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We link causally the riskiness of men's management of their finances with the probability of their experiencing a divorce. Our point of departure is that when comparing single men to married men, the former manage their finances in a more aggressive (that is, riskier) manner. Assuming that single men believe that low relative wealth has a negative effect on their standing in the marriage market and that they care about their standing in that market more than married men do, we find that a stronger distaste for low relative wealth translates into reduced relative risk aversion and, consequently, into riskier financial behavior. With this relationship in place we show how this difference varies depending on the “background” likelihood of divorce and, hence, on the likelihood of re-entry into the marriage market: married men in environments that are more prone to divorce exhibit risk-taking behavior that is more similar to that of single men than married men in environments that are little prone to divorce. We offer a theoretical contribution that helps inform and interpret empirical observations and regularities and can serve as a guide for follow-up empirical work, having established and identified the direction of causality.
Text normalization is the task of mapping noncanonical language, typical of speech transcription and computer-mediated communication, to a standardized writing. This task is especially important for languages such as Swiss German, with strong regional variation and no written standard. In this paper, we propose a novel solution for normalizing Swiss German WhatsApp messages using the encoder–decoder neural machine translation (NMT) framework. We enhance the performance of a plain character-level NMT model with the integration of a word-level language model and linguistic features in the form of part-of-speech (POS) tags. The two components are intended to improve the performance by addressing two specific issues: the former is intended to improve the fluency of the predicted sequences, whereas the latter aims at resolving cases of word-level ambiguity. Our systematic comparison shows that our proposed solution results in an improvement over a plain NMT system and also over a comparable character-level statistical machine translation system, considered the state of the art in this task till recently. We perform a thorough analysis of the compared systems’ output, showing that our two components produce indeed the intended, complementary improvements.
The epidemiology of heritable traits whose prevalence is determined by a balance between mutation and selection is often explored through deterministic models. Here, the properties are explored by simulation of a model population followed through a sequence of closely spaced time points. Mutation and birth and death occur randomly. The condition neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is used as a point of reference. Critical parameters, such as mutation rates and selection forces, are not known precisely for NF1 so speculative values based on published data from Finland and other studies are proposed.
Knowledge is a crucial factor in state-of-the-art product development. It is often provided by stakeholders from divers disciplinary and individual backgrounds and has to be integrated to create competitive products. Still, it is not fully understood, how knowledge is generated, transformed, transferred and integrated in complex product development processes. To investigate the dynamic interrelations between involved stakeholders, applied knowledge types and related artefacts, researchers at the TU Berlin conducted and evaluated a student experiment to study basic phenomena of development projects. In relation to research methods and instruments applied in this experiment, various improvement opportunities were identified. In this paper, the experimental setting and its results are critically analysed from a social science perspective in order to generate improved research design. Based on the results of this analysis, a first set of methods and instruments from social sciences are identified that can be applied in further experiments. The goal is to develop a methodological toolbox that can be used to approach research on knowledge dynamics in product development.
We study how the work effort and output of non-migrants in a village economy are affected when a member of the village population migrates. Given that individuals dislike low relative income, and that migration modifies the social space of the non-migrants, we show why and how the non-migrants adjust their work effort and output in response to the migration-generated change in their social space. When migration is negatively selective such that the least productive individual departs, the output of the non-migrants increases. While as a consequence of this migration statically calculated average productivity rises, we identify a dynamic repercussion that compounds the static one.
Second impact syndrome (SIS) is associated with malignant brain swelling and usually occurs in young athletes with one or more prior, recent concussions. SIS is rare and some dispute its existence. We report a case of SIS in Rowan Stringer, age 17, a rugby player who sustained a fatal brain injury despite prompt medical therapy including decompression surgery. The cause of the massive brain swelling was initially unknown. An inquest revealed Rowan’s text messages to friends describing symptoms from two prior, recent rugby brain injuries, likely concussions, within 5 days of the fatal blow and confirming the diagnosis of SIS.
A study of the reversion process in Al-Zn-Mg alloys has been made using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The rate and mode of Guinier-Preston zone dissolutions was investigated as a function of magnesium content, prior zone radius, and reversion temperature. Results indicate that in this system the reversion process is characterized by the preferential dissolution of the smallest G-P zones present after cold aging with a corresponding decrease in the volume fraction of zones. The amount of reversion at a specific temperature is dependent on magnesium content, however, the rate of reversion is independent of magnesium content.
The development of deformation textures of both initially disordered and ordered Cu3Au has been studied and discussed in terms of the stacking fault energies and twinning probabilities. No differences in the deforir.ation textures of the ordered and disordered materials were detected at deformations up to 40% reduction. However, at reductions of approximately 42% a marked difference was observed. This difference is attributed both to the degree of order and to the stacking fault energy of the ordered sample being conducive to deformation twinning at this stage of the rolling schedule. For samples which were reordered below the racrystallization temperature at intermediate stages of deformation (every 10% in total reduction) no differences between the ordered and initially disordered samples were observed up to 90% total reduction in thickness.
The progressive ordering of a single crystal of Ni4Mo by isothermal ageing at 650°C (transformation temperature = 868°C) has been studied by x-ray line broadening techniques using the Warren- Averbach method employing computer techniques. The long-range-order parameter, antiphase domain size, and internal strains were measured as a function of ordering time and compared with those previously obtained at 700°C. The activation energies for domain growth and ordering were found to be 91 kcal/mole and 44.5 kcal/mole respectively. The rms strain developed during ordering was found to be dependent on the degree of tetragonality of the structure.
The intermetallic compound Au4V is known to be ferromagnetic at temperatures below 43°K. Its ferromagnetism, which has been attributed to long range order, can he destroyed by cold deformation. The present study was undertaken to determine how the Bragg and Williams long-range-order parameter of the fully-ordered alloy varied as a function of deformation by cold rolling. Because of complexities in the diffraction spectrum it was not possible to determine 5 by a simple ratio of integrated intensities as is frequently done in other ordered systems, A treatment was developed to handle these difficulties using a modification of a method developed by Giamei and Freise for determining volume fractions of mixed phases. These results are correlated with magnetic measurements made by Chin and coworkers at Bell Laboratories.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our goals in developing adaptations to the Community Engagement Studio model have been to: (1) enable investigators to consult with as broad a range of community “experts” (stakeholders) as possible, (2) make Studio participation feasible for stakeholders from rural and frontier areas, (3) create a safe environment for stakeholders from communities facing health disparities, who have had low participation in research, and (4) enable stakeholders to speak in the language in which they are most comfortable. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We have used several strategies to enable investigators to gain input from stakeholders in rural and frontier areas. If the research focuses on rural populations, we hold the Studio at a central location, usually at a restaurant in a private room, if this is available. If the investigator wants to hear from both rural and urban residents, we use videoconferencing via Skype or FaceTime when individuals have enough bandwidth to support it and/or feel comfortable using this technology. For those who have dial-up or no internet access, we provide a conference call line Trusting relationships are essential to creating a safe space in which stakeholders from communities facing health disparities can provide consultations to researchers. When an investigator wishes to consult with stakeholders from one racial/ethnic community, we contract with a leader or trusted member of that community to recruit appropriate stakeholders. The Studio is co-facilitated by a CCET staff member and a community leader in the community’s preferred language, with the leader translating for the CCET staff member. For Studios that involve stakeholders from multiple communities and that are conducted in English, we provide translators, if appropriate. Stakeholders using translation may be present in the room with other Studio participants or may be on the phone. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 35 Studios we have held, five have been held in rural locations and another five have included one or more rural/frontier stakeholders participating via phone or videoconferencing. Six Studios have been co-facilitated with community leaders and four others have included translators. Almost all Studios we have held in English have included individuals representing diverse communities. Anonymous surveys completed at the end of Studios show that participants report the following on 5-point Likert scales:. The facilitator managed the allotted time so that my voice was heard (67% strongly agree; 33% agree). The relevant experts were present at the Studio (78% strongly agree; 22% agree). I was satisfied with the Studio session (78% strongly agree; 22% agree). The Studio process was worth my time (89% strongly agree; 11% agree). The feedback provided by the community experts will improve the research project (68% strongly agree; 44% agree). Participants were also asked what they felt was their contribution to the research project. Among the most common themes were: increased researcher’s understanding of the community, increased researcher’s sensitivity to the community, provided feedback on the feasibility of the project, provided ideas on recruiting research participants, provided ideas for how to use the project results to benefit the community, and provided ideas on how to inform the community about the project. All participants said that they would participate in a Studio again. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Studies at all stages in the research life cycle can be strengthened through consultations with community experts. These stakeholders can inform needs assessments, provide input on study design, supply critical information on supports and barriers to research participation, review study instruments for readability and cultural appropriateness, provide feedback on recruitment and educational materials, and inform dissemination of research results, among others. These consultations provide the most benefit to researchers when they include the voices of as broad a range of stakeholders as possible. We have shown that it is feasible to include stakeholders who live in rural and frontier areas in Studio consultations. We also have developed successful methods for holding Studio consultations with stakeholders who are members of communities facing health disparities and who speak multiple languages. This expanded representation in Community Engagement Studios strengthens research studies.
The Endangered proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus is endemic to the island of Borneo. Habitat loss is a major threat to this species, and an understanding of long-term demographic trends is crucial for its conservation. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of proboscis monkeys over 10 years in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Comparisons of observed populations between 2004 and 2014 revealed significantly reduced group sizes, which is probably a result of forest fragmentation. Three long-term studies over 34–73 months in specific areas showed fluctuating estimated densities in each area, but no overall population increase or decrease. Riparian forests are the most important habitat for these monkeys, and one reason for the relatively stable population could be that there were only minor losses of forest along rivers during 2004–2014 because protected areas have been established in the region in 2005. However, proboscis monkey habitat remains under threat in areas allocated for oil palm, and protection of these areas is paramount to maintaining this population.
Open Source Hardware (OSH) is an increasingly viable approach to intellectual property management extending the principles of Open Source Software (OSS) to the domain of physical products. These principles support the development of products in transparent processes allowing the participation of any interested person. While increasing numbers of products have been released as OSH, little is known on the prevalence of participative development practices in this emerging field. It remains unclear to which extent the transparent and participatory processes known from software reached hardware product development. To fill this gap, this paper applies repository mining techniques to investigate the transparency and workload distribution of 105 OSH product development projects. The results highlight a certain heterogeneity of practices filling a continuum between public and private development settings. They reveal different organizational patterns with different levels of centralization and distribution. Nonetheless, they clearly indicate the expansion of the open source development model from software into the realms of physical products and provide the first large-scale empirical evidence of this recent evolution. Therewith, this article gives body to an emerging phenomenon and contributes to give it a place in the scientific debate. It delivers categories to delineate practices, techniques to investigate them in further detail as well as a large dataset of exemplary OSH projects. The discussion of first results signposts avenues for a stream of research aiming at understanding stakeholder interactions at work in new product innovation practices in order to enable institutions and industry in providing appropriate responses.