To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The participation of armed forces in humanitarian operations and in disaster response is common in many countries. In Brazil, the armed forces have had history in providing health support to victims in emergencies, which also includes the provision of pharmaceutical services (PS).
Even though being essential for the provision of health care in disaster response, the preparedness of PS is not well-addressed in the literature. The use of a comprehensive approach to evaluate preparedness of PS in military institutions may subsidize preparedness measures. The goals of this work were to analyze the preparedness of PS for disaster response and humanitarian aid in military units of a Brazilian armed force institution, and to propose a framework to improve the preparedness of PS in operational medicine.
An investigation of a cross-sectional design was performed. A logic model and indicators to evaluate preparedness of PS were applied. Data were obtained from official documents, interviews with key stakeholders, and observation of good storage practices (GSP).
Identified were: lack of specific budget for medicine procurement in case of disaster, absence of emergency stockpile, proper means for medicine transportation, and records of trained health professionals. An emergency plan, a list of selected medicines, adaptable mobile health care units, and a system for mobilization of health professionals were some of the positive aspects recognized. Different aspects for improvement were acknowledged and recommendations to favor the efficiency and the quality of PS in emergencies were proposed.
The investigation provided valuable results for the planning and execution of responses to disasters and humanitarian aid. The findings and proposed recommendations may be useful for other military organizations similar to those in Brazil.
The aim of this study was to characterize the protein profile of ovarian follicular fluid (FF) of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Five adult females received an ovarian stimulation treatment and the FF was collected by laparoscopy from small/medium (≤3.5 mm) and large (>3.5 mm) follicles. Concentrations of soluble proteins in FF samples were measured and proteins were analyzed by 1-D SDS-PAGE followed by tryptic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry. Data from protein list defined after a Mascot database search were analyzed using the STRAP software tool. For the protein concentration, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between small/medium and large follicles: 49.2 ± 22.8 and 56.7 ± 27.4 μg/μl, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis identified 13 major proteins, but with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between follicle size class. This study provides insight into elucidating folliculogenesis in brown brocket deer.
There is no agreement regarding which solvent is more suitable to obtain sol–gel–derived titania (TiO2) samples with an enhanced photocatalytic behavior. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the preparation of TiO2-RGO (reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposites has not been published yet and could be an attractive experimental strategy to modulate structure and properties. On the basis of these observations, TiO2-RGO nanocomposites were fabricated in this study. It was evaluated for the influence of using either isopropyl (IsoprOH) or ethyl (EtOH) alcohol on the textural and photocatalytic properties of the prepared materials. The use of IsoprOH led to samples with smaller crystallite size, narrower apparent band gap, smaller isoelectric point, larger adsorption capacity, and higher photocatalytic activity. In addition, the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 greatly improved the adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of the latter. However, the optimal loading of RGO to prepare composites with enhanced photocatalytic activities was 1 wt%. This finding can be related to the stacking of RGO sheets when concentrations above 1 wt% are used, which could prevent UV light to reach the TiO2 particles and also decrease the photocatalytic capacity of the composites. Moreover, materials with RGO concentration above 1 wt% could exhibit a highly negatively charged surface, which may decrease the separation of the generated electron–hole pairs and lead to faster recombination rates of charge carriers.
This study evaluated the effects of rosuvastatin in vivo on toxoplasmosis chronic infection. Thirty-five Swiss mice were orally infected (ME-49 strain). After 50 days, the mice were separated into five groups: GI – non-infected, GII – infected, GIII – infected and treated with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (12.5 + 50 mg kg−1 body weight day−1), GIV and GV – infected and treated with rosuvastatin 10 and 40 mg kg−1 body weight day−1, respectively. After 21 days, we collected blood, liver, lungs, femoral biceps and brain were removed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA quantification by qPCR and histopathological analysis. GIV and GV did not present premature death or clinical changes, and the hepatic enzyme levels were lower compared to GI. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected mainly in brain and muscle, but the parasite load was significantly lower in GV compared to GII brains (P < 0.05). Histopathological changes were observed in brains, with T. gondii cysts as well as an inflammatory condition, including necrosis areas in GII and GIII. These data confirm active infection with tissue injury. This inflammatory condition was attenuated in the groups treated with rosuvastatin, especially R40 (GV). Our findings demonstrated the in vivo action of rosuvastatin in reducing cerebral parasitic load and indicate that this drug may interfere in chronic toxoplasmosis.
This Prospective covers an overview of the injection molding process and the importance of mold design and tooling considerations, important material requirements and thermal properties for molds, polymer material requirements for injection molding, mold flow analysis, and the promise of using the 3D printing process for mold fabrication. The second part demonstrates the injection molding process using 3D-printed polymer molds and its suitability for low-run productions. 3D-printed molds using stereolithography and fused filament fabrication have been injected with polylactic acid, and the quality of the injected parts was assessed in terms of dimensional accuracy and the damage mechanisms during fabrication.
Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae is a relict ovenbird restricted to rocky outcrops at high elevations within the campo rupestre vegetation of the Espinhaço Range in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. This poorly known species is considered ‘Near Threatened’, but recent studies have suggested that it should be listed under a higher category of threat. To contribute to the knowledge of this species and its conservation assessment and related planning, we compiled all literature records of the species distribution (n = 16 locations), collected new data on its occurrence (n = 72 locations), and calculated its geographic range using four different approaches. First, we defined the sky islands where the species occurs (nine units) using the lowest elevation value recorded (1,100 m asl) as a cut-off. Second, we performed species distribution modelling (SDM) across the sky islands and identified an area of 2,225.21 km2. Third, we measured the species’ extent of occurrence (EOO = 24,555.85 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (EOOup = 30,697.58 km2). Fourth, we measured the area of occupancy (AOO = 228 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (AOOup = 1,827.39 km2). We analysed the Cipo Canastero sky islands in terms of landscape metrics including size, isolation, protected area coverage, shape index, core area index, and proportion covered by SDM. We observed a very fragmented distribution, especially in the North sector of the species distribution, composed of small and isolated populations (separated by up to 112 km); the South sector is the core of its distribution and is composed of larger, more connected patches with differences in shape complexity that are not strongly influenced by an edge effect. The range sizes calculated, along with other reported information regarding population and habitat trends, justifies the inclusion of the species in at least the ‘Vulnerable’ category.
Un trabajo de rescate arqueológico en la cuenca alta del Río Loa (norte de Chile) resultó en el hallazgo de una inhumación prehispánica de un infante asociado a variados atavíos y ofrendas, junto a los restos óseos parciales de una adolescente. Ambos individuos fueron sometidos a análisis de isótopos estables para establecer paleodieta (δ13C y δ15N) y movilidad (δ18O y 87Sr/86Sr). Además, se efectuaron dataciones radiocarbónicas pareadas de los restos bioantropológicos y culturales con el fin establecer la cronología de la inhumación y, a la vez, evaluar la existencia de un posible efecto reservorio marino. Los resultados isotópicos sugieren consumo de dieta principalmente terrestre y un origen local para los individuos, aunque con una ingesta moderada de recursos marinos. Los fechados radiocarbónicos presentan una inesperada diferencia entre las edades de las ofrendas y los restos humanos, indicando la existencia de un importante efecto reservorio. Dichos resultados dan nuevas luces sobre el consumo de alimentos marinos durante el Formativo temprano en la región, a la vez que permiten ejemplificar los alcances de efectuar dataciones pareadas de restos humanos y culturales.
Litter breakdown is an important ecological process at the bottom of food webs in streams. Previous studies have been based only on a temporal interval of a single season, thus ignoring seasonal variation in litter input and community structure. We investigated organic matter input in a Brazilian savanna stream and the influence of its associated hyphomycetes on the invertebrate community. Organic matter input was sampled monthly and the leaves submitted to decomposition experiments. There were lower breakdown rates and higher invertebrate species richness and abundance during the dry season, which reached their maximum in July due to low stream discharge. Invertebrate composition was best explained by hyphomycetes (mainly by Flagellospora curvula and Anguillospora filiformis). Hyphomycetes have the capacity to degrade complex compounds of litter and to rapidly absorb nutrients by growing branched filaments, thus making the leaves more favourable for consumption by invertebrates. Shredder abundance was negatively related to litter richness, indicating possible species-specific relationships. We observed a sequential process with increased leaf litter input promoting an increase in hyphomycetes biomass, which in turn favoured invertebrate density.
The present study evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the viability and growth of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 12 days. To this end, secondary follicles were isolated (185–202 μm) and cultured in vitro in TCM-199+ medium supplemented with KSR (5% and 10%), FBS (5% and 10%) or BSA (3 mg/ml) at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air. Follicular diameters were evaluated on days 0, 4, 8 and 12. After 12 days of culture, follicular survival analysis was performing by using calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. Before and after culture, follicles were fixed in paraformaldehyde for histological evaluation. Follicular diameter at different days of culture were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test, while the percentages of viable follicles were analyzed by chi-squared test (P < 0.05). Results showed that follicles cultured in the presence of KSR at both concentrations presented higher follicular survival rates than those cultured in control medium alone or supplemented with FBS or BSA. Conversely, the presence of KSR, BSA or FBS did not increase follicular diameter after 12 days of culture. Histology analysis showed that, among the tested treatments, follicles cultured in the presence of KSR had preserved rounded oocytes, juxtaposed granulosa cells and intact basal membrane. In conclusion, supplementation of culture medium with KSR increases the follicular survival of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder, associated with adverse outcomes. Aging causes primary sarcopenia, while secondary causes include chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term use of glucocorticoids and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate: the prevalence of sarcopenia using guidelines recommended by The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP,2010; EWGSOP2,2018) and the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health (FNIH); and analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and body adiposity in adult renal transplant recipients (RTR) . This was a cross-sectional study in adult RTR (body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by CKD-EPI equation. The prevalence of sarcopenia in adult RTR (n=185; 57% men, 50 years and eGFR 55.80±1.52ml/min.) was 7% (FNIH), 11% (EWGSOP2) and 17% (EWGSOP). Low muscle mass, muscle function, and physical performance affected respectively up to 28%, 46% and 10% of the participants. Body adiposity evaluated by anthropometry and by DXA (% trunk fat) was lower in participants with sarcopenia according to EWGSOP and EWGSOP2. Conversely, according to FNIH criteria, RTR with sarcopenia presented higher waist-to-height-ratio. This study suggests that: adult RTR sarcopenia prevalence varies according to the diagnostic criteria; low muscle mass, low muscle function and low physical performance are common conditions; body adiposity association with sarcopenia depends on the criteria used to define this syndrome; and FNIH criteria detected higher adiposity in individuals with sarcopenia.
Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
Using ten English adjectives, this study tests the hypothesis that the vowels in adjectives in predicative constructions are longer than those in attributive constructions in spoken conversation. The analyses considered a number of factors: occurrence before a pause, lexical adjective, vowel identity, probability given surrounding words, and others. Two sets of statistical techniques were used: a Mixed-effects model and the Random Forest Analysis based on Conditional Inference Trees (CIT). Both analyses showed strong effects of predicative vs. attributive constructions and individual lexical adjectives on vowel duration in the predicted direction, as well as effects of many of the phonological variables tested. The results showed that the longer duration in the predicative construction is not due to lengthening before a pause, though it is related to whether the adjective is internal or final in the predicative construction. Nor is the effect attributable solely to the probability of the occurrence of the adjective; rather construction type has to be taken into account. The two statistical techniques complement each other, with the Mixed-effects model showing very general trends over all the data, and the Random Forest / CIT analysis showing factors that affect only subsets of the data.
Considering a potential exercise-drug interaction, we investigated whether exercise training could improve the efficacy of specific antiparasitic chemotherapy in a rodent model of Chagas disease. Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: sedentary and uninfected (CT); sedentary and infected (SI); sedentary, infected and treated (SIT); trained and infected (TI); trained, infected and treated (TIT). After 9-weeks running training, the animals were infected with T. cruzi and followed up for 4 weeks, receiving 100 mg kg−1 day−1 benznidazole. No evidence of myocarditis was observed in CT animals. TI animals exhibited reduced parasitemia, myocarditis, and reactive tissue damage compared to SI animals, in addition to increased IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, heart non-protein antioxidant (NPA) levels and glutathione-s transferase activity (P < 0.05). The CT, SIT and TIT groups presented similar reductions in parasitemia, cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and MCP-1), inflammatory infiltrate, oxidative heart damage and antioxidant enzymes activity compared to SI and TI animals, as well as reduced heart microstructural remodeling (P < 0.05). By modulating heart inflammation and redox metabolism, exercise training exerts a protective effect against T. cruzi infection in rats. However, the antiparasitic and cardioprotective effects of benznidazole chemotherapy are more pronounced, determining similar endpoints in sedentary and trained T. cruzi-infected rats.
In the present study, TiO2NT coatings grown on simulated body fluid-based electrolyte were investigated as drug delivery devices. Nanotubes (NTs) were grown over commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy. Morphology analysis showed that NTs in alloy samples present an inner diameter of 10 nm smaller in average than NTs grown over pure Ti. The surface wettability in water decreased with the anodizing time for both substrates. The application of coatings as drug delivery devices has been studied through the incorporation of ciprofloxacin. To control the drug release, collagen was used as the diffusional barrier. It was observed the drug release follows a Fick’s kinetics. Bioactivity assays showed the absence of hemolytic activity. The concentration of the drug during the release interval remained below the toxic concentration limit, presenting a bacteriostatic activity. All coatings prepared presented a high antibacterial activity, being the area of inhibition of bacterial growth above 13 times the area of the implant.
We performed the exposure of bovine oocytes to anethole during in vitro maturation (0 or 300 µg/ml), during in vitro embryo production (0, 30, 300 or 2000 µg/ml), or during both periods to determine the rates of 2−4 cells embryos, blastocysts rates and cells numbers, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bovine ovaries (n = 240) were collected from a local abattoir after slaughter and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) with homogeneous and non-dark cytoplasm, surrounded by two or more compact layers of cumulus cells, and an intact zona pellucida were selected for in vitro maturatuion (IVM). Mature oocytes were then submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in culture medium supplemented or not with different concentrations of anethole, as described above. Although IVM medium supplementation with 300 µg/ml anethole improved the rates of bovine blastocysts formation, we demonstrated that IVP medium supplementation with 30 µg/ml anethole, regardless of IVM medium enrichment, considerably enhanced blastocysts rates. Furthermore, ROS levels were decreased only when anethole was added to the IVP medium without previous IVM medium supplementation.
Gazetting and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are political processes and, as such, depend on wider society’s support in order to achieve their aims. In this paper, we evaluated the influence of gender, education, age, income, place of origin and place of residence on public support for PAs in the Brazilian state of Amapá, a new tropical forest frontier. We gathered 615 complete interviews with adults living in both rural and urban settings. We found that most (90.5%) of the participants support PAs and that this attitude is more likely to exist among urban than rural participants. We found that gender, education, age, income and place of origin did not influence support for PAs. Biodiversity conservation is the most common reason why PAs receive public support. In contrast, participants who do not favour PAs see them as providing no benefit to people. We suggest that support by local political leaders from dominant and rival political parties for conservation helps to promote acceptance of PAs by stakeholders. However, relatively low support for PAs among rural participants could indicate that the expectations of these populations regarding the social benefits associated with this conservation policy have yet to be fulfilled.
Hypertension (HTN) remains a common complication after kidney transplantation among paediatric patients. Although low birth weight (LBW) has been implicated as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, its effect on transplantation patients has not yet been addressed. It is essential to determine whether children with LBW who undergo transplantation are more likely to develop post-transplantation HTN. For this study, the medical records of 96 kidney recipients were retrospectively examined. A total of 83 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, post-transplantation HTN was observed in 54% of the recipients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that time from transplantation >14 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–10.06; P = 0.013), current CKD (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.01–7.20; P = 0.045), presence of LBW (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.04–12.32; P = 0.044) and current overweight/obesity (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.02–13.91; P = 0.047) were associated with post-transplantation HTN. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the first time that LBW is a significant predictive factor in the development of post-transplantation HTN. This finding has important clinical implications as it serves to alert clinicians about this additional risk factor in paediatric patients undergoing kidney transplant.
We analysed the impact of the national general truck drivers’ strike on the availability, variety and price of foods sold by a food supply centre.
Descriptive study using secondary data to examine the percentage change in the mean price of fruits, vegetables and eggs before, during and after the strike. The strike in Brazil lasted 10 d from 21 to 30 May 2018. The drivers were on strike in order to make diesel oil tax-free and to obtain better working conditions.
The food supply centre, named CEASA-Minas Grande BH, was located in the metropolitan area of a Brazilian city.
We examined twenty types of foods.
After 10 d, there was a ~30 % reduction in the availability of all types of foods and prices increased. Foods with the highest price increases included cabbage (233·3 %), potatoes (220·0 %), papaya (160·0 %) and oranges (78·6 %). At the end of the strike, we observed reductions in the price of eggs, fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers; however, some foods remained more expensive than before the strike, including chayote (203·2 % higher), cucumber (66·7 % higher) and potatoes (60·0 % higher).
The general truck drivers’ strike was correlated with a reduction in the availability of food and, consequently, increases in price and possibly restrictions on access. The strike demonstrated the dependence of metropolises on road transportation and the conventional market. We speculate that initiatives aiming to shorten the food supply chain and promote food sovereignty and resilience of the supply circuits could be important.
Benzimidazole derivatives such as albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole are important molecules used in helminthic treatment. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy throughout the world and is currently treated with ABZ. New molecules have been studied in order to aid in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease, among them RCB15 and RCB20. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic impact of RCB15 and RCB20 on Taenia crassiceps cysticerci intracranially inoculated in Balb/c mice. Thirty days after the inoculation the mice were treated with 50 mg kg−1 of RCB15, RCB20, ABZ or NaCl 0.9%. The euthanasia and cysticerci removal were performed 24 h after the treatment. The cysticerci were analysed through high performance liquid chromatography. After the treatments, there was an impairment in the main energetic pathways such as glycolytic pathway, homolactic fermentation or in mitochondrion energy production detected through the decrease in pyruvate, lactate, oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate concentrations. This induced the parasite to resort to alternative energetic pathways such as proteins catabolism, propionate fermentation and fatty acids oxidation. Therefore, benzimidazole derivatives are a promising alternative to ABZ use as they also reach the brain tissue and induce a metabolic stress in the cysticerci.