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The Veneridae are the most speciose modern family of bivalves, and one of the most morphologically conservative and homoplastic, making subfamily- and sometimes even genus-level classification difficult. The widespread Cretaceous genus Legumen Conrad, 1858 is currently placed in the subfamily Tapetinae of the Veneridae, although it more closely resembles the Solenoida (razor clams, Pharidae and Solenidae) in general shell form. Here we provide high-resolution images of the Legumen hinge for the first time. We confirm from hinge morphology that Legumen belongs in Veneridae, but it should be referred to incertae subfamiliae, rather than retained in the Tapetinae, particularly in light of the incomplete and unstable understanding of venerid systematics. Legumen represents a unique hinge dentition and a shell form—and associated life habit—that is absent in the modern Veneridae despite their taxonomic diversity. Veneridae are hyperdiverse in the modern fauna, but strikingly ‘under-disparate,’ having lost forms while gaining species in the long recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction.
Australian Politics in the Twenty-First Century brings to life traditional institutions, theories and concepts by considering the key question: how are Australia's political institutions holding up in the face of the new challenges, dynamics and turbulence that have emerged and intensified in the new millennium? This approach encourages students to critically examine the complex interplay between a centuries' old system and a diverse, modern Australian society. This text presents the many moving parts of Australia's political system from an institutional perspective: the legislative and judiciary bodies, as well as lobby groups, the media, minor parties and independents, and the citizenry - institutions not often considered but whose influence is rapidly increasing. Student learning is supported through learning objectives, key terms, discussion questions, further readings and breakout boxes that highlight key theories, events and individuals. The extensive resources available in the VitalSource interactive eBook reaffirm comprehension and extend learning.
This study aimed to examine the influence of the complexity of the story-book on caregiver extra-textual talk (i.e., interactions beyond text reading) during shared reading with preschool-age children. Fifty-three mother–child dyads (3;00–4;11) were video-recorded sharing two ostensibly similar picture-books: a simple story (containing no false belief) and a complex story (containing a false belief central to the plot, which provided content that was more challenging for preschoolers to understand). Book-reading interactions were transcribed and coded. Results showed that the complex stories facilitated more extra-textual talk from mothers, and a higher quality of extra-textual talk (as indexed by linguistic richness and level of abstraction). Although the type of story did not affect the number of questions mothers posed, more elaborative follow-ups on children's responses were provided by mothers when sharing complex stories. Complex stories may facilitate more and linguistically richer caregiver extra-textual talk, having implications for preschoolers’ developing language abilities.
Soft matter has historically been an unlikely candidate for investigation by electron microscopy techniques due to damage by the electron beam as well as inherent instability under a high vacuum environment. Characterization of soft matter has often relied on ensemble-scattering techniques. The recent development of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) provides the soft matter community with an exciting opportunity to probe the structure of soft materials in real space. Cryo-TEM reduces beam damage and allows for characterization in a native, frozen-hydrated state, providing direct visual representation of soft structure. This article reviews cryo-TEM in soft materials characterization and illustrates how it has provided unique insights not possible by traditional ensemble techniques. Soft matter systems that have benefited from the use of cryo-TEM include biological-based “soft” nanoparticles (e.g., viruses and conjugates), synthetic polymers, supramolecular materials as well as the organic–inorganic interface of colloidal nanoparticles. Many challenges remain, such as combining structural and chemical analyses; however, the opportunity for soft matter research to leverage newly developed cryo-TEM techniques continues to excite.
Psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, but it is not known whether the associations or the role of sociodemographic factors have changed over time.
To investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and IHD and stroke, by time period and sociodemographic factors.
We used Scottish population-based records from 1991 to 2015 to create retrospective cohorts with a hospital record for psychiatric disorders of interest (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression) or no record of hospital admission for mental illness. We estimated incidence and relative risks of IHD and stroke in people with versus without psychiatric disorders by calendar year, age, gender and area-based deprivation level.
In all cohorts, incidence of IHD (645 393 events) and stroke (276 073 events) decreased over time, but relative risks decreased for depression only. In 2015, at the mean age at event onset, relative risks were 2- to 2.5-fold higher in people with versus without a psychiatric disorder. Age at incidence of outcome differed by cohort, gender and socioeconomic status. Relative but not absolute risks were generally higher in women than men. Increasing deprivation conveys a greater absolute risk of IHD for people with bipolar disorder or depression.
Despite declines in absolute rates of IHD and stroke, relative risks remain high in those with versus without psychiatric disorders. Cardiovascular disease monitoring and prevention approaches may need to be tailored by psychiatric disorder and cardiovascular outcome, and be targeted, for example, by age and deprivation level.
This book is about the strangest animal in the world – the animal that’s reading these words and the animal that wrote them: the human animal. Because we’re so used to being human, and to living with humans, we sometimes don’t notice what a peculiar creature we are. As a corrective, I want to begin by looking at our species from a new perspective. This perspective might initially seem somewhat alien to you… but so it should because that’s the perspective we’ll be using. We’ll be looking at our species through the eyes of a hypothetical, hyperintelligent alien – an anthropologist from the planet Betelgeuse III – as it visits the Earth on an intergalactic Beagle and studies us “as someone with a microscope studies creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water.” But this isn’t just any old hyperintelligent alien. It’s a gender-neutral, asexual, asocial, amoral, areligious, and amusical alien. It is, in other words, a stranger to many elements of human life that are so familiar to us that we simply take them for granted. And that’s why its perspective is useful. The alien’s uncomprehending eyes will make the familiar seem strange, waking us to aspects of humanity that we normally overlook and which are so deeply ingrained that we don’t even notice require an explanation.
I first heard this wisecrack as a graduate student in psychology, and it instantly rang true. In everyday life, most people recognize that the sexes differ. We see it at school; we see it at work; we see it in our kids and in ourselves. To start with, we know that men and women have different bodies and reproductive equipment, that men are generally larger and stronger, and that women generally live longer. But we also know that the differences are not just physical. We know that men watch more sports and more porn, whereas women watch more rom-coms and read more. We know that men are more inclined toward violence and more likely to end up in prison, whereas women are more likely to take sensible precautions. We know that men are more interested in things and machines, whereas women are more interested in people. And we know that men are more likely to go into “nerdy” professions such as math or engineering, whereas women are more likely to go into the caring professions and to spend more time looking after children.
In 2011, the Australian state of Queensland suffered extreme flooding. As with any disaster, this one left many tales of heroism in its wake. Among the most poignant is the story of thirteen-year-old Jordan Rice. Jordan had been out shopping with his mum, Donna, and his younger brother, Blake. They were in the car heading home when, out of the blue, they found themselves caught in the middle of a flash flood. Unable to drive any further, and unable to get to dry land, the three scrambled onto the roof of the car and then sat there, stranded in the middle of a violent torrent of water. Fortunately, some bystanders saw what had happened. One man – Warren McErlean – tied one end of a rope to a post, and the other around his waist, and then pushed his way through the rapidly rising waters to the car. He reached for Jordan, but Jordan pulled away, begging him to save his little brother first. McErlean complied: He picked Blake up and carried him quickly to safety. Before he had time to rescue the others, however, a sudden surge of water flipped the car. Jordan and his mum were swept away and killed.
To say that human beings are interesting is an understatement. We’re freaks of nature! We’re blobs of matter that fall in love with each other. We’re mammals with the child-rearing patterns of birds. We’re mortal beings that, alone among the animals, know that we’re going to die one day and flee in terror from this knowledge. We’re bald apes that can think each other’s thoughts simply by making noises at each other. We’re creatures designed by a cruel, amoral process which invent moral codes for ourselves and sometimes even live up to them. We’re carnivores that sympathize with our food. We’re biological mechanisms designed to pass on our genes, but which fritter away our time playing games and weaving a web of fantasy around ourselves. We’re clusters of chemical reactions that contemplate deep truths about the nature of reality. And we’re little pieces of the Earth that can get outside our mother planet and venture to other worlds.