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Bilingual language development might be characterized by transfer, deceleration, and/or acceleration, the first two being relevant for the language impairment diagnosis. Studies on bilingual children’s productive phonology show evidence of transfer, but little is known about deceleration in this population. Here, we focused on phonological transfer and deceleration in L1 speech of typically developing Polish-English bilingual children of Polish migrants to the United Kingdom (aged 4.7–7). We analyzed L1 speech samples of 30 bilinguals and 2 groups of Polish monolinguals, matched to the bilinguals on age or vocabulary size. We found that bilingual children’ speech (both simultaneous and early sequential) was characterized by transfer, but not by deceleration, suggesting that while phonological deceleration phases out in children above the age of 4.7, transfer does not. We discuss our findings within the PRIMIR model of bilingual phonological acquisition (Curtin et al., 2011) and show their implications for SLT practices.
We investigated the speech patterns and accentedness of Polish–English bilingual children raised in Great Britain to verify whether their L1 Polish would be perceived as different from that of monolinguals matched for age and socioeconomic status. To this end, Polish-language speech samples of 32 bilinguals and 10 monolinguals (a 3:1 ratio, MAge = 5.79) were phonetically analysed by trained phoneticians and rated by 55 Polish raters, who assessed the degree of native accent, intelligibility, acceptability and perceived age. The results show significant differences in the phonetic performance of bilingual and monolingual children – both in terms of atypical speech patterns uncovered in the phonetic analysis and in terms of the holistic accentedness ratings. We also explored the socio-linguistic predictors of accent ratings in bilingual speech and found that the amount of L1 Polish input was the main predictor of accentedness in children's L1 Polish speech, while L2 English input was marginally significant. (149)
To acquire a new word, learners need to create its representation in phonological short-term memory (STM) and then encode it in their long-term memory. Two strategies can enable word representation in STM: universal segmentation and phonological mapping. Universal segmentation is language universal and thus should predict word learning in any language, while phonological mapping is language specific. This study investigates the mechanisms of vocabulary learning through a comparison of vocabulary learning task results in multiple languages. We tested 44 Polish third graders learning English on phonological STM, phonological awareness in Polish and in English, and on three tasks, which involved learning novel word forms in Polish (first language), in English (second language), and in a language that did not resemble any language known to participants (an unknown language). Participants’ English proficiency was controlled through a vocabulary task. The results suggest that word learning engages different mechanisms for familiar and unfamiliar languages. Phonological awareness in English predicted learning second language and unknown language words, and phonological STM predicted learning words of the unknown language. We propose that universal segmentation facilitates word learning only in an unfamiliar language, while in familiar languages speakers use phonological mapping in order to learn new words.
As treaties decline, customary international law can be an important mechanism of international cooperation over the medium term. There are increasingly fewer treaties ratified by the United States, with a record-low number of five in 2009–2012, and fewer multilateral treaties adopted worldwide. Yet, the demand for global rules and standards has not abated. Thus, for many international questions where treaties are not available as a source of new rules, customary international law may serve as an interchangeable instrument of national policy.
This is a progress report of the study of pulsating main-sequence stars in the LMC. Using the OGLE-II photometry supplemented by the MACHO photometry, we find 64 β Cephei stars in the LMC. Their periods are generally much longer than observed in stars of this type in the Galaxy (the median value is 0.27 d compared with 0.17 d in the Galaxy). In 20 stars with short periods attributable to the β Cephei-type instability, we also find modes with periods longer than ~0.4d. They are likely low-order g modes, which means that in these stars both kinds of variability, β Cephei and SPB, are observed. We also show examples of the multiperiodic SPB stars in the LMC, the first beyond our Galaxy.
16.01 Poland is a republic with a civil law legal system. The primary Polish legislation is its Constitution of 1997 (‘the Polish Constitution’) and the main sources of law are: (i) ratified international treaties (including the treaties concerning participation in the European Union and the secondary European legislation in the form of regulations that have direct effect in Member States); (ii) statutes (acts passed by the Parliament and executed by the President); and (iii) executive orders (issued by the Government or relevant ministers).
The governmental stance on climate change
16.02Poland is both Party to the FCCC and a member of the European Union. Consequently its obligations related to climate change result from these two legal regimes.
A carbothermal reaction process was employed to synthesize nano-sized boron carbide particles. The reactions were carried out by heating a mixture of boric oxide powder and amorphous carbon reactant under a flow of argon atmosphere in a conventional high temperature tube furnace at 1350–1700 °C for 1–4 h. In order to obtain stoichiometric powder product, additional pure boron powder was added to the reaction mixture to compensate for the boron loss in the form of B2O2/B2O3 vapor during the reaction. The effect of the structure and morphology of the precursor materials on that of the products was also investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the powdered product prepared under optimized reaction conditions was crystalline boron carbide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the product nanoparticles ranged from 50 nm to 250 nm with the average size between 100 nm and 150 nm depending on the reaction conditions. Some boron carbide particles were as small as 50 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was also used to determine the stoichiometry of the boron carbide nanoparticle products.
High-density tungsten (W)-reinforced bulk amorphous metal (BAM) matrix composites have been fabricated by a pressure infiltration methodology. A hafnium (Hf)-based BAM with a density of 11 g/cm3, glass transition temperature, Tg, of 495 °C, and liquidus temperature, Tliq, of 1,050 °C has been used to infiltrate open-porosity W-wire preforms to create W-Hf-BAM composites. Because of the considerably higher Tliq of Hf-based BAM alloys than those based on Zr, the interaction of the BAM with the fixture components, reaction with the W perform, and the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases in the composite were of primary interest. The roles of infiltration pressure, soak temperature, and time at temperature on the composite structure were examined. The structure and quality of the composites were determined with simple fracture tests, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The fabrication procedure steps and the characteristics of the composites are described.
Spinal cord ependymomas are relatively rare tumours and their management is not well established. This retrospective analysis was performed to examine the outcome of patients treated for this malignancy at our institution between 1982 and 2004.
Hospital charts of 14 consecutive patients (10 men and four women) aged 8 to 58 years (median 32 years) were retrospectively analysed. This series included nine extramedullary and five intramedullary well differentiated (eight – G1, six – G2) ependymomas. All patients were treated with primary surgery. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in 12 patients after subtotal excision. Total dose ranged from 35Gy in 17 fractions to 50.4Gy in 28 fractions. One patient experienced spinal axis failure despite complete resection of the primary tumour and was managed with salvage radiotherapy and chemotherapy following surgical excision of the relapse. There have been no radiotherapy-related serious side effects.
One patient was lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 13 patients, at a median follow-up of 5.5 years (3 months to 20 years), 12 were alive including 11 without progression.
Conclusion: In our group of patients radiotherapy following subtotal resection or used as a single modality was well tolerated and resulted in 92% long-term survival.
An automated, computerized color-vision test was designed to diagnose
congenital red–green color-vision defects. The observer viewed a
yellow appearing CRT screen. The principle was to measure increment
thresholds for three different chromaticities, the background yellow, a
red, and a green chromaticity. Spatial and temporal parameters were
chosen to favor parvocellular pathway mediation of thresholds.
Thresholds for the three test stimuli were estimated by
four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC), randomly interleaved staircases.
Four 1.5-deg, 4.2 cd/m2 square pedestals were arranged
as a 2 × 2 matrix around the center of the display with 15-minute
separations. A trial incremented all four squares by 1.0
cd/m2 for 133 ms. One randomly chosen square included an
extra increment of a test chromaticity. The observer identified the
different appearing square using the cursor. Administration time was
∼5 minutes. Normal trichromats showed clear Sloan notch as defined
by log (ΔY/ΔR), whereas red–green color defectives
generally showed little or no Sloan notch, indicating that their
thresholds were mediated by their luminance system, not by the
chromatic system. Data from 107 normal trichromats showed a mean Sloan
notch of 0.654 (SD = 0.123). Among 16 color-vision defectives tested (2
protanopes, 1 protanomal, 6 deuteranopes, & 7 deuteranomals), the
Sloan notch was between −0.062 and 0.353 for deutans and was
<−0.10 for protans. A sufficient number of color-defective
observers have not yet been tested to determine whether the test can
reliably discriminate between protans and deutans. Nevertheless, the
current data show that the test can work as a quick diagnostic
procedure (functional trichromatism or dichromatism) of red–green
Periodic axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating end wall
When the fluid inside a completely filled cylinder is set in motion by the rotation of the bottom end wall, steady and unsteady axisymmetric vortex breakdown is possible. The onset of unsteadiness is via a Hopf bifurcation.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the flow inside the cylinder where marker particles have been released from an elliptic ring concentric with the axis of symmetry near the top end wall. This periodic flow corresponds to a Reynolds number Re=2765 and cylinder aspect ratio H/R=2.5. Neighboring particles have been grouped to define a sheet of marker fluid and the local transparency of the sheet has been made proportional to its local stretching. The resultant dye sheet takes on an asymmetric shape, even though the flow is axisymmetric, due to the unsteadiness and the asymmetric release of marker particles.When the release is symmetric, as in Fig. 2, the dye sheet is also symmetric. These two figures are snapshots of the dye sheet after three periods of the oscillation (a period is approximately 36.3 rotations of the end wall). Figure 3 is a cross section of the dye sheet in Fig. 2 after 26 periods of the oscillation. Here only the marker particles are shown. They are colored according to their time of release, the oldest being blue, through green and yellow, and the most recently released being red. Comparison with Escudier's experiment shows very close agreement.
The particle equations of motion correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system and an appropriate.
We investigate the impact of Focus Listing by the Council of Institutional Investors on targeting poorly performing firms. Post-listing stock returns for the targeted firms differ insignificantly from those of a suitable benchmark group. Institutional investors increase their holdings of targeted firms, but not by more than those of the benchmark firms. Similarly, though analysts revise earnings forecasts up for Focus Listed firms, they do so well after the listing event and positive revisions are no greater than the benchmark group. Moreover, there appears to be little difference between Focus List and benchmark firms in the incidence of post-listing events such as mergers and stock repurchases. Overall, we find very little evidence of the efficacy of shareholder activism.
Experiments were carried out using models having L/D [les ] 2 and the resulting pressure distributions and vortex shedding characteristics are presented. A simple visualization technique which provides explanations of some of the measured results is described. It is concluded that splitter planes reduce the drag markedly by stabilizing the separation points and produce a wake narrower than that for a plain cylinder, raise the base pressure by as much as 50% and affect the Strouhal number to a lesser degree. Careful measurement techniques have enabled these effects to be presented accurately.
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