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Transforming Early English shows how historical pragmatics can offer a powerful explanatory framework for the changes medieval English and Older Scots texts undergo, as they are transmitted over time and space. The book argues that formal features such as spelling, script and font, and punctuation - often neglected in critical engagement with past texts - relate closely to dynamic, shifting socio-cultural processes, imperatives and functions. This theme is illustrated through numerous case-studies in textual recuperation, ranging from the reinvention of Old English poetry and prose in the later medieval and early modern periods, to the eighteenth-century 'vernacular revival' of literature in Older Scots.
In Daily Life of the Aztecs, Frances Berdan and Michael Smith offer a view into the lives of real people, doing very human things, in the unique cultural world of Aztec central Mexico. The first section focuses on people from an array of social classes - the emperor, a priest, a feather worker, a merchant, a farmer, and a slave – who interacted in the economic, social and religious realms of the Aztec world. In the second section, the authors examine four important life events where the lives of these and others intersected: the birth and naming of a child, market day, a day at court, and a battle. Through the microscopic views of individual types of lives, and interweaving of those lives into the broader Aztec world, Berdan and Smith recreate everyday life in the final years of the Aztec Empire.
Although much is known about the anatomy of adult primates, particularly chimpanzees, the same cannot be said for the anatomy of young primates, especially non-hominoid primates such as lemurs and marmosets. This is the first book dedicated to newborn skeletal and dental anatomy and how it varies across primate species, which is important for interpreting adult primate skeletal form, as well for comprehending primate and human evolution. Structured according to anatomical regions, the book includes hundreds of detailed anatomical illustrations, a color atlas illustrating entire skeletons in representative taxa, and boxes at the end of each chapter providing further detail on key aspects covered in the main text. Whilst the book is primarily a guide to comparative anatomy, it also highlights the links between development and behavior. An indispensable resource for students and researchers in the fields of biological anthropology, anatomy, primatology, growth and development, dental biology, and veterinary medicine.
If postmortems of the 2016 US presidential election tell us anything, it's that many voters discriminate on the basis of race, which raises an important question: in a society that outlaws racial discrimination in employment, housing, and jury selections, should voters be permitted to racially discriminate in selecting a candidate for public office? In Whitelash, Terry Smith argues that such racialized decision-making is unlawful and that remedies exist to deter this reactionary behavior. Using evidence of race-based voting in the 2016 presidential election, Smith deploys legal analogies to demonstrate how courts can decipher when groups of voters have been impermissibly influenced by race, and impose appropriate remedies. This groundbreaking work should be read by anyone interested in how the legal system can re-direct American democracy away from the ongoing electoral scourge that many feared 2016 portended.
The 1930s is frequently seen as a unique moment in British literary history, a decade where writing was shaped by an intense series of political events, aesthetic debates, and emerging literary networks. Yet what is contained under the rubric of 1930s writing has been the subject of competing claims, and therefore this Companion offers the reader an incisive survey covering the decade's literature and its status in critical debates. Across the chapters, sustained attention is given to writers of growing scholarly interest, to pivotal authors of the period, such as Auden, Orwell, and Woolf, to the development of key literary forms and themes, and to the relationship between this literature and the decade's pressing social and political contexts. Through this, the reader will gain new insight into 1930s literary history, and an understanding of many of the critical debates that have marked the study of this unique literary era.
This highly accessible introductory textbook carefully explores the main issues that have driven the field of second language acquisition research. Intended for students with little or no background in linguistics or psycholinguistics, it explains important linguistic concepts, and how and why they are relevant to second language acquisition. Topics are presented via a 'key questions' structure that enables the reader to understand how these questions have motivated research in the field, and the problems to which researchers are seeking solutions. It provides a complete package for any introductory course on second language acquisition.
That almost half the Northern electorate continued to vote for Democrats is one of the worst understood aspects of the Civil War experience. In too many accounts of the war, Northern Democrats either do not figure at all, or do so only as morally blind obstructionists on the wrong side of history. Yet there is a case for saying that rather than being peripheral to the narrative of the war, Northern Democrats should be center stage. Because the route to Confederate victory lay in convincing the North that the cost of coercion was too high to be worth paying, the views and actions of that large and fluctuating group of white Northerners who had never joined the Republican bandwagon was crucial.
“Where is the proper place to break it?” asked Major General Henry W. Halleck of his officers as they peered at the Confederate line drawn on a map of the western theater. It was a cold December 1861 evening and several officers, including George W. Cullum and William T. Sherman, had gathered to discuss strategy. It was an obvious question that begged to be answered as the men examined the long Confederate defensive line that ran from the Mississippi River to the mountains of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee near the Cumberland Gap. Halleck was one of the main Union generals Abraham Lincoln had tapped to find the best possible route of advance through this enemy defensive line and into the heart of the Confederacy, and he was certainly aware of the enormity of the task.
This book examines the environmental and technological complexity of South Carolina inland rice plantations from their inception at the turn of the seventeenth century to the brink of their institutional collapse at the eve of the Civil War. Inland rice cultivation provided a foundation for the South Carolina colonial plantation complex and enabled planters' participation in the Atlantic economy, dependence on enslaved labor, and dramatic alteration of the natural landscape. Moreover, the growing population of enslaved Africans led to a diversely-acculturated landscape unique to the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Despite this significance, Lowcountry inland rice cultivation has had an elusive history. Unlike many historical interpretations that categorize inland rice cultivation in a universal and simplistic manner, this study explains how agricultural systems varied among plantations. By focusing on planters' and slaves' alteration of the inland topography, this book emphasizes how agricultural methods met the demands of the local environment.
Article 53 of the European Patent Convention prohibits the grant of patents for plant or animal varieties and for inventions whose commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality. These provisions are therefore both criteria for the grant of patents and grounds for opposing granted patents. The interpretation of these provisions and their application to particular cases lies ultimately in the hands of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office which have considered both patent applications and oppositions against granted patents on these grounds. This chapter begins with a summary of the law, the procedure for opposing patents on these grounds and the principal decisions in this field. It then reviews the manner in which opponents of patents other than commercial parties – such as pressure groups, political parties and churches – have organised themselves as opponents. Lastly, it considers how these non-commercial opponents have conducted their cases, their degree of success, whether they could do more to question the grant of life form patents – and whether, as the author considers they should, churches and other organisations with ethical credentials should actively question life form patents.
A rare anecdote about Queen Mary II and the composer Henry Purcell relates to the origins of the ode for her thirtieth birthday on 30 April 1692, Love's Goddess Sure was Blind.
The queen having a mind one afternoon to be entertained with music, sent to Mr. Gostling, then one of the chapel … to Henry Purcell and Mrs. Arabella Hunt, who had a very fine voice, and an admirable hand on the lute … Mr. Gostling and Mrs. Hunt sung several compositions of Purcell, who accompanied them on the harpsichord; at length the queen beginning to grow tired, asked Mrs. Hunt if she could not sing the old Scots ballad ‘Cold and Raw’, Mrs. Hunt answered, yes, and sung it to her lute. Purcell was all the while sitting at the harpsichord unemployed, and not a little nettled at the queen's preference of a vulgar ballad to his music; but seeing her majesty delighted with this tune, he determined that she should hear it upon another occasion; and accordingly in the next birth-day song, viz, that for the year 1692, he composed an air to the words, ‘May her bright example chace Vice in troops out of the land’, the bass whereof is the tune to ‘Cold and raw’.
Love's Goddess Sure was Blind is among the finest of the six birthday odes created for Mary II. However, the 1692 birthday ode for Mary II commands interest beyond the aesthetic. It is also a vivid micro-history of the political preoccupations of the court ode, of the ways in which monarch and courtier used the court ode to advance shared and individual agendas, and of the interaction between late Stuart court culture and the public sphere.
This essay considers the 1692 birthday ode to Mary II from three perspectives. The first section places the ode's text by Sir Charles Sedley alongside those of other court odes. It analyses the ways in which the court ode associated moral reform and godly monarchy with Mary II and her husband and co-monarch, William III. This development was especially important to creating a language that legitimised and celebrated the reign and rule of a female monarch who was also a wife.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Meal timing may influence food choices, neurobiology and psychological states. Our exploratory study examined if time-of-day eating patterns were associated with mood disorders among adults.
During 2004–2006 (age 26–36 years) and 2009–2011 (follow-up, age 31–41 years), N = 1304 participants reported 24-h food and beverage intake. Time-of-day eating patterns were derived by principal components analysis. At follow-up, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview measured lifetime mood disorder. Log binomial and adjacent categories log-link regression were used to examine bidirectional associations between eating patterns and mood disorder. Covariates included sex, age, marital status, social support, education, work schedule, body mass index and smoking.
Three patterns were derived at each time-point: Grazing (intake spread across the day), Traditional (highest intakes reflected breakfast, lunch and dinner), and Late (skipped/delayed breakfast with higher evening intakes). Compared to those in the lowest third of the respective pattern at baseline and follow-up, during the 5-year follow-up, those in the highest third of the Late pattern at both time-points had a higher prevalence of mood disorder [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–3.48], and those in the highest third of the Traditional pattern at both time-points had a lower prevalence of first onset mood disorder (PR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.11–0.87). Participants who experienced a mood disorder during follow-up had a 1.07 higher relative risk of being in a higher Late pattern score category at follow-up than those without mood disorder (95% CI 1.00–1.14).
Non-traditional eating patterns, particularly skipped or delayed breakfast, may be associated with mood disorders.
The frost susceptibility of Australian commercial cereal crops, in particular wheat and barley, has become an economically devastating issue for growers. The relative risk to frost damage of the currently available varieties is obtained through testing varieties in a series of field experiments at locations susceptible to frost events (FEs). The experimental design, measurement protocols and resultant data from these frost expression experiments (FEEs) are complex due to the unpredictability of the timing and severity of FEs, and the maturity of the plants at the time of the events. Design and protocol complexities include the use of multiple sowing dates and the recording of plant maturity. Data difficulties include a high degree of unbalance, and in the instance of multiple frosts in a FEE, there is a longitudinal aspect. A linear mixed model analysis was adopted to accommodate these characteristics of individual FEEs and the multi-environment trial analysis of 17 FEEs. Finally, an approach is demonstrated for dissemination of results that are of use to both growers and breeders.
The physics of a rotary wing in forward flight are highly complex, particularly when flow separation is involved. The purpose of this work is to assess the role of three-dimensional (3-D) vortex dynamics, with a focus on Coriolis forces, in the evolution of vortices in the reverse flow region of a rotating wing. High-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to recreate the flow about a representative rotating wing in forward flight. A vorticity transport analysis was performed to quantify and compare the magnitudes of 2-D flow physics, vortex tilting and Coriolis effects in the resulting flow fields. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics was found to have a very small impact on the growth and behaviour of vortices in the reverse flow region; in fact, the rate of vortex growth was successfully modelled using a simple 2-D vortex method. The small role of 3-D physics was attributed to the Coriolis and vortex tilting terms being approximately equal and opposite to one another. This ultimately lead to vortex behaviour that more closely resembled a surging wing as opposed to a conventional rotating wing, a feature unique to the reverse flow region.
Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
Wind-driven snow redistribution can increase the spatial heterogeneity of snow accumulation on ice caps and ice sheets, and may prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers in areas of marginal glaciation. We present a snowdrift model (Snow_Blow), which extends and improves the model of Purves, Mackaness and Sugden (1999, Journal of Quaternary Science 14, 313–321). The model calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography, using a digital elevation model (DEM) and wind direction as inputs. Improvements include snow redistribution using a flux routing algorithm, DEM resolution independence and the addition of a slope curvature component. This paper tests Snow_Blow in Antarctica (a modern environment) and reveals its potential for application in palaeoenvironmental settings, where input meteorological data are unavailable and difficult to estimate. Specifically, Snow_Blow is applied to the Ellsworth Mountains in West Antarctica where ablation is considered to be predominantly related to wind erosion processes. We find that Snow_Blow is able to replicate well the existing distribution of accumulating snow and snow erosion as recorded in and around Blue Ice Areas. Lastly, a variety of model parameters are tested, including depositional distance and erosion vs wind speed, to provide the most likely input parameters for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.
Informal caregiving may likely increase as the number of cancer survivors grows. Caregiving responsibilities can impact caregivers’ quality of life (QOL). Understanding the current state of the science regarding caregiving QOL could help inform future research and intervention development.
A systematic literature review in PubMed/Medline examined research on QOL among informal cancer caregivers and related psychosocial health outcomes. Original research articles in English, published between 2007 and 2017 about caregivers (aged >18 years) of adult cancer patients in the United States were included. Abstracted articles were categorized according to caregiving recipient's phase of survivorship (acute, middle to long-term, end of life/bereavement).
Of 920 articles abstracted, 60 met inclusion criteria. Mean caregiver age ranged from 37 to 68 with the majority being female, non-Hispanic white, with at least a high school degree, and middle income. Almost half of the studies focused on caregivers who provided care for survivors from diagnosis through the end of active treatment. Studies examined physical health, spirituality, psychological distress, and social support. Differences in QOL were noted by caregiver age, sex, and employment status.
Significance of Results
Additional research includes the examination of the needs of diverse cancer caregivers and determines how additional caregiver characteristics (e.g., physical functioning, financial burden, etc.) affect QOL. This includes studies examining caregiver QOL in the phases following the cessation of active treatment and assessments of health systems, support services, and insurance to determine barriers and facilitators needed to meet the immediate and long-term needs of cancer caregivers.
In 2010, an important earthquake devastated Haiti and caused thousands of deaths. In a social context where women are particularly vulnerable, this cross-sectional study examined the associations between sexual assaults experienced by women before the earthquake, the earthquake exposure, the traumatic consequences, and their satisfaction of social support received.
A total of 660 women aged 18 to 86 completed questionnaires assessing exposure to the earthquake, sexual assault victimization, peritraumatic distress, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social support. A moderated moderation model was computed to examine associations between exposure to the earthquake, sexual assault, social support, and traumatic consequences.
Results showed that 31.06% of women were victims of sexual assault before the earthquake. They presented higher prevalence of peritraumatic distress, PTSD, and depression symptoms, compared to non-victims. The moderated-moderation model showed that sexual assault and exposure to the earthquake were positively associated with traumatic consequences (respectively, B = 0.560, p < 0.001; B = 0.196, p < 0.001), while social support was negatively associated with them (B = −0.095, p < 0.05). Results showed a triple interaction: women victim of sexual assault who were satisfied with received social support are less likely to develop traumatic consequences after being exposed to the earthquake(B = −0.141, p < 0.01).
By demonstrating the role of sexual assault in the development of mental health problems after the Haitian earthquake, this study shows the importance for clinicians to investigate interpersonal trauma experienced before or following natural disasters among survivors. Results also indicate the key role of family and communities to help survivors build resilience and coping strategies with their social support.