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To further understandings of household food insecurity in First Nations communities in Canada and its relationship with obesity.
Analysis of a cross-sectional dataset from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study representative of First Nations communities south of the 60th parallel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between food insecurity and sociodemographic factors, as well as the odds of obesity among food-insecure households adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations peoples aged ≥19 years.
Forty-six percent of First Nations households experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was highest for respondents who received social assistance; had ≤10 years of education; were female; had children in the household; were 19–30 years old; resided in Alberta; and had no year-round road access into the community. Rates of obesity were highest for respondents residing in marginally food-insecure households (female 56·6 %; male 54·6 %). In gender-specific analyses, the odds of obesity were highest among marginally food-insecure households in comparison with food-secure households, for both female (OR 1·57) and male (OR 1·57) respondents, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. For males only, those in severely food-insecure (compared with food-secure) households had lower odds of obesity after adjusting for confounding (OR 0·56).
The interrelated challenges of food insecurity and obesity in First Nations communities emphasise the need for Indigenous-led, culturally appropriate and food sovereign approaches to food security and nutrition in support of holistic wellness and prevention of chronic disease.
Impairment of executive function is the fundamental feature of the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia has to be measured throughout the illness regularly. Computerized technologies for assessment of cognitive dysfunction are widely used. However, their applicability in hospitalized schizophrenic patients setting should be specially examined.
Executive function in schizophrenia.
To test the applicability of “CANTAB” neurocognitive battery for measurement of executive function in young hospitalized schizophrenic patients in Russian sample.
Fifteen inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F 20.хх), 13 males and 2 females, aged 23.5(SD 3.2), disease duration is 5(SD 1.6) years and 16 healthy individuals, 7 males and 9 females, aged 21.3(SD 0.7). Spatial Working Memory (SWM) (Mnemonic Executive function), Stockings of Cambridge (OTS) (Planning Executive function), Intra/Extra-Dimensional Shift (IED) (Cognitive flexibility) were administered.
The majority of patients and controls easily understood the test instructions. Both groups did not have any difficulties with the touchpad. The “CANTAB” demonstrated sensitivity to the impairments of executive function. As a group, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls on almost all tests: SWM–Between errors (P = 0.028), Total errors (P = 0.019), Strategy (P = 0.03), Mean time to last response (P = 0.001); OTS–Mean choices to correct (P = 0.044), Problems solved on first choice (P = 0.009), Probability of error given correct (P = 0.021); IED–Total errors (P = 0.015), Total trials (P = 0.002).
The “CANTAB” is an applicable instrument for assessment of the executive function in young hospitalized schizophrenic patients. It can be used both for experimental and clinical needs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Throughout the Japanese colonial period, Korea's reading public paid close attention to Chinese revolutions against Japanese and Western empires. Korean nationalists viewed China's revolutionary struggles as important for liberating Korea from Japan, a stance that reveals a transnational basis of Korean nationalism in the colonial era. One such nationalist was Sin Ŏnjun (1904–38), Tong'a Ilbo’s Shanghai-based correspondent, who played a critical role in conveying the momentous events in contemporary China to colonized Koreans. Drawing on Sin's example, this article shows how Sino-Korean transnationalism constituted Korea's left-wing, progressive nationalism in the 1930s. Although Sin Ŏnjun was a nationalist rather than a communist, he highlighted the communist struggles in China in his dispatches. He saw communism as the only viable way of solving China's internal and external problems, although he, at the same time, disapproved of Chinese communists’ “terrorist methods.” This article argues that this position also reflected his stance in favor of a broad communist-nationalist alliance in the Korean independence movement. He saw Korea's liberation agenda as closely related to the revolutionary events in China, thus accomplishing a synthesis between Korean nationalistic and social aspirations and an East Asia–wide transnational paradigm of a universal emancipatory struggle.
We study criteria for the uniform convergence of trigonometric series with general monotone coefficients. We also obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for a given rate of convergence of partial Fourier sums of such series.
To describe seafood consumption patterns in First Nations (FN) in British Columbia (BC) and examine lifestyle characteristics associated with seafood consumption; to identify the top ten most consumed seafood species and their contributions to EPA and DHA intake; and to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene.
Dietary and lifestyle data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 1103 FN living in twenty-one communities across eight ecozones in BC, Canada, were analysed. Seafood consumption was estimated using a traditional FFQ. Seafood samples were analysed for contaminant contents.
Seafood consumption patterns varied significantly across BC ecozones reflecting geographical diversity of seafood species. The top ten most consumed species represented 64 % of total seafood consumption by weight and contributed 69 % to the total EPA+DHA intake. Mean EPA+DHA intake was 660·5 mg/d in males, 404·3 mg/d in females; and 28 % of FN met the Recommended Intake (RI) of 500 mg/d. Salmon was the most preferred species. Seafood consumption was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption, lower smoking rate and increased physical activity. Dietary exposure to selected contaminants from seafood was negligible.
In FN in BC, seafood continues to be an essential part of the contemporary diet. Seafood contributed significantly to reaching the RI for EPA+DHA and was associated with a healthier lifestyle. Given numerous health benefits, seafood should be promoted in FN. Efforts towards sustainability of fishing should be directed to maintain and improve access to fisheries for FN.
To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations participants aged 19 years or older.
The sample consisted of 3700 participants. UPF contributed 53·9 % of energy. Compared with the non-UPF fraction of the diet, the UPF fraction had 3·5 times less vitamin A, 2·4 times less K, 2·2 times less protein, 2·3 times more free sugars and 1·8 times more Na. As the contribution of UPF to energy increased so did the overall intakes of energy, carbohydrate, free sugar, saturated fat, Na, Ca and vitamin C, and Na:K; while protein, fibre, K, Fe and vitamin A decreased. Diets of individuals who ate traditional First Nations food (e.g. wild plants and game animals) on the day of the recall were lower in UPF.
UPF were prevalent in First Nations diets. Efforts to curb UPF consumption and increase intake of traditional First Nations foods and other fresh or minimally processed foods would improve diet quality and health in First Nations peoples.
A megaslump at Batagaika, in northern Yakutia, exposes a remarkable stratigraphic sequence of permafrost deposits ~50–80 m thick. To determine their potential for answering key questions about Quaternary environmental and climatic change in northeast Siberia, we carried out a reconnaissance study of their cryostratigraphy and paleoecology, supported by four rangefinder 14C ages. The sequence includes two ice complexes separated by a unit of fine sand containing narrow syngenetic ice wedges and multiple paleosols. Overall, the sequence developed as permafrost grew syngenetically through an eolian sand sheet aggrading on a hillslope. Wood remains occur in two forest beds, each associated with a reddened weathering horizon. The lower bed contains high amounts of Larix pollen (>20%), plus small amounts of Picea and Pinus pumila, and is attributed to interglacial conditions. Pollen from the overlying sequence is dominated by herbaceous taxa (~70%–80%) attributed to an open tundra landscape during interstadial climatic conditions. Of three hypothetical age schemes considered, we tentatively attribute much of the Batagaika sequence to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The upper and lower forest beds may represent a mid–MIS 3 optimum and MIS 5, respectively, although we cannot discount alternative attributions to MIS 5 and 7.
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after death, leaving her tissues in excellent condition, whereas Lyuba's body underwent postmortem changes that resulted in authigenic formation of nodules of the mineral vivianite associated with her cranium and within diaphyses of long bones. CT data provide the only comprehensive approach to mapping vivianite distribution. Three-dimensional modeling and measurement of segmented long bones permits comparison between these individuals and with previously recovered specimens. CT scans of long bones and foot bones show developmental features such as density gradients that reveal ossification centers. The braincase of Khroma was segmented to show the approximate morphology of the brain; its volume is slightly less (∼2,300 cm3) than that of neonate elephants (∼2,500 cm3). Lyuba's premaxillae are more gracile than those of Khroma, possibly a result of temporal and/or geographic variation but probably also reflective of their age difference. Segmentation of CT data and 3-D modeling software were used to produce models of teeth that were too complex for traditional molding and casting techniques.
During a large part of the first millennium BCE, before the second century BCE, a variety of philosophical and political traditions rivaled each other in China, but the dominant religious and political tradition after the second century BCE and until the beginning of the twentieth century in both China and Korea was heavily based on Confucian teachings. Confucianism envisions society as a vertically structured organic entity – and extension of a large patriarchal family – in which the rulers are entitled to “civilize” the ruled through imposition of ethical norms, ritual, and music. Confucianism prioritizes socio-political stability and thus favors “soft” governance, allowing the ruled to preserve their traditional clan structures or local autonomy and strongly disapproving of excessive military expenses.
For East Asian political thought, especially after the maturing of the Confucian and Taoist traditions (fifth to third centuries BCE), warfare was an inherently contradictory subject. On the one hand, it was commonly agreed that, in practical terms, the welfare and the very existence of the state depended on its military capabilities. On the other hand, the agrarian polities of the region tended to focus on the inescapable negative consequences of any, even successfully prosecuted, war – that is, disturbances in the agricultural cycle due to war-related mobilizations and decrease in the numbers of taxpayers and corvée laborers due to the inevitable losses of human resources. In ideological terms, the darker side of war was often described as a breakdown of the “harmonious” societal order based on highest Confucian values such as “humaneness” (Ch. ren, Kor. in). War was thus seen as a catastrophic event – even if unavoidable and in certain situations desirable. To mitigate this contradiction, East Asian thinkers often conceptualized war as an extension of criminal justice. “Righteous war” was seen as a just punishment reserved for “evil rulers” who misgoverned their states, rebels, “outer” barbarians, and other real or potential disturbers of the “normal” societal order. In this way, a “just” war was redefined as a way toward a restoration of cosmic and societal harmony rather than a cause of its breakdown. In this connection, the moral qualities of both war-making politicians (kings and their ministers) and soldiers (especially high-ranking officers) were crucial. “Just” war was expected to be prosecuted by “just” people.
The paper deals with the trends of fascist and fascist-like right-wing social and political thought in colonial Korea in the early 1930s. It shows that in the 1920s, Korea's right wing, its ability to reach out to the masses being severely limited, preferred mostly conciliatory tactics in its relationship with leftist radicals, often making efforts towards inventing ‘hybrid’ ideologies which would integrate the leftist social concerns into the mainstream religious or nationalist constructions (an example of such a hybrid were various Korean versions of Christian socialism). After the Great Depression, however, Korea's nascent bourgeoisie felt more threatened and became more interested in keeping abreast with right-wing extremist trends in the mother country (Japan) and elsewhere. Such representative ideologists of the Korean propertied class as Yun Ch'iho and Yi Kwangsu were praising Mussolini and employing strong Social Darwinist language in their exhortations to the Korean people to ‘regain their vitality and develop [a] spirit of collectivism, obedience and self-sacrifice’. However, until the very end of the 1930s many of Korea's right-wing ideologues remained pronouncedly religious (Yun as Christian, Yi as Buddhist). While highlighting the religious essentials of their worldviews they often abstained from imitating the most extremist traits of European fascist ideologies (for example, anti-Semitism). In many ways, Korea's fascism continued until the end of the 1930s to be an intellectual discourse rather than a mass movement, and retained a strong aura of belonging to more mainstream religious or nationalist traditions.
The anthropogenic accidents in the world (including the underground emergency nuclear explosion at the site “Kraton-3” (Yakutiya) and also the recent Fukushima accident) resulted in significant environmental pollution by radionuclides, mainly long-lived 90Sr and 137Cs. One of the ways to solve this problem is the creation of “permeable reactive barriers” (PRBs). High selectivity of clinoptilolite-containing tuffs (CLT) towards Sr2+ and Cs+ radionuclides, together with their availability and reasonable cost, make possible their use as PRBs. The scales of the ion-exchange processes taking place on PRBs indicate the necessity of mathematical modelling. In this connection, Sr2+ and Cs+ ion-exchange sorption on Khonguruu CLT (Yakutiya) from solutions of various mineralizations was studied under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The physicochemical and mathematical models of the dynamic ion-exchange process and also the computer program considering both structural features of CLT (two-stage particle diffusion kinetics) and possible periodic interruptions of the process were developed. The breakthrough time of CLT as a geochemical barrier was calculated by such mathematical modelling.
We study (p, q)-inequalities of Ulyanov type for moduli of smoothness of fractional order in the Lp and the Lp(ℝn) setting, p ≥ 1. In particular, we obtain estimates for the modulus of smoothness of a generalized Liouville derivative of a function via the modulus of smoothness of the function itself. We give examples showing the sharpness of these inequalities.
Part of a large male woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) was preserved in permafrost in northern Yakutia. It was radiocarbon dated to ca. 18,50014C yr BP (ca. 22,500 cal yr BP). Dung from the lower intestine was subjected to a multiproxy array of microscopic, chemical, and molecular techniques to reconstruct the diet, the season of death, and the paleoenvironment. Pollen and plant macro-remains showed that grasses and sedges were the main food, with considerable amounts of dwarf willow twigs and a variety of herbs and mosses. Analyses of 110-bp fragments of the plastid rbcL gene amplified from DNA and of organic compounds supplemented the microscopic identifications. Fruit-bodies of dung-inhabiting Ascomycete fungi which develop after at least one week of exposure to air were found inside the intestine. Therefore the mammoth had eaten dung. It was probably mammoth dung as no bile acids were detected among the fecal biomarkers analysed. The plant assemblage and the presence of the first spring vessels of terminal tree-rings of dwarf willows indicated that the animal died in early spring. The mammoth lived in extensive cold treeless grassland vegetation interspersed with wetter, more productive meadows. The study demonstrated the paleoecological potential of several biochemical analytical techniques.
This paper deals with ideal masculine types in the gender discourse of Korea's modernizing nationalists during the late 1890s and early 1900s. It begins by outlining the main gender stereotypes of Korea's traditional neo-Confucian society, and it argues that old Korea's manhood norms were bifurcated along class lines. On one hand, fighting prowess was accepted as a part of the masculinity pattern in the premodern society of the commoners. On the other hand, the higher classes' visions of manhood emphasized self-control and adherence to moral and ritual norms. The paper shows how both premodern standards of masculinity provided a background for indigenizing the mid-nineteenth century European middle-class ideal of “nationalized” masculinity—disciplined, self-controlled, sublimating the sexual impulses and channeling them toward the “nobler national goals,” and highly militarized—in early modern Korea.
Current explanation of the overabundance of dark matter subhalos in the Local Group (LG) indicates that there maybe a limit on mass of a halo, which can host a galaxy. This idea can be tested using voids in the distribution of galaxies: at some level small voids should not contain any (even dwarf) galaxies. We use observational samples complete to MB = −12 with distances less than 8 Mpc to construct the void function (VF): the distribution of sizes of voids empty of any galaxies. There are ~ 30 voids with sizes ranging from 1 to 5 Mpc. We then study the distribution of dark matter halos in very high resolution simulations of the LCDM model. The theoretical VF matches the observations remarkably well only if we use halos with circular velocities larger than 45 ± 10 km/s. This agrees with the Local Group predictions. There are smaller halos in the voids, but they should not produce any luminous matter. Small voids look quite similar to their giant cousins: the density has a minimum at the center of a void and it increases as we get closer to the border. Small nonluminous halos inside the void form a web of tiny filaments. Thus, both the Local Group data and the nearby voids indicate that isolated halos below 45 ± 10 km/s must not host galaxies and that small (few Mpc) voids are truly dark.
We owe Professor Tikhonov warmest thanks for this brief history of academic archaeology at St Petersburg. As well as applauding the department's many achievements, readers of our Debate section will no doubt take note of a bleak period in its eventful history, one marked by a tendency to ‘substitute socio-political subjects for specialist courses’ and ‘the growing disparagement of highly skilled researchers and teachers’. If suitably candid authors can be found, we look forward to receiving similarly instructive intellectual biographies of archaeology departments and institutes from around the world.
We present a brief summary of our current results on the stellar distribution and population gradients of the resolved stars in the surroundings of ∼50 nearby disk galaxies, observed with space- (Hubble & Spitzer) and ground-based telescopes (Subaru, VLT, BTA, Palomar, CFHT, & INT). We examine the radial (in-plane) and vertical (extraplanar) distributions of resolved stars as a function of stellar age and metallicity by tracking changes in the color-magnitude diagram of face-on and edge-on galaxies. Our data show, that the scale length and height of a stellar population increases with age, with the oldest detected stellar populations identified at a large galactocentric radius or extraplanar height, out to typically a few kpc. In the most massive of the studied galaxies there is evidence for a break in number density and color gradients of evolved stars, which plausibly correspond to the thick disk and halo components of the galaxies. The ratio of intermediate-age to old stars in the outermost fields correlate with the gas fraction, while relative sizes of the thick-to-thin disks anticorrelate with galactic circular velocity.