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Algorithms permeate our lives in numerous ways, performing tasks that until recently could only be carried out by humans. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, based on machine learning algorithms and big-data-powered systems, can perform sophisticated tasks such as driving cars, analyzing medical data, and evaluating and executing complex financial transactions—often without active human control or supervision. Algorithms also play an important role in determining retail pricing, online advertising, loan qualification, and airport security. In this work, Martin Ebers and Susana Navas bring together a group of scholars and practitioners from across Europe and the US to analyze how this shift from human actors to computers presents both practical and conceptual challenges for legal and regulatory systems. This book should be read by anyone interested in the intersection between computer science and law, how the law can better regulate algorithmic design, and the legal ramifications for citizens whose behavior is increasingly dictated by algorithms.
The themes of sedentarisation, urbanisation and state formation are fundamental ones in the archaeology of many diverse parts of the world but have been little explored in relation to early societies of the Saharan zone. Moreover, the possibility has rarely been considered that the precocious civilisations bordering this vast desert were interconnected by long-range contacts and knowledge networks. The orthodox opinion of many of the key oasis zones within the Sahara is that they were not created before the early medieval period and the Islamic conquest of Mediterranean North Africa. Major claims of this volume are that the ultimate origins of oasis settlements in many parts of the Sahara were considerably earlier, that by the first millennium AD some of these oasis settlements were of a size and complexity to merit the categorisation 'towns' and that a few exceptional examples were focal centres within proto-states or early state-level societies.
Ecologists and economists both use models to help develop strategies for biodiversity management. The practical use of disciplinary models, however, can be limited because ecological models tend not to address the socioeconomic dimension of biodiversity management, whereas economic models tend to neglect the ecological dimension. Given these shortcomings of disciplinary models, there is a necessity to combine ecological and economic knowledge into ecological-economic models. Gradually guiding the reader into the field of ecological-economic modelling by introducing mathematical models and their role in general, this book provides an overview on ecological and economic modelling approaches relevant for research in the field of biodiversity conservation. It discusses the advantages of and challenges associated with ecological-economic modelling, together with an overview of useful ways of integration. Although being a book about mathematical modelling, ecological and economic concepts play an equally important role, making it accessible for readers from very different disciplinary backgrounds.
Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
This book presents the first systematic appreciation of Ovid's extensive influence on, and affinity with, modern visual culture. Some topics are directly related to Ovid; others exhibit features, characters, or themes analogous to those in his works. The book demonstrates the wide-ranging ramifications that Ovidian archetypes, especially from the Metamorphoses, have provoked in a modern artistic medium that did not exist in Ovid's time. It ranges from the earliest days of film history (Georges Méliès's discovery of screen metamorphosis) and theory (Gabriele D'Annunzio's fascination with the metamorphosis of Daphne; Sergei Eisenstein's concept of film sense) through silent films, classic sound films, commercial cinema, art-house and independent films to modernism and the C.G.I. era. Films by well-known directors, including Ingmar Bergman, Walerian Borowczyk, Jean Cocteau, Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Fritz Lang, Max Ophüls, Alain Resnais, and various others, are analyzed in detail.
This Handbook provides a contemporary and research-informed review of the topics essential to clinical psychological assessment and diagnosis. It outlines assessment issues that cross all methods, settings, and disorders, including (but not limited to) psychometric issues, diversity factors, ethical dilemmas, validity of patient presentation, psychological assessment in treatment, and report writing. These themes run throughout the volume as leading researchers summarize the empirical findings and technological advances in their area. With each chapter written by major experts in their respective fields, the text gives interpretive and practical guidance for using psychological measures for assessment and diagnosis.
Collective bargaining in the public sector is under attack. Since 2011, numerous states have eliminated or severely curtailed public employee collective bargaining. For example, Oklahoma repealed its statute that provided collective bargaining rights for employees of mid-sized cities. Tennessee repealed a statute that for more than three decades had provided collective bargaining rights for teachers. The most visible development was Wisconsin’s enactment which, among other things, prohibited bargaining on all subjects except for increases in base wages which were capped at the increase in the Consumer Price Index, prohibited dues checkoff, and required that exclusive bargaining representatives undergo annual elections and receive the votes of at least 51 percent of all employees in the bargaining unit to remain certified. In 2017, Iowa followed Wisconsin’s model, prohibiting dues check-off, requiring annual recertification elections, and making base wages the only mandatory subject of bargaining, but not prohibiting bargaining on other subjects.