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Involving stakeholders has been acknowledged as a way to improve quality and relevance in health research. The mechanisms that support effective research engagement with stakeholders have not been studied in the area of concussion. Concussion is a large public health concern worldwide with billions of dollars spent on health care services and research with improvements in care and service delivery not moving forward as quickly as desired. Enabling effective stakeholder engagement could improve concussion research and care.
The aim of the study was to identify potential benefits, challenges, and motivators to engaging in research by gathering the perspectives of adults with lived experience of concussion.
A thematic analysis of qualitative responses collected from a convenience sample attending a provincial brain injury conference (n = 60) was undertaken using open coding followed by axial coding.
Four themes regarding benefits to engagement emerged: first-hand account, meaningful recovery, research relevance, and better understanding of gaps. Three forces inhibited engagement: environmental barriers, injury-related constraints, and personal deterrents. Four enablers supported engagement: focus on positive impact, build connections, create a supportive environment, and provide financial assistance.
Understanding stakeholder’s perspectives on research engagement is an important issue that may serve to improve research quality. There may be unique nuances at play with injury-specific stakeholders that require researchers to consider a balance between reducing inhibitors while supporting enablers. These findings are preliminary and limited. Nevertheless, they provide needed insight and guidance for ongoing investigation regarding improvement of stakeholder engagement in concussion research.
The primary objective of sustainable archaeology is to maintain the profession of archaeology—that is, to sustain itself. An effort to rebrand the discipline as virtuous, sustainable archaeology is self-serving and reflects larger institutional anxieties around an unethical past and an uncertain future. An example of futurist rhetoric and doublespeak, sustainable archaeology exists because archaeology is unsustainable.
Food insecurity (FI) is a challenge to policy makers worldwide, who need to understand which polices and programmes are effective at overcoming FI. The present study aimed to examine the impact of family income and conditional cash transfers on changes in household FI status in a highly vulnerable municipality in Northeast Brazil.
A population-based longitudinal cohort study among families in a municipality in the semi-arid area in Northeast Brazil (2011 and 2014). FI was estimated with the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA). The effects of family income and cash transfer on changes in FI were estimated using logistic regression models and the population-attributable risk fraction.
Households in Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.
Household respondents interviewed in 2011 (n 358) and 2014 (n 326).
There was a reduction in FI prevalence of 17·5 % across time; 24·5 % of families who were food insecure in 2011 became food secure in 2014. After adjustment, families that did not experience an increase in their total household income or a reduction in the cash transfer amount were at increased risk of persistent FI across time. If the cash transfer programme had not been in place, about 10 % of the families that switched from food insecure to food secure across time would have remained in FI instead.
The decrease of FI occurred in an area of extreme climatic and social vulnerability. These changes were more related to the cash transfer than the increase in family income over time.
Strongyle infection is an important issue in horse breeding. It impairs horse health and performance, with young horses being the most sensitive. Strongyle control has long relied on the systematic use of chemical treatments. However, expanding anthelmintic resistance among strongyles calls for alternative options. Mixed grazing is assumed to reduce strongyle load on the pasture as the result of a dilution effect. This has been shown in small ruminants grazing with cattle, but the putative benefits of co-grazing between horses and cattle have not yet been evaluated. Here, we conducted field surveys and face-to-face interviews on 44 farms from two contrasted saddle-horse production areas, Normandy and northern Massif Central, to compare equine strongyle management practices between specialized systems and mixed horse-cattle systems. Our goals were (i) to quantify breeders’ awareness of the putative benefits associated with the co-grazing of horses and cattle, (ii) to establish whether mixed farming was associated with different strongyle management strategies and (iii) to test whether strongyle egg excretion was reduced in horses grazed with beef cattle. Every breeder relied on systematic calendar treatments, and only 8 out of the 23 mixed breeders were aware that co-grazing of horses with cattle could be used as part of their strongyle control strategy. Management practices were similar across both systems in Normandy. In Massif Central, mixed breeders formed a distinct cluster from their specialized counterparts: deworming was less frequent and stocking density was higher in mixed farms, while specialized breeders seemed more willing to integrate herd and plot management into control strategies. Faecal egg counts measured in horses from Massif Central were significantly reduced when horses were grazed with cattle. This was the result of an increased reliance on macrocyclic lactones in mixed farms (P < 0.01) and a significant dilution effect (P < 0.01). When considering a subsample of horses treated with macrocyclic lactones only, young horses grazed with cattle had 50% fewer strongyle eggs excreted in their faeces than horses grazed in equine-only pastures (P < 0.01). This is the first evidence of the benefits of mixed grazing with cattle as an alternative to control strongyle infection in horses, although this promising alternative remains largely unknown by horse breeders.
To compare the dietary habits of children living in northern villages and in the capital of Greenland, given the reported transition from traditional to westernised diet in adults over recent decades, and to explore the association between consumption of marine mammals and fish (MMF) and the children’s metabolic profile and vitamin D status.
Children answered an FFQ encompassing sixty-four individual food types pooled into six food categories. Their pubertal stage, body fat, fitness level, metabolic profile (non-HDL-cholesterol, glycated Hb, insulin, glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) as well as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration were evaluated.
Siorapaluk and Qaanaaq (north of Greenland) and Nuuk (west).
Children aged 6–18 years (n 177).
MMF were most frequently eaten by children from Siorapaluk (mean (sd): 73·4 (14·1) times/month), followed by children from Qaanaaq (37·0 (25·0) times/month), and least often eaten by children from Nuuk (23·7 (24·6) times/month; P < 0·001). Children from Qaanaaq consumed ‘junk food’ more frequently (P < 0·001) and fruits and vegetables less frequently (P < 0·01) than children from Nuuk. MMF consumption was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration (P < 0·05), but the overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high (18 %). No association was found between MMF consumption and metabolic parameters.
The dietary transition and influence of western diets have spread to the north of Greenland and only the most remote place consumed a traditional diet highly based on MMF. We found no strong associations of MMF consumption with metabolic health, but a positive association with vitamin D status.
We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of pasta enriched with legume or wheat gluten proteins and dried at varying temperature. A total of four isonitrogenous experimental diets were produced using gluten powder/wheat semolina (6/94, g/g) pasta and faba bean flour/wheat semolina (35/65, g/g) pasta dried at either 55°C (GLT and FLT, respectively) or 90°C (FVHT and GVHT, respectively). Experimental diets were fed to ten 1-month-old Wistar rats (body weight=176 (sem 15) g) for 21 d. Growth and nutritional, metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured and compared with an isonitrogenous casein diet (CD). The enrichment with faba bean increased the lysine, threonine and branched amino acids by 97, 23 and 10 %, respectively. Protein utilisation also increased by 75 % (P<0·01) in FLT in comparison to GLT diet, without any effect on the corrected faecal digestibility (P>0·05). Faba bean pasta diets' corrected protein digestibility and utilisation was only 3·5 and 9 %, respectively, lower than the CD. Growth rate, blood composition and muscle weights were not generally different with faba bean pasta diets compared with CD. Corrected protein digestibility was 3 % lower in GVHT than GLT, which may be associated with greater carboxymethyllysine. This study in growing rats clearly indicates improvement in growth performance of rats fed legume-enriched pasta diet compared with rats fed gluten–wheat pasta diet, regardless of pasta drying temperature. This means faba bean flour can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of pasta.
The Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA) has eight general/adult items applied in all households and six additional items exclusively asked in households with children and/or adolescents (HHCA). Continuing an investigation programme on the adequacy of model-based cut-off points for EBIA, the present study aims to: (i) explore the capacity of properly stratifying HHCA according to food insecurity (FI) severity level by applying only the eight ‘generic’ items; and (ii) compare it against the fourteen-item scale.
Latent class factor analysis (LCFA) models were applied to the answers to the eight general/adult items to identify latent groups corresponding to FI levels and optimal group-separating cut-off points. Analyses involved a thorough classification agreement evaluation and were performed at the national level and by macro-regions.
Data derived from the cross-sectional Brazilian National Household Sample Survey of 2013.
A nationally representative sample of 116 543 households.
In all households and investigated domains, LCFA detected four distinct household food (in)security groups (food security and three levels of severity of FI) and the same set of cut-off points (1/2, 4/5 and 6/7). Misclassification in the aggregate data was 0·66 % in adult-only households and 1·06 % in HHCA. Comparison of the scale reduced to eight items with the ‘original’ fourteen-item scale demonstrated consistency in the classification. In HHCA, the agreement between both classifications was 96·2 %.
Results indicate the eight ‘generic’ items in HHCA can be reliably used when it is not possible to apply the fourteen-item scale.
The present study aimed to compare Household Budget Survey (HBS) data on food purchasing and individual food consumption, collected in the same nationwide survey.
Food purchase information for each household was collected by a seven-day collective acquisition diary, applied to 55 970 households. Food consumption information was obtained from household members over 10 years old by the application of two non-consecutive food records in a sub-sample of the HBS. Cooking and correction factors were applied when necessary, and all food items reported were grouped into twelve main food groups. Food purchase and consumption data were presented as absolute weight (g/person per d) and as relative contribution to energy intake (%) for the overall study population, which was stratified according to household income.
National estimates of food consumption and purchase for Brazil.
The greatest differences between purchase and consumption data (purchase minus consumption) were observed for meat (−168 g), beans/legumes (−48 g), roots/tubers (−36 g) and fruits (−31 g). When expressed in terms of energy contribution, the highest differences were found for cereals (13 %) and oils and fats (11 %). Differences between purchase and consumption data were generally lower in the highest compared with the lowest household income quintile; and were lower for most main food groups when considering only foods reported as being eaten at home.
With few exceptions, food purchase expressed as relative energy contribution, as opposed to absolute weight, can provide a good picture of actual consumption in the Brazilian population.
Ironstone outcrop habitats harbour rare and endemic rupicolous plants. In southeast Brazil, they concentrate on mountaintops in the Iron Quadrangle (IQ), an intensively exploited iron ore reserve. To evaluate the current habitat availability of 32 plants endemic to canga (ironstone outcrops) and to support priority conservation areas and actions, we compared their functional connectivity in the IQ before (1960s) and after (2014) massive habitat loss to opencast mining. The Integral Index of Connectivity and associated metrics of habitat availability were used to evaluate present and past connectivity at a threshold distance of 500 m. The overall canga habitat loss up to 2014 was 50%. The historical configuration of 334 patches totalling 18 654 ha was already disconnected and the proportion of patches acting as relevant stepping stones was thus very low. Furthermore, in both the historical and current settings, the largest contribution to habitat availability came from ‘intrapatch connectivity’ (i.e., patch area), especially in the east sector. All the IQ canga endemics fall into the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Critically Endangered category and require protection. The recommended strategy for their conservation is to protect large, preferably well-preserved ironstone patches. This measure will require finding the middle ground between economic development and conservation of natural heritage.
The authors respond to the recent debate piece in Antiquity by González-Ruibal et al., which they claim misrepresents public archaeology by ignoring the dominant practice of cultural resource management (CRM).
In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.