To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Image review on computer-based workstations has made film-based review outdated. Despite advances in technology, the lack of portability of digital workstations creates an inherent disadvantage. As such, we sought to determine if the quality of image review on a handheld device is adequate for routine clinical use. Methods: Six CT/CTA cases and six MR/MRA cases were independently reviewed by three neuroradiologists in varying environments: high and low ambient light using a handheld device and on a traditional imaging workstation in ideal conditions. On first review (using a handheld device in high ambient light), a preliminary diagnosis for each case was made. Upon changes in review conditions, neuroradiologists were asked if any additional features were seen that changed their initial diagnoses. Reviewers were also asked to comment on overall clinical quality and if the handheld display was of acceptable quality for image review. Results: After the initial CT review in high ambient light, additional findings were reported in 2 of 18 instances on subsequent reviews. Similarly, additional findings were identified in 4 of 18 instances after the initial MR review in high ambient lighting. Only one of these six additional findings contributed to the diagnosis made on the initial preliminary review. Conclusions: Use of a handheld device for image review is of adequate diagnostic quality based on image contrast, sharpness of structures, visible artefacts and overall display quality. Although reviewers were comfortable with using this technology, a handheld device with a larger screen may be diagnostically superior.
Exploring Language and Linguistics considers the key concepts of linguistics and the application of these concepts to real-world settings. The first eight chapters cover the standard topics of introduction to linguistics courses, while subsequent chapters introduce students to applied topics such as media discourse, literary linguistics and psycholinguistics. Each chapter has been written by a subject expert and experienced teacher, ensuring that the text is both up-to-date and clearly presented. Numerous learning features provide extensive student support: exercises allow students to review their understanding of key topics; summaries encourage students to reflect on the main points of each chapter; figures, photos, tables and charts clarify complex topics; and annotated suggestions for further reading point students to resources for self-study. A companion website, with 170 self-test questions, suggested group exercises, audio files and links to additional web resources, completes the learning package.
Linguistics is the study of the structure, functions and acquisition of human language. This introductory chapter will introduce you to the enormous complexity of language and to the fact that our understanding of grammar depends on our world knowledge and on the context. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of human language and some ways of defining it. In comparing attempts to teach an ape human language with the language acquisition of small children, we ask whether human language has evolved from some shared, pre-existing communication system, or whether it is unlike anything that already exists in the animal world. The chapter discusses the views of Noam Chomsky on this question; we introduce evidence of native-speaker intuitions and children's errors in language acquisition which might support his argument that language is innate to humans. We then go on to discuss the approach and concerns of linguistics: that it is descriptive, and that it can be studied in its social context. The chapter ends by considering the rigorous and evidence-based methods, as well as the analytical tools, which linguists use to investigate language. Lastly, the chapter will introduce you to some of the uses and applications of linguistics. As you go through this chapter, and through the book, you will find exercises that allow you to practise these techniques of analysis.
Any introductory textbook in linguistics will reveal to students that language is much more complex than speakers think it is, as they unself-consciously use it in their daily communication. As you work through this book, you will become aware that the different levels of language (discussed in Section 1.9 below) interact. You will learn that human language shows marked differences from animal communication systems. As speakers of English, or whatever our first language is, we all use it with a huge degree of proficiency. Some of us are able to use language in several different modes: speech, writing, email, or sign. Despite that, few of us could define what human language is. At the outset, it is important to make one clear distinction between the universal human faculty of language, which we all have, and the fact that different languages exist, and are used by different ethnic or national groups.
Exploring Language and Linguistics is designed to meet the needs of undergraduate students approaching linguistics for the first time. As teachers of first-year linguistics courses ourselves, we have always welcomed students from a range of academic backgrounds. The key challenge for instructors on introductory-level linguistics/English language modules is to introduce a wide range of topics, approaches and concepts in an accessible manner to students with little or no prior experience of studying language. Meanwhile, the key challenge for students lies in their ability to understand and then apply their learning to real-world settings. Our volume seeks to address these challenges with writing which is concise, accessible and richly illustrated with examples. We make no assumptions about prior experience with grammar or with learning foreign languages. In this book, we aim to provide readers with a thorough grounding in the terminology and techniques of linguistic description, as well as taking them forward into more specialist fields in the subject.
Linguistics is a developing subject, and new areas of enquiry are opening up. This book features chapters on language and ideology, media discourse, including a discussion of the language of computer-mediated discourse in social media, and clinical linguistics. Such wide but detailed coverage of developing areas makes this book stand out from other textbooks in linguistics.
The textbook is aimed at readers who are likely to be first-year undergraduates taking their first course in linguistics. Our students have told us that what excites them about the subject are the many applications to real-world problems. Each of these chapters is written by an expert in the field and will contain introductory as well as more challenging material. The first eight chapters introduce readers to the different levels of linguistic analysis: sound (phonetics and phonology), grammar (morphology, grammar, syntax), meaning (semantics and pragmatics) and structure beyond the sentence (discourse analysis). These chapters will all be preparatory reading for approaching the subsequent chapters, as students will be required to bring this body of knowledge to the study of applications of linguistics. The order in which the chapters are presented suggests the order of reading, but they may be read in any order.
The growth of iron and copper films and multilayers on the (100) face of diamond has been achieved and studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), and SQUID Magnetometry. RHEED and AES studies show that 2–3 atomic layers (AL) of Fe on C (100) forms a continuous film. The films as deposited at room temperature are disordered, and after a 350° C anneal displays a face-centered cubic structure. Subsequent layers of Cu on this epitaxial Fe film grow as an oriented, single crystal fee film. FMR and SQUID signals have been observed from the Fe films, showing that they are ferromagnetic.
Octogenarians were excluded from participation in many carotid endarterectomy trials due to the high complication rates observed in past studies. However, stroke resulting from carotid stenosis is expected to increase with the aging population. Moreover, advances in Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting (CAS) techniques have resulted in perceived improved safety of this procedure. We sought to review our experience with carotid stenting in symptomatic octogenarians with an emphasis on short-term outcomes and complications.
This is a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of all symptomatic patients who underwent CAS in our center between 1997 and 2007. Thirty-day stroke and death rates, and length of hospitalization were compared between the symptomatic octogenarians and non-octogenarians.
A total of 214 procedures were performed on 211 symptomatic patients (56 females). Fifty-nine patients (14 females) were octogenarians. The median (interquartile range) age on procedure date for the octogenarian cohort was 83 (4) years. Periprocedural death occurred in two (3.4%) octogenarians and five (3.3%) non-octogenarians (p = 0.97). At 30 days from the procedure, stroke occurred in four (6.8%) octogenarians and seven (4.6%) non-octogenarians (p= 0.52). The mean hospital stay (4.8 days) was not different between the two cohorts. Age was not a predictor of the 30-day risk of composite stroke or death.
The complications rate observed in octogenarians was not significantly higher than non-octogenarians. Our findings suggest that octogenarians should be included in randomized trials examining CAS to better define the risk-benefit profile of this procedure in the elderly.
Diamond thin films have been synthesized at low pressures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and, recently, at ambient atmosphere with an oxygen-acetylene welding torch. By the application of appropriate thermal or mechanical stresses to the substrate, the diamond films can be delaminated. The delaminated films which are only a few microns thick have been fractured by manual bending. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of fractured CVD diamond films shows the presence of primarily intragranular fracture attesting to the inherent strength of the films. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), twinning and stacking faults are seen within the crystallites of the films along the fracture surfaces. By combining SEM and TEM examination, the relative degree of intragranular fracture found in films synthesized by both CVD and oxygen-acetylene torch has been investigated. Possible mechanisms for the intragranular fracture and the relative strength of such films are discussed.
Rudder et al.  observed heavy (>109 cm-2) diamond nucleation on unscratched Si wafers overlaid with carbon fibers during CVD growth. We demonstrate that the nucleation occurs on the edges of etch pits and carbon-rich particles resulting from reaction between the fibers and the substrate. Both the etch pits and the particles satisfy what we consider to be two necessary conditions for ‘spontaneous’ nucleation; a carbon-saturated surface and high energy sites (unsatisfied valencies) at edges and steps.
Schottky diodes were fabricated from boron doped diamond grown in a turbulent flame. The substrates used were type IIa diamond (100) crystals 1.5 mm in diameter and.25 mm thick. A p/p+ structure was deposited using the p+ layer as an ohmic contact. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were made on the finished devices. An ideality factor of 1.8 was obtained from the I-V characteristics. Doping levels from C-V measurements indicate an acceptor concentration on the order of 5 × 1017/cm3.