Mean EPA+DHA intake was 660·5 mg/d in males, 404·3 mg/d in females; and 28 % of FN met the Recommended Intake (RI) of 500 mg/d. Salmon was the most preferred species. Seafood consumption was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption, lower smoking rate and increased physical activity. Dietary exposure to selected contaminants from seafood was negligible.
In FN in BC, seafood continues to be an essential part of the contemporary diet. Seafood contributed significantly to reaching the RI for EPA+DHA and was associated with a healthier lifestyle. Given numerous health benefits, seafood should be promoted in FN. Efforts towards sustainability of fishing should be directed to maintain and improve access to fisheries for FN.
The theory of the motion of Halley comet has been built using ground optical positional observations of 1682, 1759, 1835, 1910 and 1982–84. The orbital elements of the comet and two coefficients characterizing non-gravitational perturbations were determined precisely as a result of the statistical treatment of the observations. The estimations of the accuracy of the theory and the data describing its agreement with the observations are presented. The theory has been applied to ballistic-navigational calculations for the Soviet Vega project.
The theory of the motion of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars is constructed by numerical integration. The theory takes into account relativistic corrections in the frame of Schwarzschild's space-time metrics. The constants of the theory are determined by discussion of the Soviet and American radar observations of Mercury, Venus and Mars, position astrometric observations of these planets (and the Sun) and observations of the Soviet artificial satellites of Venus. Apart from the planet elements the value AU and corrections to the adopted radii of Mercury, Venus and Mars are determined. Statistics of residuals is given and accuracy of the theory is estimated. The theory presented is an ephemeris base for deep space experiments.
To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations participants aged 19 years or older.
The sample consisted of 3700 participants. UPF contributed 53·9 % of energy. Compared with the non-UPF fraction of the diet, the UPF fraction had 3·5 times less vitamin A, 2·4 times less K, 2·2 times less protein, 2·3 times more free sugars and 1·8 times more Na. As the contribution of UPF to energy increased so did the overall intakes of energy, carbohydrate, free sugar, saturated fat, Na, Ca and vitamin C, and Na:K; while protein, fibre, K, Fe and vitamin A decreased. Diets of individuals who ate traditional First Nations food (e.g. wild plants and game animals) on the day of the recall were lower in UPF.
UPF were prevalent in First Nations diets. Efforts to curb UPF consumption and increase intake of traditional First Nations foods and other fresh or minimally processed foods would improve diet quality and health in First Nations peoples.
A megaslump at Batagaika, in northern Yakutia, exposes a remarkable stratigraphic sequence of permafrost deposits ~50–80 m thick. To determine their potential for answering key questions about Quaternary environmental and climatic change in northeast Siberia, we carried out a reconnaissance study of their cryostratigraphy and paleoecology, supported by four rangefinder 14C ages. The sequence includes two ice complexes separated by a unit of fine sand containing narrow syngenetic ice wedges and multiple paleosols. Overall, the sequence developed as permafrost grew syngenetically through an eolian sand sheet aggrading on a hillslope. Wood remains occur in two forest beds, each associated with a reddened weathering horizon. The lower bed contains high amounts of Larix pollen (>20%), plus small amounts of Picea and Pinus pumila, and is attributed to interglacial conditions. Pollen from the overlying sequence is dominated by herbaceous taxa (~70%–80%) attributed to an open tundra landscape during interstadial climatic conditions. Of three hypothetical age schemes considered, we tentatively attribute much of the Batagaika sequence to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The upper and lower forest beds may represent a mid–MIS 3 optimum and MIS 5, respectively, although we cannot discount alternative attributions to MIS 5 and 7.
The possibility of using precise astrometric observations of Martian satellites in 1988 for improving the mutual orientation of the dynamic and stellar reference frames is discussed. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that the stellar reference frame is rotated about the X axis of the dynamic one. However, the value of this rotation (∼2.″5) proves to be unrealistically large and repetitions of precise observations of Martian satellites are needed in the future for verifying this result.
Results of VRI photometry are presented, based on 1-m, 6-m and HST telescope frames taken in different parts of IC 10. From comparison of the location in CM diagrams of branches of blue supergiants it was found that E(B - V) = 0.98. The distance modulus estimation from TRGB is (m - M)I = 23.8 ± 0.1. The ages of brightest stars of the east star complex are derived from comparison with theoretical isochrones. It is possible that IC 10 is a galaxy with an extended red giant disk.
We present the results of a detailed BVRI and Hα study of the isolated nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 6789. Judging from the literature the observed galaxy has not yet been resolved into stars up to now. On CCD frames obtained with 6m BTA telescope and 2.5m Nordic telescope the galaxy is well resolved. Its colour-magnitude diagram confirms the two component (core-halo) galaxy morphology, which consists of two stellar populations distinct in structure and colour: an inner high surface-brightness young population within 150 pc from the center of the galaxy, and a relatively low surface-brightness intermediate-age population extending out to at least 600 pc. The distance to the galaxy, estimated from the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) is 2.1 Mpc which places NGC 6789 close to the Local Group. From the mean colour of the RGB, the mean metal abundance of the halo population is estimated as [Fe/H] ≃ −1 dex.
We present optical V, R, and I-band observations on the structure and stellar populations of the M81 Group and IC342/Maffei Complex galaxies. The images have been obtained with the 6m BTA and 2.5m Nordic optical telescopes. Stellar photometry of several galaxies in these groups have been performed. The resulting colour-magnitude diagrams reveal the morphology of different stellar populations in these systems. Distances to the galaxies have been estimated from the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), or from the brightest blue and red stars. For some galaxies the reddening, metallicity and surface profile parameters have been measured. We describe in more detail the results for four galaxies: IC 2574, Holmberg I, DDO 53 and IC 342. A more comprehensive project is underway.
The distribution of morphological types of galaxies in compact groups is studied on plates from the 6 m telescope. In compact groups there are 57% galaxies of late morphological types (S + Irr), 23% lenticulars (SO) and 20% ellipical galaxies. The morphological content of compact groups is very nearly the same as in loose groups. There is no dependence of galaxy morphology on density in all compact groups (and possibly in loose groups). Genuine compact groups form only 60% if Hickson’s list.
A radiochemical 71Ga−71 Ge experiment to determine the integral flux of neutrinos from the sun has been constructed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the USSR. Measurements have begun with 30 tonnes of gallium. The experiment is being expanded with the addition of another 30 tonnes. The motivation, experimental procedures, and present status of this experiment are presented.
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after death, leaving her tissues in excellent condition, whereas Lyuba's body underwent postmortem changes that resulted in authigenic formation of nodules of the mineral vivianite associated with her cranium and within diaphyses of long bones. CT data provide the only comprehensive approach to mapping vivianite distribution. Three-dimensional modeling and measurement of segmented long bones permits comparison between these individuals and with previously recovered specimens. CT scans of long bones and foot bones show developmental features such as density gradients that reveal ossification centers. The braincase of Khroma was segmented to show the approximate morphology of the brain; its volume is slightly less (∼2,300 cm3) than that of neonate elephants (∼2,500 cm3). Lyuba's premaxillae are more gracile than those of Khroma, possibly a result of temporal and/or geographic variation but probably also reflective of their age difference. Segmentation of CT data and 3-D modeling software were used to produce models of teeth that were too complex for traditional molding and casting techniques.
During a large part of the first millennium BCE, before the second century BCE, a variety of philosophical and political traditions rivaled each other in China, but the dominant religious and political tradition after the second century BCE and until the beginning of the twentieth century in both China and Korea was heavily based on Confucian teachings. Confucianism envisions society as a vertically structured organic entity – and extension of a large patriarchal family – in which the rulers are entitled to “civilize” the ruled through imposition of ethical norms, ritual, and music. Confucianism prioritizes socio-political stability and thus favors “soft” governance, allowing the ruled to preserve their traditional clan structures or local autonomy and strongly disapproving of excessive military expenses.
For East Asian political thought, especially after the maturing of the Confucian and Taoist traditions (fifth to third centuries BCE), warfare was an inherently contradictory subject. On the one hand, it was commonly agreed that, in practical terms, the welfare and the very existence of the state depended on its military capabilities. On the other hand, the agrarian polities of the region tended to focus on the inescapable negative consequences of any, even successfully prosecuted, war – that is, disturbances in the agricultural cycle due to war-related mobilizations and decrease in the numbers of taxpayers and corvée laborers due to the inevitable losses of human resources. In ideological terms, the darker side of war was often described as a breakdown of the “harmonious” societal order based on highest Confucian values such as “humaneness” (Ch. ren, Kor. in). War was thus seen as a catastrophic event – even if unavoidable and in certain situations desirable. To mitigate this contradiction, East Asian thinkers often conceptualized war as an extension of criminal justice. “Righteous war” was seen as a just punishment reserved for “evil rulers” who misgoverned their states, rebels, “outer” barbarians, and other real or potential disturbers of the “normal” societal order. In this way, a “just” war was redefined as a way toward a restoration of cosmic and societal harmony rather than a cause of its breakdown. In this connection, the moral qualities of both war-making politicians (kings and their ministers) and soldiers (especially high-ranking officers) were crucial. “Just” war was expected to be prosecuted by “just” people.
The paper deals with the trends of fascist and fascist-like right-wing social and political thought in colonial Korea in the early 1930s. It shows that in the 1920s, Korea's right wing, its ability to reach out to the masses being severely limited, preferred mostly conciliatory tactics in its relationship with leftist radicals, often making efforts towards inventing ‘hybrid’ ideologies which would integrate the leftist social concerns into the mainstream religious or nationalist constructions (an example of such a hybrid were various Korean versions of Christian socialism). After the Great Depression, however, Korea's nascent bourgeoisie felt more threatened and became more interested in keeping abreast with right-wing extremist trends in the mother country (Japan) and elsewhere. Such representative ideologists of the Korean propertied class as Yun Ch'iho and Yi Kwangsu were praising Mussolini and employing strong Social Darwinist language in their exhortations to the Korean people to ‘regain their vitality and develop [a] spirit of collectivism, obedience and self-sacrifice’. However, until the very end of the 1930s many of Korea's right-wing ideologues remained pronouncedly religious (Yun as Christian, Yi as Buddhist). While highlighting the religious essentials of their worldviews they often abstained from imitating the most extremist traits of European fascist ideologies (for example, anti-Semitism). In many ways, Korea's fascism continued until the end of the 1930s to be an intellectual discourse rather than a mass movement, and retained a strong aura of belonging to more mainstream religious or nationalist traditions.
The anthropogenic accidents in the world (including the underground emergency nuclear explosion at the site “Kraton-3” (Yakutiya) and also the recent Fukushima accident) resulted in significant environmental pollution by radionuclides, mainly long-lived 90Sr and 137Cs. One of the ways to solve this problem is the creation of “permeable reactive barriers” (PRBs). High selectivity of clinoptilolite-containing tuffs (CLT) towards Sr2+ and Cs+ radionuclides, together with their availability and reasonable cost, make possible their use as PRBs. The scales of the ion-exchange processes taking place on PRBs indicate the necessity of mathematical modelling. In this connection, Sr2+ and Cs+ ion-exchange sorption on Khonguruu CLT (Yakutiya) from solutions of various mineralizations was studied under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The physicochemical and mathematical models of the dynamic ion-exchange process and also the computer program considering both structural features of CLT (two-stage particle diffusion kinetics) and possible periodic interruptions of the process were developed. The breakthrough time of CLT as a geochemical barrier was calculated by such mathematical modelling.