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Digital platforms controlled by Alibaba, Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, Netflix, Tencent and Uber have transformed not only the ways we do business, but also the very nature of people's everyday lives. It is of vital importance that we understand the economic principles governing how these platforms operate. This book explains the driving forces behind any platform business with a focus on network effects. The authors use short case studies and real-world applications to explain key concepts such as how platforms manage network effects and which price and non-price strategies they choose. This self-contained text is the first to offer a systematic and formalized account of what platforms are and how they operate, concisely incorporating path-breaking insights in economics over the last twenty years.
This volume addresses current concerns about the climate and environmental sustainability by exploring one of the key drivers of contemporary environmental problems: the role of status competition in generating what we consume, and what we throw away, to the detriment of the planet. Across time and space, humans have pursued social status in many different ways - through ritual purity, singing or dancing, child-bearing, bodily deformation, even headhunting. In many of the world's most consumptive societies, however, consumption has become closely tied to how individuals build and communicate status. Given this tight link, people will be reluctant to reduce consumption levels – and environmental impact -- and forego their ability to communicate or improve their social standing. Drawing on cross-cultural and archaeological evidence, this book asks how a stronger understanding of the links between status and consumption across time, space, and culture might bend the curve towards a more sustainable future.
Written by a team of leading international scholars, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and War illuminates the ways Shakespeare's works provide a rich and imaginative resource for thinking about the topic of war. Contributors explore the multiplicity of conflicting perspectives his dramas offer: war depicted from chivalric, masculine, nationalistic, and imperial perspectives; war depicted as a source of great excitement and as a theater of honor; war depicted from realistic or skeptical perspectives that expose the butchery, suffering, illness, famine, degradation, and havoc it causes. The essays in this volume examine the representations and rhetoric of war throughout Shakespeare's plays, as well as the modern history of the war plays on stage, in film, and in propaganda. This book offers fresh perspectives on Shakespeare's multifaceted representations of the complexities of early modern warfare, while at the same time illuminating why his perspectives on war and its consequences continue to matter now and in the future.
In this book, Paul Moser explores Jesus' role as God's filial inquirer and clarifies a method of inquiry regarding Jesus, one that offers a compelling explanation regarding his experiential impact and his audience's response. Moser's method values the roles of history and moral/religious experience in inquiry about him, and it saves inquirers from distorting biases in their inquiry. His study illuminates Jesus' puzzling features, including his challenging question for inquirers of him (Who do you say I am?), his distinctive experience of God as father, his reference to himself as 'the son of man', his attitude toward his suffering and death, his unique role in the kingdom of God, and his understanding of his allegedly miraculous signs and of his parables and good news. The book also makes sense of evidence for the reality and the main purpose of Jesus.
This provocative new history of early modern Europe argues that changes in the generation, preservation and circulation of information, chiefly on newly available and affordable paper, constituted an 'information revolution'. In commerce, finance, statecraft, scholarly life, science, and communication, early modern Europeans were compelled to place a new premium on information management. These developments had a profound and transformative impact on European life. The huge expansion in paper records and the accompanying efforts to store, share, organize and taxonomize them are intertwined with many of the essential developments in the early modern period, including the rise of the state, the Print Revolution, the Scientific Revolution, and the Republic of Letters. Engaging with historical questions across many fields of human activity, Paul M. Dover interprets the historical significance of this 'information revolution' for the present day, and suggests thought-provoking parallels with the informational challenges of the digital age.
Pressure on large fluvial lowlands has increased tremendously during the past twenty years because of flood control, urbanization, and increased dependence upon floodplains and deltas for food production. This book examines human impacts on lowland rivers, and discusses how these changes affect different types of riverine environments and flood processes. Surveying a global range of large rivers, it provides a primary focus on the lower Rhine River in the Netherlands and the Lower Mississippi River in Louisiana. A particular focus of the book is on geo-engineering, which is described in a straight-forward writing style that is accessible to a broad audience of advanced students, researchers, and practitioners in global environmental change, fluvial geomorphology and sedimentology, and flood and water management.
Obesity is a pressing social issue and a persistently newsworthy topic for the media. This book examines the linguistic representation of obesity in the British press. It combines techniques from corpus linguistics with critical discourse studies to analyse a large corpus of newspaper articles (36 million words) representing ten years of obesity coverage. These articles are studied from a range of methodological perspectives, and analytical themes include variation between newspapers, change over time, diet and exercise, gender and social class. The volume also investigates the language that readers use when responding to obesity representations in the context of online comments. The authors reveal the power of linguistic choices to shame and stigmatise people with obesity, presenting them as irresponsible and morally deviant. Yet the analysis also demonstrates the potential for alternative representations which place greater focus on the role that social and political forces play in this topical health issue.
An R Companion for the Third Edition of The Fundamentals of Political Science Research offers students a chance to delve into the world of R using real political data sets and statistical analysis techniques directly from Paul M. Kellstedt and Guy D. Whitten's best-selling textbook. Built in parallel with the main text, this workbook teaches students to apply the techniques they learn in each chapter by reproducing the analyses and results from each lesson using R. Students will also learn to create all of the tables and figures found in the textbook, leading to an even greater mastery of the core material. This accessible, informative, and engaging companion walks through the use of R step-by-step, using command lines and screenshots to demonstrate proper use of the software. With the help of these guides, students will become comfortable creating, editing, and using data sets in R to produce original statistical analyses for evaluating causal claims. End-of-chapter exercises encourage this innovation by asking students to formulate and evaluate their own hypotheses.
History will mark the twenty-first century as the dawn of the age of precise genetic manipulation. Breakthroughs in genome editing are poised to enable humankind to fundamentally transform life on Earth. Those familiar with genome editing understand its potential to revolutionize civilization in ways that surpass the impact of the discovery of electricity and the development of gunpowder, the atomic bomb, or the Internet. Significant questions regarding how society should promote or hinder genome editing loom large in the horizon. And it is up to humans to decide the fate of this powerful technology. Rewriting Nature is a compelling, though-provoking interdisciplinary exploration of the law, science, and policy of genome editing. The book guides readers through complex legal, scientific, ethical, political, economic, and social issues concerning this emerging technology, and challenges the conventional false dichotomy often associated with science and law, which contributes to a growing divide between both fields.
This book is published in the new series Tamesis Studies in Popular and Digital Cultures, edited by Thea Pitman and Stephanie Dennison, scholars known for their pioneering publications on Latin American digital culture and transnational cinema (Dennison, Contemporary Hispanic Cinema; Pitman, Latin American Identity). I am most grateful to professors Pitman and Dennison for their valuable initiative, and to the anonymous readers for their acute comments. I thank Dr. Megan Milan, commissioning editor at Tamesis, for her exceptional kindness and efficiency in the whole production process. Finally, I thank Patricia Arriaga Jordán, executive producer of Canal Once's Malinche, for permission to use an image from her miniseries on the cover of this book. One note is sadly necessary: although I refer briefly in the third and the final chapters to COVID-19, the rest of the book was written before the pandemic so gravely affected the audiovisual scene, and indeed life in general, in Mexico.
In a chapter of a previous book, I identified a trend that I called “post-homophobic” comedy in Mexico: mainstream feature films, such as Macho (Antonio Serrano, 2016) and Hazlo como hombre (“Do It Like an Hombre,” Nicolás López, 2017), in which it is not homosexuality but homophobia that is presented as humorous; and it is not the gay character but the macho man who is the butt of the joke (Smith, Multiplatform 45–60). In this first chapter I will suggest that a parallel phenomenon is what we might call “post-patriarchal” comedy. Just as the post-homophobic films assume a progressive society (and commercial movie audience) for whom homophobia is a ridiculous anomaly and gayness universally acceptable, so these post-patriarchal films are based on the premise that in modern Mexico (as in Spain) the old-school patriarch is a figure of fun; and women, especially working women, are deserving of not just gender equality but full autonomy.
My two trans-Atlantic texts here, both given wide and successful commercial releases at home in 2018 and thus too recent to have received academic attention, are versions of a Chilean original by Nicolás López once more, Sin filtro (“No Filter,” 2016). Currently available on streaming services, the Mexican remake is called Una mujer sin filtro (“A Woman with No Filter,” Luis Eduardo Reyes), and the near simultaneous Spanish version is Sin rodeos (“Empowered,” Santiago Segura). The shared protagonist of the trans-Atlantic franchise is a troubled and submissive woman named with transparent irony “Paz” (“Peace”), a creative executive at an advertising agency, who is exploited by a deadbeat husband and ungrateful stepson at home and an insulting boss and asinine digital media rival at work.
The two films’ shared premise is that, after drinking a supposedly magic potion, Paz is suddenly compelled to speak the unvarnished truth to all those she has previously suffered in silence. Strikingly, in both versions female acquaintances are almost as abusive as the males: Paz's selfish sister offloads her beloved cat on to the harassed heroine (inevitably it dies); her best friend is a gym- and cell-phone-addict (the phone will end up at the bottom of a swimming pool).
Malinche is a series created by Patricia Arriaga Jordán for Mexico's public TV channel Canal Once. It premiered in 2018 and was acclaimed by the Mexican press as the most anticipated show of the year (Cueva, “La serie”). The five hour-long episodes (supplemented by a full-length “making-of “ that serves as a sixth installment) track the Spanish Conquest of Mexico and destruction of the Mexica (Aztec) Empire from the perspective of the conquistador Cortés's interpreter. While little is known historically about Malinche, who is generally condemned as a traitor by modern Mexicans (“malinchismo” means to put the interests of another country above one's own), contemporary Spanish sources describe her respectfully as a noblewoman, lending her the honorific title “Doña.” Her Nahuatl name of “Malinzin” equally pays tribute to her high social position. This was in spite of the fact that when Malinche first encountered Cortés she was reduced to the status of a slave. Arriaga intends, then, to reinvest her subject with the respect that she once managed to achieve against all the odds.
Malinche is a real-life figure who was a major actor in history. Indeed, she is often depicted in contemporary drawings as larger in size than Cortés and even lent her name to her supposed master, who was dubbed by the Mexica “El Malinche.” Eye-witness chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo, a minor character in the series, wrote at the time that the woman he called “Doña Marina” was the “absolute ruler of the Indians in all of New Spain” and compares her story, of slavery and redemption, to that of Joseph in the Bible (Díaz del Castillo 130). Yet, the legacy of Cortés's translator (described appropriately enough in primary sources as his “lengua” or “tongue”) remains much contested, not least by feminists and nationalists, who have viewed her alternately as either a collaborator or a resistor to a patriarchal and colonial regime. And beyond her role as interpreter, Malinche can also be seen in different lights as being either an honored consort or a victim of rape, bearing Cortés as she did an illegitimate son. Her legacy has also long been explored in the USA by Chicanas.
In 2019 a fiction feature premiered at Morelia that became known as the “anti-Roma.” Xquipi’ Guie’dani / El ombligo de Guie’dani (“Guie’dani's Navel”) tells the story of a modern-day mother and daughter who travel to Mexico City from their village in Oaxaca to live and work as domestic laborers in a rich family's home. It was said by the Mexican press to be the “antithesis” of Cuarón's much-heralded masterpiece that had been released by Netflix just months earlier (Ramírez).
El ombligo de Guie’dani was on the same subject as Roma and engaged the same fraught intersection of gender, class, and ethnicity. It also featured dialogue in an indigenous language (in this case Zapotec, not Mixtec). But now the domestic worker protagonist was openly rebellious, reflecting what the director, Xavi Sala, called “the warlike spirit” of the women of her community (Ramírez). In presenting the film at Morelia, where it was described as a “mirror of Mexican society,” the Alicante-born director went further, suggesting a kinship between his experience as a native Catalan speaker and that of indigenous people, who are likewise socially excluded by a hegemonic Spanish language that is not their own (Aranza Flores). Meanwhile, back in Spain, El ombligo de Guie’dani would win an award at the Huelva festival, acclaimed as the film that best captured the “reality” of Latin America today (Ramírez).
Clearly, whatever its intrinsic merits, El ombligo de Guie’dani raises thorny institutional or ideological questions that I treated in my chapter on festivals: the problem of Europeans who serve as gatekeepers to what counts as Latin American cinema at home and abroad; and that of individual films that, when they circulate in the North, are made to stand in for complex countries and lengthy cinematic traditions. Yet the evident common ground between festival film El ombligo de Guie’dani and Netflix original Roma must make us question the status of a feature that is generally experienced as an exceptional title by a unique director. The aim of this final chapter, or coda, is similarly to recontextualize Cuarón's film, habitually isolated as an Oscar-winning sensation, within Mexican cinema and Mexican multimedia.