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Evolutionary developmental psychology examines development through the lens of evolutionary theory. We first discuss adaptations of infancy and childhood, including ontogenetic, deferred, and conditional adaptations. The important ontogenetic adaptations reviewed include neonatal imitation and cognitive immaturity during childhood. Sex differences in play style as deferred adaptations are also discussed. Conditional adaptations, with children adjusting their developmental trajectory as a function of early life conditions, are examined from the perspective of life history theory. We then provide a framework for how adaptations develop, discussing evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms, evolved information-processing mechanisms that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. We provide examples of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms from the domains of infant face perception, social learning, prepared fears, and tool use. Adaptations are central to an evolutionary psychological explication, and understanding how such adaptations develop enhances our understanding of adaptations.
Most older adults perceive themselves as good drivers; however, their perception may not be accurate, and could negatively affect their driving safety. This study examined the accuracy of older drivers’ self-awareness of driving ability in their everyday driving environment by determining the concordance between the perceived (assessed by the Perceived Driving Ability [PDA] questionnaire) and actual (assessed by electronic Driving Observation Schedule [eDOS]) driving performance. One hundred and eight older drivers (male: 67.6%; age: mean = 80.6 years, standard deviation [SD] = 4.9 years) who participated in the study were classified into three groups: underestimation (19%), accurate estimation (29%), and overestimation (53%). Using the demographic and clinical functioning information collected in the Candrive annual assessments, an ordinal regression showed that two factors were related to the accuracy of self-awareness: older drivers with better visuo-motor processing speed measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and fewer self-reported comorbid conditions tended to overestimate their driving ability, and vice versa.
To evaluate the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) standardized infection ratio (SIR) risk adjustment for general acute-care hospitals with large numbers of intensive care unit (ICU), oncology unit, and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Eight tertiary-care referral general hospitals in California.
We used FY 2016 data and the published 2015 rebaseline NHSN HO-CDI SIR. We compared facility-wide inpatient HO-CDI events and SIRs, with and without ICU data, oncology and/or HCT unit data, and ICU bed adjustment.
For these hospitals, the median unmodified HO-CDI SIR was 1.24 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.15–1.34); 7 hospitals qualified for the highest ICU bed adjustment; 1 hospital received the second highest ICU bed adjustment; and all had oncology-HCT units with no additional adjustment per the NHSN. Removal of ICU data and the ICU bed adjustment decreased HO-CDI events (median, −25%; IQR, −20% to −29%) but increased the SIR at all hospitals (median, 104%; IQR, 90%–105%). Removal of oncology-HCT unit data decreased HO-CDI events (median, −15%; IQR, −14% to −21%) and decreased the SIR at all hospitals (median, −8%; IQR, −4% to −11%).
For tertiary-care referral hospitals with specialized ICUs and a large number of ICU beds, the ICU bed adjustor functions as a global adjustment in the SIR calculation, accounting for the increased complexity of patients in ICUs and non-ICUs at these facilities. However, the SIR decrease with removal of oncology and HCT unit data, even with the ICU bed adjustment, suggests that an additional adjustment should be considered for oncology and HCT units within general hospitals, perhaps similar to what is done for ICU beds in the current SIR.
There is evidence that the risk of stranded assets in the oil and gas sector is underpriced in financial markets. Publicly traded Western oil and gas companies are starting to write down assets, opening up the possibility that more rationalisation of value is likely to come. To the extent that large oil companies diversify portfolios to include cleaner energy and carbon sequestration technologies, it could reduce the risk of a sudden cascading change in the stock valuation of these firms and related bond and credit markets. Instead, the vast majority of oil and gas assets that will be stranded are in the control of sovereign states whose national budgets are highly dependent on oil and gas revenues. Thus, the problem of stranded asset risk for the oil and gas sector may be most relevant in markets for sovereign credit as well as risks that go beyond financial losses.
SDG 10 calls for reducing inequalities within and among countries. This chapter evaluates the potential effects of addressing SDG 10 from an environmental justice perspective, which comprises three interrelated dimensions: representative, recognition and distributive justice. We find considerable synergies and complementarities between the SDG 10 targets and goals of environmental justice. However, the disjuncture between SDG 10 and environmental goals within the SDGs may undermine efforts to promote environmental justice. Trade is not included in SDG 10; this is an important gap as markets for forest products can drive forest resource extraction, exacerbating inequalities among actors within global production networks. If SDG 10 addresses structural inequalities, it is also likely to support distributive, representational and recognition justice for forest-dependent populations. However, the myopic translation of its aspirational targets into easily measurable indicators may dampen the potential effects of addressing SDG10 in advancing environmental justice. Addressing ‘migration’ related targets and indicators is likely to elevate the importance of these issues in forestry policy and research, while also prompting a re-thinking of some of the underlying assumptions informing existing research in forestry.
To perform the preliminary tests of coarctation of aorta repair trainer, evaluate the surgical properties of the simulation and to assess and enhance residents’ skills.
Single patient’s angio-CT anatomy data were converted into magnified 3D-printed model of aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch, serving for creation of a mould used during wax copies casting. Wax cores were painted with six layers of elastic silicone and melted, yielding phantoms that were consecutively fixed in a mounting with and without a thoracic wall. Simulation included: proximal and distal aortic arch clamping, incision of its lesser curvature, extended end-to-end anastomosis with 7-0 suture. A head-mounted camera video recording enabled anastomosis time and mean one suture bite time evaluation. Leakage assessment was done by a water test.
Two residents performed nine simulations each. Last four runs were performed with thoracic wall attached. All phantoms performed well, enabling tissue-like handling and cutting, excellent suture retention, and satisfactory elasticity. Median anastomosis times were 22′33″ and 24′47″ for phantoms without and with thoracic wall (p = not significant (NS)). Median times needed to pass suture through one side of anastomosis and regrasp needle were, respectively, 9″ and 13″ (p < 0.001). Median total number of leakages per phantom equalled 2 for both difficulty levels. There were no significant inter-resident differences in all assessed parameters.
This medium-fidelity aortic coarctation repair trainer showed its feasibility in replication of major critical steps of the real operation. Objective surgical efficiency parameters could be obtained from each simulation and compared between trainees and at different adjustable difficulty levels.
Human use of estuarine shellfish and other coastal marsh resources began on California's Santa Rosa Island at least 11 800–11 100 years ago. Productive estuaries in California and elsewhere in the Americas were present by the Late Pleistocene, providing shellfish, waterfowl, fish and seaweeds that attracted some of the First Americans.
Ultimately, General Robert E. Lee would agree with his subordinate Tom Rosser, almost completely. Guerrilla service, under any guise or definition, was not the West Point way. It did not respect the official chain of command, some Southerners’ notions of honor and legitimate warfare, and much of its activity fell into the liminal, gray area still being hotly debated and defined by the nation’s legal minds in relation to the laws of war. Lee endorsed the repeal of the Confederacy’s authorized service of partisan rangers, but in January 1864 he also endorsed the promotion of John Mosby to lieutenant colonel at the head of his own ranger battalion, an acknowledgment of the value of efficient and controllable officers of the partisan service. In February 1864 the Confederate Congress repealed the Partisan Ranger Act at Lee’s request with only Mosby’s and John “Hanse” McNeill’s commands retained for official service. Yet, that hardly ended the story of the Confederacy’s guerrillas because Pandora’s box had long been open.
Forty years ago, Knut Fladmark (1979) argued that the Pacific Coast offered a viable alternative to the ice-free corridor model for the initial peopling of the Americas—one of the first to support a “coastal migration theory” that remained marginal for decades. Today, the pre-Clovis occupation at the Monte Verde site is widely accepted, several other pre-Clovis sites are well documented, investigations of terminal Pleistocene subaerial and submerged Pacific Coast landscapes have increased, and multiple lines of evidence are helping decode the nature of early human dispersals into the Americas. Misconceptions remain, however, about the state of knowledge, productivity, and deglaciation chronology of Pleistocene coastlines and possible technological connections around the Pacific Rim. We review current evidence for several significant clusters of early Pacific Coast archaeological sites in North and South America that include sites as old or older than Clovis. We argue that stemmed points, foliate points, and crescents (lunates) found around the Pacific Rim may corroborate genomic studies that support an early Pacific Coast dispersal route into the Americas. Still, much remains to be learned about the Pleistocene colonization of the Americas, and multiple working hypotheses are warranted.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
Coastal archaeology is vulnerable to climate change, making the development of new techniques for the rapid recovery of information from the most threatened sites essential. The authors report a systematic kayak survey of a Chesapeake Bay sub-estuary undertaken during the winter months, when low tides and reduced vegetation maximise the visibility of archaeological material. Locations in the vulnerable intertidal zone were targeted for survey. Data were collected for 24 archaeological sites, illuminating local settlement chronology. This technique could be used for the survey of endangered coastal archaeology in other regions of the world.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14 weeks in women showing low- or high-satiety responsiveness (low- or high-satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)) measured by a standardised protocol. Food preferences and energy intake (EI) after low and high energy-density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n 52 analysed; 41·24 (SD 12·54) years; 34·02 (sd 3·58) kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programmes underwent LED and HED laboratory test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED food (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack EI were assessed in response to equienergetic LED and HED breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the programme. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n 26) and HSP (n 26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared with HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED foods, and under HED conditions, consumed more snacks (kJ) compared with HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with programme adherence. In conclusion, low-satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
The opportunity to comment on Jacqueline Mowbray’s discussion of Julius Stone is doubly welcome. Not only does it afford me the opportunity to engage in a set of scholarly issues that have long interested me at the intersection of law and history, but it has also exposed me to a fascinating figure, Stone, about whom I knew precious little. Stone’s life story is, on my very basic reading, one of intriguing tensions: exclusion and high attainment, a sweeping catholicity of mind and a certain rigidity of disposition, and a keen concern for the fate of minorities alongside a surprising tone-deafness to the plight of one in particular. Mowbray skillfully teases out another defining tension: Stone’s commitment to the ideal of objectivity, borne of the outsider’s perspective, and his recognition, resulting from his commitment to cross-cultural analysis, of the inescapability of a measure of relativism in scholarly inquiry.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.