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The family Hippoboscidae is a less known group of blood-sucking flies. Deer ked are particularly important for animal health; they may act as potential vectors of disease to ungulates, and may transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) DNA in deer keds using molecular methods. Results prove the presence of Megatrypanum trypanosome DNA in the studied winged adult deer keds and this is the first detection of this pathogen in Lipoptena fortisetosa. In addition, this paper evidences the occurrence of L. fortisetosa in two new locations: one in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, and another in the Strzałowo Forest Inspectorate (Piska Forest), both in north-eastern Poland.
Theories of language processing differ with respect to the role of abstract syntax and semantics vs surface-level lexical co-occurrence (n-gram) frequency. The contribution of each of these factors has been demonstrated in previous studies of children and adults, but none have investigated them jointly. This study evaluated the role of all three factors in a sentence repetition task performed by children aged 4–7 and 11–12 years. It was found that semantic plausibility benefitted performance in both age groups; syntactic complexity disadvantaged the younger group but benefitted the older group; while contrary to previous findings, n-gram frequency did not facilitate, and in a post-hoc analysis even hampered, performance. This new evidence suggests that n-gram frequency effects might be restricted to the highly constrained and frequent n-grams used in previous investigations, and that semantics and morphosyntax play a more powerful role than n-gram frequency, supporting the role of abstract linguistic knowledge in children's sentence processing.
This study tested whether individual sensitivity to an auditory perceptual cue called amplitude rise time (ART) facilitates novel word learning. Forty adult native speakers of Polish performed a perceptual task testing their sensitivity to ART, learned associations between nonwords and pictures of common objects, and were subsequently tested on their knowledge with a picture recognition (PR) task. In the PR task participants heard each nonword, followed either by a congruent or incongruent picture, and had to assess if the picture matched the nonword. Word learning efficiency was measured by accuracy and reaction time on the PR task and modulation of the N300 ERP. As predicted, participants with greater sensitivity to ART showed better performance in PR suggesting that auditory sensitivity indeed facilitates learning of novel words. Contrary to expectations, the N300 was not modulated by sensitivity to ART suggesting that the behavioral and ERP measures reflect different underlying processes.
Electoral reforms affect legislative outcomes by influencing incumbent legislators’ behavior, new entrants’ behavior, and the probability that incumbents are replaced with new entrants. Empirical work on electoral reforms and polarization has focused on new entrants’ behavior. We employ a simple decision theoretic framework with partial incumbent policy persistence and spatial voting to examine the three channels jointly. We show that a reform designed to encourage ideological moderation produces larger effects on polarization when the reform is implemented than when it is removed. The key insight is that implementing a moderation-inducing reform generates a set of challengers who are more likely to defeat incumbents while the incumbents are more likely to win reelection when the reform is removed. We then empirically examine how elections and legislative polarization respond to unlimited PAC contributions in state legislatures. Examining incumbents’ decisions to stand for reelection, the electoral performance of incumbents who do run, and partisan polarization, we find empirical support for our predictions.
DemTect is a short screening scale designed to differentiate between mild cognitive impairments and dementia patients, first developed und published in 2000 in Germany. DemTect provides cutoff scores for dementia and for mild cognitive impairments. Cognitive performance is adequate for age.
To evaluate the diagnostic utility in Polish clinical practice a cross-sectional study was undertaken.
The analysis was conducted on data from 224 patients diagnosed as patients with AD (n=109), MCI (n=85) and healthy controls (n=30). Subjects ranged in age from 55 to 94 with a mean age of 71,42 ± 9,86 (SD). All patients underwent detailed neuropsychological and psychiatric examinations including TK, MRI. The diagnostic utility of DemTect was compared with MMSE. All patients underwent the DemTect, MMSE, CDT, FAS, CDR conducted by a trained psychometrist.
1. The average of total DemTect score was 16.93 (SD+/−1,68) in HC, 13.40 (SD+/−2,52) in MCI patients and 6.10 (SD+/− 3,04) in AD patients. 2. There was a significant difference in DemTect performance between the AD and MCI (p<0,0001) groups as well as between MCI and healthy controls (p<0,0001). 3. The DemTect enable more accurate differentiation between AD and HC as well between MCI and HC compared to MMSE.
The Polish version of DemTect scale is a useful screening test in clinical practice patients with dementia and MCI. It may be seen as superior cognitive instrument tool in day-to-day practice as it achieves more accurate differentiation between AD and HC as well between MCI and HC compared to MMSE.
Bilingual language development might be characterized by transfer, deceleration,
and/or acceleration, the first two being relevant for the language impairment
diagnosis. Studies on bilingual children’s productive phonology show
evidence of transfer, but little is known about deceleration in this population.
Here, we focused on phonological transfer and deceleration in L1 speech of
typically developing Polish-English bilingual children of Polish migrants to the
United Kingdom (aged 4.7–7). We analyzed L1 speech samples of 30
bilinguals and 2 groups of Polish monolinguals, matched to the bilinguals on age
or vocabulary size. We found that bilingual children’ speech (both
simultaneous and early sequential) was characterized by transfer, but not by
deceleration, suggesting that while phonological deceleration phases out in
children above the age of 4.7, transfer does not. We discuss our findings within
the PRIMIR model of bilingual phonological acquisition (Curtin et al., 2011) and
show their implications for SLT practices.
We investigated the speech patterns and accentedness of Polish–English bilingual children raised in Great Britain to verify whether their L1 Polish would be perceived as different from that of monolinguals matched for age and socioeconomic status. To this end, Polish-language speech samples of 32 bilinguals and 10 monolinguals (a 3:1 ratio, MAge = 5.79) were phonetically analysed by trained phoneticians and rated by 55 Polish raters, who assessed the degree of native accent, intelligibility, acceptability and perceived age. The results show significant differences in the phonetic performance of bilingual and monolingual children – both in terms of atypical speech patterns uncovered in the phonetic analysis and in terms of the holistic accentedness ratings. We also explored the socio-linguistic predictors of accent ratings in bilingual speech and found that the amount of L1 Polish input was the main predictor of accentedness in children's L1 Polish speech, while L2 English input was marginally significant. (149)
To acquire a new word, learners need to create its representation in phonological short-term memory (STM) and then encode it in their long-term memory. Two strategies can enable word representation in STM: universal segmentation and phonological mapping. Universal segmentation is language universal and thus should predict word learning in any language, while phonological mapping is language specific. This study investigates the mechanisms of vocabulary learning through a comparison of vocabulary learning task results in multiple languages. We tested 44 Polish third graders learning English on phonological STM, phonological awareness in Polish and in English, and on three tasks, which involved learning novel word forms in Polish (first language), in English (second language), and in a language that did not resemble any language known to participants (an unknown language). Participants’ English proficiency was controlled through a vocabulary task. The results suggest that word learning engages different mechanisms for familiar and unfamiliar languages. Phonological awareness in English predicted learning second language and unknown language words, and phonological STM predicted learning words of the unknown language. We propose that universal segmentation facilitates word learning only in an unfamiliar language, while in familiar languages speakers use phonological mapping in order to learn new words.
The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress.
In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.
As treaties decline, customary international law can be an important mechanism of international cooperation over the medium term. There are increasingly fewer treaties ratified by the United States, with a record-low number of five in 2009–2012, and fewer multilateral treaties adopted worldwide. Yet, the demand for global rules and standards has not abated. Thus, for many international questions where treaties are not available as a source of new rules, customary international law may serve as an interchangeable instrument of national policy.
Recent data suggests that the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and that the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a potential target for antidepressant drugs. The magnesium ion blocks the ion channel of the NMDA receptor and prevents its excessive activation. Some preclinical and clinical evidence suggests also that magnesium may be useful in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the effect of magnesium treatment (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg, given as magnesium hydroaspartate) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression in rats. Moreover, the effect of CMS and magnesium (with an effective dose) on the level of the proteins related to the glutamatergic system (GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B and PSD-95) in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala were examined. A significant reduction in the sucrose intake induced by CMS was increased by magnesium treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg, beginning from the third week of administration. Magnesium did not affect this behavioural parameter in the control animals. CMS significantly increased the level of the GluN1 subunit in the amygdala (by 174%) and GluN2A in the hippocampus (by 191%), both of which were significantly attenuated by magnesium treatment. Moreover, magnesium treatment in CMS animals increased the level of GluN2B (by 116%) and PSD-95 (by 150%) in the PFC. The present results for the first time demonstrate the antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the animal model of anhedonia (CMS), thus indicating the possible involvement of the NMDA/glutamatergic receptors in this activity.
16.01 Poland is a republic with a civil law legal system. The primary Polish legislation is its Constitution of 1997 (‘the Polish Constitution’) and the main sources of law are: (i) ratified international treaties (including the treaties concerning participation in the European Union and the secondary European legislation in the form of regulations that have direct effect in Member States); (ii) statutes (acts passed by the Parliament and executed by the President); and (iii) executive orders (issued by the Government or relevant ministers).
The governmental stance on climate change
16.02Poland is both Party to the FCCC and a member of the European Union. Consequently its obligations related to climate change result from these two legal regimes.
Serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors are reported altered in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have identified transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT1A receptor and have documented gender-specific alterations in 5-HT1A transcription factor and 5-HT1A receptors in female MDD subjects. The 5′ repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1) is a calcium-regulated repressor that negatively regulates the 5-HT1A receptor gene. This study documented the cellular expression of Freud-1 in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) and quantified Freud-1 protein in the PFC of MDD and control subjects as well as in the PFC of rhesus monkeys chronically treated with fluoxetine. Freud-1 immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia and was co-localized with 5-HT1A receptors. Freud-1 protein level was significantly decreased in the PFC of male MDD subjects (37%, p=0.02) relative to gender-matched control subjects. Freud-1 protein was also reduced in the PFC of female MDD subjects (36%, p=0.18) but was not statistically significant. When the data was combined across genders and analysed by age, the decrease in Freud-1 protein level was greater in the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls as opposed to older depressed subjects. Similarly, 5-HT1A receptor protein was significantly reduced in the PFC of the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls. Adult male rhesus monkeys administered fluoxetine daily for 39 wk revealed no significant change in cortical Freud-1 or 5-HT1A receptor proteins compared to vehicle-treated control monkeys. Reduced protein expression of Freud-1 in MDD subjects may reflect dysregulation of this transcription factor, which may contribute to the altered regulation of 5-HT1A receptors observed in subjects with MDD. These data may also suggest that reductions in Freud-1 protein expression in the PFC may be associated with early onset of MDD.
A variety of studies have documented alterations in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The recently identified transcription factor, nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor (NUDR/Deaf-1) has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene. The present study was undertaken to document the regional and cellular localization of NUDR in the human prefrontal cortex and to examine the levels of NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor protein in prefrontal cortex of female and male depressed and control subjects. NUDR immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia across cortical layers and was co-localized with 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactive neurons. NUDR immunoreactivity as measured by Western blot was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (42%, p=0.02) and unchanged in male depressed subjects relative to gender-matched control subjects. Similarly, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (46%, p=0.03) and unchanged in male depressed subjects compared to gender-matched control subjects. Reduced protein expression of NUDR in the prefrontal cortex of female subjects with MDD may reflect a functional alteration in this transcription factor, which may contribute to the decrease in 5-HT1A receptors observed in the same female subjects with MDD. In addition, the gender-specific alterations in cortical NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins could represent an underlying biological mechanism associated with the higher incidence of depression in women.
Spinal cord ependymomas are relatively rare tumours and their management is not well established. This retrospective analysis was performed to examine the outcome of patients treated for this malignancy at our institution between 1982 and 2004.
Hospital charts of 14 consecutive patients (10 men and four women) aged 8 to 58 years (median 32 years) were retrospectively analysed. This series included nine extramedullary and five intramedullary well differentiated (eight – G1, six – G2) ependymomas. All patients were treated with primary surgery. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in 12 patients after subtotal excision. Total dose ranged from 35Gy in 17 fractions to 50.4Gy in 28 fractions. One patient experienced spinal axis failure despite complete resection of the primary tumour and was managed with salvage radiotherapy and chemotherapy following surgical excision of the relapse. There have been no radiotherapy-related serious side effects.
One patient was lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 13 patients, at a median follow-up of 5.5 years (3 months to 20 years), 12 were alive including 11 without progression.
Conclusion: In our group of patients radiotherapy following subtotal resection or used as a single modality was well tolerated and resulted in 92% long-term survival.
An automated, computerized color-vision test was designed to diagnose
congenital red–green color-vision defects. The observer viewed a
yellow appearing CRT screen. The principle was to measure increment
thresholds for three different chromaticities, the background yellow, a
red, and a green chromaticity. Spatial and temporal parameters were
chosen to favor parvocellular pathway mediation of thresholds.
Thresholds for the three test stimuli were estimated by
four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC), randomly interleaved staircases.
Four 1.5-deg, 4.2 cd/m2 square pedestals were arranged
as a 2 × 2 matrix around the center of the display with 15-minute
separations. A trial incremented all four squares by 1.0
cd/m2 for 133 ms. One randomly chosen square included an
extra increment of a test chromaticity. The observer identified the
different appearing square using the cursor. Administration time was
∼5 minutes. Normal trichromats showed clear Sloan notch as defined
by log (ΔY/ΔR), whereas red–green color defectives
generally showed little or no Sloan notch, indicating that their
thresholds were mediated by their luminance system, not by the
chromatic system. Data from 107 normal trichromats showed a mean Sloan
notch of 0.654 (SD = 0.123). Among 16 color-vision defectives tested (2
protanopes, 1 protanomal, 6 deuteranopes, & 7 deuteranomals), the
Sloan notch was between −0.062 and 0.353 for deutans and was
<−0.10 for protans. A sufficient number of color-defective
observers have not yet been tested to determine whether the test can
reliably discriminate between protans and deutans. Nevertheless, the
current data show that the test can work as a quick diagnostic
procedure (functional trichromatism or dichromatism) of red–green