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The demographic transition is a global event intensified during the last decades that represents population aging. Thus, the studies directed to the elderly 80 years of age or more with preserved cognitive functions (named SuperAgers) emerges as a possible path to full comprehension of the health of those aging with acceptable levels of functionality and independency.
To evaluate the cognitive performance of the elderly over 80 years old, associating the results to their educational level.
We evaluated 144 healthy elders with 80 years or more through the following cognitive tests Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VF) and compared the tests’ scores with their educational level segmented in years of formal education, being the groups ILLITR (<1 year of schooling), 1TO4 (from 1 to 4 years of schooling), and 5MORE (>5 years of schooling).
There was positive influence of educational level on the cognitive tests’ score, which indicates higher cognitive reserve of the elderly with higher educational levels.
The functionality and independence of the so-called SuperAgers is determined by the cognitive reserve acquired throughout life, mainly developed by the years of formal education.
Low-income women are the group with the highest levels of obesity worldwide. In low-income settings, the use of predictive equations, which yields a measure of the individuals’ basal metabolic rate (BMR), is a feasible approach to estimate the individuals’ total energy expenditure (TEE), using the factorial method (calculated-TEE = BMR * Physical activity level), an important step of the obesity nutritional care. This study aimed to identify the predictive equation that, in conjunction with metabolic equivalents of tasks (MET) data from accelerometers, yields the calculated-TEE with better agreement compared to the TEE measured by doubly labelled water (TEE-DLW). Forty-five women aged 19-45 years, with excess weight; mothers of undernourished children were included. They received DLW to determine TEE (14 days), at the same time as they used triaxial accelerometers (7 days) to estimate their MET. The Bland-Altman method, paired-samples t-tests, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and root mean square error were used to assess the agreement. Maximum allowed differences were defined as 24%, based on the within-variance coefficient of the energy intake of the sample. Eleven equations were studied. The calculated-TEE obtained by 5 equations showed non-significant bias: Dietary Reference Intake (2005), FAO/WHO/UNU (2001), Harris-Benedict (1919), Henry-Rees (1991) and Schofield (1985). The mean percentage difference was, respectively: -1.5%, -0.8%, 2.2%, -2.2%, and 2.0%. Considering all parameters, FAO/WHO/UNU (2001) equation performed slightly better than the others; nevertheless, no equation in conjunction with the estimated-MET showed a calculated-TEE with its confidence intervals for the Bland-Altman limits of agreement inside the pre-defined acceptable range.
To evaluate differences in food consumption of Brazilian adults according to the presence of children and adolescents in the household.
Averages of two non-consecutive days of food records from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey were analysed and classified into eighteen food groups according to nutritional characteristics and use in diet. We compared the mean percentage contribution to total daily energy intake of each food group according to three groups of household composition: adults living alone or with other adults (32·7 %), adults living with children (35·6 %) and adults living with adolescents (31·7 %).
Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008–2009.
Adults aged 20–59 years (n 6312; 52·1 % female).
Women living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of vegetables, milk and other drinks, and lower consumption of beans and rice, compared with those living with children or adolescents. Men living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of sweets & desserts and vegetables, and lower consumption of beans, compared with those living with children or adolescents. According to household income, adults in the highest tertile who lived with children or adolescents presented a mixed consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas their counterparts in the first income tertile presented a marked consumption of foods considered traditional of the Brazilian population.
There are differences in food consumption based on the presence of children and adolescents in the household, with greater variation according to gender and household income.
The present study evaluated the effects of low salinity on the early larval development of Oreochromis niloticus, specifically histological damage to white muscle, morphology of the yolk-sac surface and trunk area, and molecular expression of apoptosis and cell proliferation biomarkers. Newly hatched larvae were submitted to four salinity treatments for a period of 48 or 72 h, in duplicate: (S0) freshwater, (S2) 2 g l−1, (S4) 4 g l−1, and (S6) 6 g l−1NaCl. Larval development was examined using histology, electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and morphometry. At the yolk-sac surface, larvae of S4 and S6 displayed alterations to the apical opening of chloride cells that may be related to osmotic expenditure caused by the increased salinity. Caspase-3 expression did not differ significantly among treatments, however significantly lower proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression (P < 0.05) suggested minor cell proliferation in larvae of S4 and S6 compared with S0 and S2. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in both trunk area and percentage of normal white muscle fibres (WF) in larvae of S4 and S6. Vacuolated areas and myofibrils concentrated at the cell periphery and found in the white muscle from larvae exposed to saline environments suggested disturbance to muscle development. Oedema and mononuclear infiltrate were also observed in the white muscle of S4 and S6 larvae. Together these results indicated that treatments with 4 and 6 g l−1 NaCl may cause osmoregulation expenditure, morphological alterations to the yolk-sac surface and histological damage to skeletal muscle that negatively affected the early larval development of O. niloticus.
Food insecurity (FI) is defined as uncertain access to healthy food in quantity and quality. We hypothesize that FI may be associated with greater health-care use and absenteeism because it may amplify the effect of diseases; also, FI may be associated with reduced health-care access because it reflects economic vulnerability. The present study estimates the association between FI and health-care use and access, and absenteeism.
Cross-sectional data collected in 2015–2016. Health-care use was measured as the number of consultations, taking any drug and having been hospitalized in the past year. Health-care access was measured by the suspension of medication and having fewer consultations due to financial constraints. Absenteeism was measured by the weeks of sickness leave. Binary variables were modelled as a function of FI using logistic regressions; continuous variables were modelled as a function of FI using negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions. Covariates were included sequentially.
Non-institutionalized adults from the EpiDoc3 cohort (n 5648).
FI was significantly associated with health-care use before controlling for socio-economic conditions and quality of life. Moderate/severe FI was positively related to the suspension of medicines (adjusted OR = 4·68; 95 % CI 3·11, 6·82) and to having fewer consultations (adjusted OR = 3·98; 95 % CI 2·42, 6·37). FI and absenteeism were not significantly associated.
Our results support the hypothesis that FI reflects precariousness, which hinders access to health care. The greater use of health care among food-insecure people is explained by their worse quality of life and lower socio-economic condition, so that the specific role of poor nutrition is unclear.
We evaluated the effects of high-Ca fat-free milk v. low-Ca control diet on adiposity and on glycaemic control. Fourteen subjects with type 2 diabetes (aged 49·5 (sd 8·6) years, BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects participated in two 12-week experimental sessions (high-Ca fat-free milk (HC) or low-Ca control (LC)) separated by 8-week washout. Subjects daily consumed in the laboratory a breakfast shake containing 700 mg (HC) or 6·4 mg (LC) of Ca. Energy-restricted diets containing 800 mg of dietary Ca/d were prescribed. Dietary records data indicated the consumption of 1200 mg of Ca/d during HC and of 525 mg of Ca/d during LC. There was a greater reduction in body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio after HC. Serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D and homeostatic model assessment-2 β-cell function (HOMA2-%B) increased, and serum uric acid, parathormone (PTH) and glycated Hb (HbA1c) concentrations reduced after HC. In addition, changes from baseline in terms of serum uric acid, glucose, HbA1c and PTH concentrations were lower, and those of HOMA2-%B, serum Ca and 25-hydoxyvitamin D were higher after the HC than after LC. The consumption of approximately three servings of fat-free milk and 1200 mg of dietary Ca/d enhanced weight loss, improved body composition and promoted glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes and low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d).
In 1934 English archaeologist Edith Guest (1873–1942) visited the Alentejo region in south-central Portugal. Though not of the first rank of famous archaeologists, Guest made a contribution to archaeology in the first half of the twentieth century, assisting such luminaries as Margaret Murray (1863–1963) and Gertrude Caton-Thompson (1888–1985) in their excavations in the Mediterranean. But why did Guest visit the megaliths in the Alentejo region of Portugal in 1934? Based on unpublished contemporary sources, such as diaries, letters and photographs, this paper suggests that Guest’s presence on the Iberian Peninsula was linked to the ambitions of Manuel Heleno (1894–1970), the second director of the National Archaeological Museum in Lisbon. Studies on megalithic Alentejo were at this time still in their infancy, and Heleno hoped to raise the profile of such studies and the museum with an enterprising schedule of excavations that would attract notable archaeologists and the ensuing publicity. Heleno’s aspirations were successful: archaeologists such as Hugo Obermaier, Vera and Georg Leisner and, of course, Edith Guest took an interest in the fieldwork, helping to bring it to wider attention in Portugal and elsewhere.
Meloidogyne paranaensis is responsible for considerable losses in coffee production. Because of the distribution of this species in the main Coffea arabica producing regions, there is a need for management practices to ensure the sustainability of coffee production. In this work, we evaluated the agronomic performance of resistant clones of the Conilon coffee cultivar Vitoria Incaper 8142 in areas infested by M. paranaensis in the west region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clones 2V, 3V, and 6V presented the lowest number of nematodes per gram of roots and were considered resistant to M. paranaensis. All other clones were considered tolerant to this nematode, and one had good vegetative growth but allowed nematode reproduction. Clones of Vitoria Incaper 8142 of C. canephora represent an alternative to coffee production in areas infested by M. paranaensis including areas traditionally cultivated with C. arabica.
This paper examines the role to be played by the devolved administrations in the negotiation, conclusion and implementation of trade agreements concluded by the UK post-Brexit. By examining, from a comparative perspective, examples of collaborative frameworks between sub-national entities and central governments established in federal jurisdictions, it proposes a significant reform of existing inter-governmental cooperation mechanisms to ensure that the devolved administrations are given a meaningful voice in the shaping of future trade agreements.
Naturalism is a vague label not only in ancient linguistic thought.1 When modern linguists speak of naturalism, they mean a variety of different things. A phonologist might consider a symmetrical vowel system, with the same number of front and back vowels, more natural than a system with gaps. The reason is that in such a symmetrical system a minimal number of features, vowel height and front versus back, suffices for a given number of vowels. Here, naturalness comes close to the concept of efficiency. A morphologist might consider a system natural in which derivational morphemes stand closer to the lexical root than inflectional morphemes. We move from the most central element of a word, its lexical meaning, to its least central element, the function of the word in a given syntactic context. Here, naturalness is akin to clarity. And finally, an etymologist might consider changes in sounds and meaning natural if the sound changes are based on articulatory or acoustic similarities and if the semantic changes involve concepts such as metaphor. Here, naturalness is related to similarity.
Serpentirhabdias mussuranae n. sp. is described from the lungs of the mussurana, Clelia clelia (Daudin, 1803), from vicinities of Lábrea, Amazonas State, Brazil. The species is characterized by the triangular oral opening, the presence of teeth (onchia) in the oesophastome, the excretory glands longer than the oesophagus and the tail abruptly narrowing in its anterior half and gradually tapering in posterior half. Among the Neotropical representatives of the genus, three species are known to possess the onchia in the oesophastome: S. atroxi, S. moi and S. viperidicus. Serpentirhabdias mussuranae n. sp. differs from S. atroxi and S. viperidicus by its triangular shape of the oral opening and the oesophastome in apical view, vs. round in the latter two congeners. Additionally, S. viperidicus has a larger oesophastome, 13–22 micrometers wide and 13–23 micrometers deep. The new species has relatively longer excretory glands than S. moi. The new species is morphologically and genetically close to S. atroxi, S. moi and S. viperidicus, all parasitic in Brazilian snakes, based on the presence of onchia and the comparison of nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene (differences varied between 3.8% and 7.1%). Data on the life cycle of S. mussuranae n. sp. is provided, and the life cycle is typical of the genus Serpentirhabdias, with the combination of direct development and heterogony. Free-living larval stages and the adults of amphimictic free-living generation are described. The results of molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) + partial 28S region and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene are provided.
The genus Rhabdias Stiles & Hassal, 1905 includes about 83 species of nematodes parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. Herein, we describe Rhabdias glaurungi sp. nov. from the hylid frog Scinax gr. ruber (Laurenti, 1768) in the Gunma Ecological Park, Santa Bárbara municipality, state of Pará, Brazil. This species has six small lips, an inflated cuticle along the entire body and a cup-shaped buccal capsule with smooth internal surface of its anterior part and irregularly folded internal surface of its posterior part in apical view. From the 17 valid species recognized in the Neotropical realm, the new species can be distinguished by the number of lips, the morphology and size of its buccal capsule, as well as the extent and shape of its cuticular inflation; in addition, there are molecular differences. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I gene strongly support the status of this form as a separate species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows R. glaurungi sp. nov. nested within the R. pseudosphaerocephala Kuzmin, Tkach & Brooks, 2007 species complex. Rhabdias glaurungi sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from hosts of the family Hylidae in the Neotropical realm. We conclude that the diversity of Rhabdias within the Neotropics is likely largely underestimated.
To better understand the role of seed banks in ecological succession of dry forests, we compared similarities between vegetation and seed banks and assessed the relative contributions of seed dispersal and persistence in chronosequences in the Brazilian semi-arid region. To sample the standing vegetation and the seed bank, we collected data in three sites with three successional ages in each one (5 y, 25 y and 45 y). A total of 180 soil samples (three sites × three successional ages × 10 plots × two components) were collected. The composition of the seed bank was assessed by the seedling emergence method. Of 166 species identified in the standing vegetation, only 50 (30.1%) were also present in the seed bank, resulting in low similarity (Jaccard index = 0.02–0.21) and reflecting the rarity of woody species and the dominance of annuals (71% of richness). The relative importance of seed persistence and seed dispersal to seed banks composition were balanced in most cases (difference was not rejected in four out six comparisons). Those results suggest that seed banks in tropical dry forests are largely the result of high dispersal rates and the persistence of allochthonous annual species that contribute to decoupling seed bank and vegetation composition.
Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
A cohort study was performed from January 2014 to December 2016 in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit, including neonates with high risk for infection and death. We estimated bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence and conducted a survival analysis, considering the time to death and to the first episode of BSI as outcomes, comparing very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with the remaining neonates. An extended Cox model was performed and the hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for different time periods. The study had 1560 neonates included, the incidence and the incidence density of BSI was 22% and 18.6 per 1000 central venous catheter-days, respectively. Considering VLBW neonates as the reference group, the HR for time to death was 4.06 (95% CI 2.75–6.00, P < 0.01) from day 0 to 60 and for time to the first episode of BSI was 1.76 (95% CI 1.31–2.36, P < 0.01) from day 0 to 36. Having the heavier neonates group as reference, the HR for time to the first episode of BSI was 2.94 (95% CI 1.92–4.34, P < 0.01) from day 37 to 90. Late-onset neonatal sepsis prevention measures should consider the differences in risk during time, according to neonates' birth weight.
Levamisole (Lms) is an anthelminthic drug with immunomodulatory activity. Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and there is very low access to the drugs available, benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox, both far from ideal. In a drug-repurposing strategy to test potential activity as antiparasitic and immunomodulatory agent for CD, Lms was assayed on acute T. cruzi murine infection, alone and in co-administration with Bz. During protocol standardization, 100 and 10 mpk of Bz given for five consecutive days resulted in parasitaemia suppression and 100% animal survival only with the highest dose. Flow cytometry showed that both optimal (100 mpk) and suboptimal (10 mpk) doses of Bz equally decreased the plasma levels of cytokines commonly elevated in this acute infection model. Lms alone (10–0.5 mpk) did not decrease parasitaemia nor mortality rates. Co-administration was investigated using the suboptimal dose of Bz and different doses of Lms. While Bz 10 mpk did not alter parasitaemia, the combo partially reduced it but only slightly promoted animal survival. This effect could be related to Th1-response modulation since interleukin-6 and interferon-γ were higher after treatment with the combo.
To identify cut-off points for waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and BMI associated with hypertension in the Brazilian adult and elderly population.
Cross-sectional study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off points of WC, WHtR and BMI in the prediction of hypertension. Those who had systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and those who reported use of antihypertensive medication were considered hypertensive.
Participants from the National Health Survey, the Brazilian household-based survey conducted in 2013, of both sexes and age ≥20 years.
Cut-off points for WC and WHtR increased with age in both sexes. WC cut-off limits ranged between 88·0 and 95·9 cm in men and between 85·0 and 93·2 cm in women. For WHtR, cut-off scores ranged from 0·51 to 0·58 for men and from 0·53 to 0·61 for women. Additionally, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for all age and sex groups was greater than 0·60 while the lower limit of the AUC 95 % CI for both WC and WHtR was not less than 0·50. The performance of BMI was similar to that of indicators of fat location.
All analysed anthropometric indicators had similar performance in identifying hypertension in the Brazilian population.
Although accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that immune/inflammatory mechanisms are associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), data about the profile of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are still scarce. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptors on lymphocytes of patients with BD in comparison with controls.
Thirty-three patients with type I BD (N = 21 in euthymia; N = 6 in mania/hypomania; N = 6 in depression) and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to clinical evaluation and peripheral blood draw. The expression of chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, CXCR4, and CXCR3 on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.
Patients with BD had decreased percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ (p = 0.024), CD4+CCR3+ (p = 0.042), and CD4+CCR5+ (0.013) lymphocytes in comparison with controls. The percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was similar in patients with BD and controls. Likewise, the percentages of CD8+CXCR3+, CD8+CCR3+, and CD8+CCR5+ lymphocytes were similar in patients with BD and controls.
Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that immune pathways, especially involving CD4+ lymphocytes, are involved in the physiopathology of BD.