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To estimate the economic burden of overweight in Bangladesh.
We used data from Household Income and Expenditure Survey, 2010. A prevalence-based approach was used to calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for diseases attributable to overweight. Cost of illness methodology was used to calculate annual out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for each disease using nationally representative survey data. The cost attributable to overweight for each disease was estimated by multiplying the PAF by annual OOP expenditure. The total cost of overweight was estimated by adding PAF-weighted costs of treating the diseases.
Nationwide, covering the whole of Bangladesh.
Individuals whose BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.
The total cost attributable to overweight in Bangladesh in 2010 was estimated at US$147·38 million. This represented about 0·13 % of Bangladesh’s Gross Domestic Product and 3·69 % of total health care expenditure in 2010. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as US$334 million or as low as US$71 million.
A substantial amount of health care resource is devoted to the treatment of overweight-related diseases in Bangladesh. Effective national strategies for overweight prevention programme should be established and implemented.
There is a wide range of feed additives deliberately designed to be used in sheep diets that can improve production performance. Whereas herbal supplementation is gaining popularity not only for improving sheep productivity and mutton quality but also for safe application without any harmful residual effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) and/or garlic leaf (Allium sativum) dietary supplementation on growth performance, immunity, rumen histology, serum antioxidants and meat quality of sheep. The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design with 32 one-year-old sheep (initial mean live weight 9 ± 0.2 kg) allocated to four groups (8 sheep per group). Rice straw and concentrates-based total mixed ration pellets (2390 kcal/kg DM, CP = 15.1%) were offered as a control diet (CL diet). Herbal treatment diets included (i) CL diet + 10 g DM of plantain herb (PL diet), (ii) CL diet + 10 g DM of garlic leaf (GL diet) and (iii) CL diet + 5 g DM of PL and 5 g DM of GL (PG diet). Compared with the CL diet group, the live weight gain and feed conversion ratio were 18% to 26% and 13% to 20% higher in herbal-supplemented groups, respectively. Moreover, the herbal-supplemented groups, especially the PL diet group had higher serum immunoglobulin concentration, antioxidant capacity and rumen papillae size compared to the control. Besides, the lowest caul fat and pelvic fat levels were observed in the PL diet group followed by PG, GL and CL diet groups. In addition, lower mutton ether extract and saturated fatty acid along with higher polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were found in all herbal-supplemented groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PL and/or GL might be used as an alternative in sheep to promote growth, health status and lean mutton production.
The propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) shock waves (SWs) is studied in a four-component dusty plasma system containing viscous dust fluids of opposite polarity, Schamel distributed ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Burgers equation which gives rise to the DA shock waves with stronger nonlinearity. The viscous force acting in the dust fluids is identified as a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DA shock waves. The basic characteristics (viz., speed, amplitude, width) of the DA shock waves are found to be significantly modified by the combined effects of opposite polarity dust fluids and trapped ions. The applications of this investigation in different space plasma environments and laboratory devices are pinpointed.
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food production sectors in many low-income and food-deficit countries with aquatic ecozones. Yet its specific impact on nutrition and livelihood in local communities, where commercial and/or export-orientated aquaculture activities are developed, is largely unknown.
The present narrative and argumentative review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the connections between aquaculture agroecosystems, local and national fish production, fish consumption patterns and nutrition and health outcomes.
The agroecological dynamic in a coastal-estuarine zone, where the aquatic environment ranges from fully saline to freshwater, is complex, with seasonal and annual fluctuations in freshwater supply creating a variable salinity gradient which impacts on aquatic food production and on food production more generally. The local communities living in these dynamic aquatic ecozones are vulnerable to poverty, poor diet and health, while these ecosystems produce highly valuable and nutritious aquatic foods. Policies addressing the specific challenges of risk management of these communities are limited by the sectoral separation of aquatic food production – the fisheries and aquaculture sector, the broader food sector – and public health institutions.
Here we provide an argument for the integration of these factors to improve aquaculture value chains to better address the nutritional challenges in Bangladesh.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) may increase the risk of offspring depression in childhood. Low birth weight is also associated with increased risk of mental health problems, including depression. This study sought to investigate (a) whether there is an association between HDP and the risk of depression in childhood and (b) whether low birth weight mediates this association. The current study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective, population-based study that has followed a cohort of offspring since their mothers were pregnant (n = 6,739). Depression at the age of 7 years was diagnosed using parent reports via the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Log-binomial regression and mediation analyses were used. Children exposed to HDP were 2.3 times more likely to have a depression diagnosis compared with nonexposed children, adjusted Risk Ratio [RR], 2.31; 95% CI, [1.20, 4.47]. Low birth weight was a weak mediator of this association. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including antenatal depression and anxiety during pregnancy.This study suggests that fetal exposure to maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased the risk of childhood depression. The study adds to the evidence suggesting that the uterine environment is a critical determinant of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric outcomes.
Frequent switching of resistive memory cell may lead to a local accumulation of Joules heat in the device. Since the ReRAM cells are arranged in crossbar arrays with the two electrodes running perpendicular to each other, the heat generated in one device spreads via common electrode metal lines to the neighboring cells causing their performance degradation. Also cells that do not share any of the two electrodes (e.g. the diagonal array cells) with the hot device may also degrade provided the intermediate cells are set to an on-state establishing thus a continuous thermal conduction path between the heated and the probed device. It is found that the heat conduction along the active Cu electrode is more pronounced than that along the inert Pt electrode. Devices with Rh inert electrode performed better than those with Pt electrode due to better heat conductivity properties of Rh vs Pt. The heat dissipation is also found worse for a heated device with narrow and thin lines causing, however less degradation of more distant neighbor cells than for wide and thick metal lines. Finally, there is a trade-off between dissipating the heat quickly form the heated device to increase its maximum switching cycles and the heat exposure of the neighboring devices.
The colonization features of ciliate communities have proved to be a useful tool for indicating water quality status in aquatic ecosystems. To determine an optimal water depth for bioassessment using these ecological bioindicators, the colonization process of periphytic ciliates was studied at four depths of 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 m in Chinese coastal waters. Samples were collected at time intervals of 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days using glass slides. The periphytic ciliate communities represented similar colonization dynamics from a depth of 1 to 3.5 m: (1) the temporal variability was well fitted to the MacArthur-Wilson and logistic models; (2) the species composition reached an equilibrium during the exposure time periods of 10–14 days; and (3) the maximum abundances were definitely higher at a depth of 1 m than those at 3.5 m. PERMANOVA test revealed that the colonization pattern at 1 m depth was significantly different from those at the other three depths. Results suggest that the colonization dynamics of periphytic ciliates may be influenced by water depth in coastal waters. These findings provide an important reference for establishing an optimal sampling strategy for bioassessment on large spatial/temporal scales in marine ecosystems.
Given the importance of irrigation for rice production, this study compared the technical efficiency of irrigated and rain-fed rice (Oryza sativa) farms in the Upper Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority (UNRBDA), Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 irrigators and 325 rain-fed rice producers. Applying the stochastic frontier Cobb–Douglas production function, net income analysis and Likert scale rating techniques, the study found that irrigated scheme increased marginal factor productivity and profitability. The study revealed the existence of large technical inefficiency in rain-fed farms when compared with irrigated farms. This suggests that there is room for output gains through technical efficiency improvement in the rain-fed system. The mean value of the marginal physical product of inputs (VMPPX) in the irrigated farms (₦2.32) was more than that of rain-fed farm (₦1.67). Thus, if the average producers in the rain-fed are to achieve the technical efficiency level of the average producer in the irrigated farms, they can realize 38% output gains. Similarly, the mean net farm income (NFI) of ₦62,280.00 per ha in the irrigated farm was more than double of that of rain-fed farms ₦22,391.00. The partial regression coefficients for the individual production factors (β1) and (β3) for labour input (X1) and other variable inputs (X3), respectively, were positive and significant at 1% level, suggesting that the partial elasticity of crop output with respect to labour and other costs was higher in the irrigated farms than in the rain-fed farms. The Likert scale rating techniques showed that the poor knowledge of irrigation techniques, insufficient water for irrigation during the dry season, high cost of labour and lack of access to credit were the critical constraints preventing the rain-fed rice producer from joining the irrigation scheme. In view of this, rice irrigators should be encouraged to train more rain-fed farmers on some rudiments of irrigation techniques. They should also be linked to the sources of finance. Water Users Association (WUA) should be established in communities within the scheme areas for effective communication between farmers and the officials of the UNRBDA. Decision on the allocation of resources to Fadama sites including water should be given to WUA to strengthen the membership of the organization, while the government officials serve as supervisory and advisory body.
To examine changes in the spatial clustering of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (under-5s) for the period 1999 to 2011 in Bangladesh.
We used data from four nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 1999–2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving a total of 24 211 under-5s located in 1661 primary sampling units (PSU; geographical unit of analysis) throughout Bangladesh. The prevalence of stunting (height/length-for-age Z-score <−2), underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2) and wasting (weight-for-height/length Z-score <−2) at each PSU site and for each survey year were estimated based on the WHO child growth standard. The extent of spatial clustering was quantified using semivariograms.
Whole of Bangladesh.
Children under 5 years of age.
Our results demonstrate that in 1999–2000 most PSU throughout Bangladesh experienced stunting, underweight and wasting prevalence which exceeded the WHO thresholds. By 2011, this situation improved, although in two of the six divisions (Barisal and Sylhet) PSU still exhibited higher levels of malnutrition compared with other divisions of the country. The pattern of spatial clustering for stunting, underweight and wasting also changed between 1999 and 2011 both at national and sub-national (division) levels.
We identified divisions where malnutrition indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting) remain highly clustered and other divisions where they are more widely spread in Bangladesh. This has important implications on how interventions for malnutrition need to be delivered (geographically targeted interventions v. random interventions) within each division of the country.
Evidence about the effect of intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia on offspring autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well established.
To examine the association between pre-eclampsia and ASD.
PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q- and the I2−test. The presence of publication bias was evaluated by Egger's test and visual inspection of the symmetry in funnel plots.
Ten studies meet the inclusion criteria. The risk of ASD was 32% higher in offspring who had intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia compared with those not exposed (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.20–1.45). Sensitivity analysis revealed consistent pooled estimates ranging from RR = 1.30 (95% CI 1.17–1.44) to RR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.26–1.48). We found no significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias.
Pre-eclampsia increased the risk of ASD in offspring. The finding suggests a need for early screening for ASD in offspring of women with pre-eclampsia.
The self-similar expansion of an adiabatic electronegative dusty plasma (consisting of inertialess adiabatic electrons, inertialess adiabatic ions and inertial adiabatic negatively charged dust fluids) is theoretically investigated by employing the self-similar approach. It is found that the effects of the plasma adiabaticity (represented by the adiabatic index
) and dusty plasma parameters (determined by dust temperature and initial dust population) significantly modify the nature of the plasma expansion. The implications of our results are expected to play an important role in understanding the physics of the expansion of space and laboratory electronegative dusty plasmas.
Biofilm-dwelling protozoa are a primary component of microbiota and play important roles in the functioning of microbial food webs such as the mediation of carbon and energy flux from plankton to benthos in marine ecosystems. To demonstrate the vertical pattern of the protozoan communities, a 1-month baseline survey was carried out in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. A total of 40 samples were collected using glass slides as artificial substrates at four depths: 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 m. A total of 50 species were identified, comprising seven dominant and eight commonly distributed species. Species richness and individual species abundances showed a clear decreasing trend down the water column from 1 to 5 m, although the former peaked at a depth of 2 m. Multivariate approaches revealed that protozoan community structure differed significantly among the four depths, except for those at 2 and 3.5 m. Maximum values of species richness, diversity and evenness generally decreased with depth although they peaked at either 2 or 3.5 m. These results suggest that water depth may significantly shape the community patterns of biofilm-dwelling protozoa in marine ecosystems.
To estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight among Bangladeshi adults and to determine if the double burden of underweight and overweight differs by gender and other socio-economic characteristics of individuals.
We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Multinominal logistic regression was used to examine associations between the different nutritional statuses of individuals and related determinants. Interaction effect was checked between gender and various socio-economic factors.
Nationwide, covering the whole of Bangladesh.
Individuals aged >18 years (women, n 16 052; men, n 5090).
Underweight was observed among 28·3 % of men and 24·4 % of women, whereas overweight was observed among 8·4 % of men and 16·9 % of women. The odds of being overweight were significantly lower among urban men (OR=0·46; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·57) compared with urban women, whereas the odds of being underweight were significantly higher among urban men (OR=1·33; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·64) compared with urban women. The odds of being overweight were lower among higher educated men (OR=0·48; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·58) and men of rich households (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·54) compared with higher educated women and women of rich households, respectively.
There are important gender differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight among the adult population in Bangladesh. Women with higher education, in rich and urban households have higher chances of being overweight and lower chances of being underweight compared with their male counterparts.
The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) for both physical and mental wellbeing are well established. Given that adolescence presents a critical developmental period during which life-long patterns of PA become established, the exploration of the longitudinal impact of adolescent psychopathology on adult PA status is of interest.
We analysed prospective data from 3663 young adults who participated in the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Psychopathology was measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR) at age 14. Participants’ engagement in three types of PA (vigorous exercise, moderate exercise and walking) at age 21 were dichotomised into either ‘none’ or ‘any’. For our main analysis, we examined the association between the YSR score and subsequent PA engagement using logistic regression. We also conducted sensitivity analyses of longitudinal associations between the YSR internalising and externalising symptoms score at age 14 and PA engagement at age 21.
We found no longitudinal association between the total YSR score at age 14 and PA engagement at age 21. In addition, there was no longitudinal association between the YSR internalising or externalising symptoms and PA engagement.
Our findings suggest that there is no longitudinal association between adolescent psychopathology and PA in young adulthood.
It has increasingly been recognized that defence of microalgae against predator grazing is a passive response to increase algal population density by excreting chemicals with a change in physical properties. As common biological pollutants in the cultivation of the microalgae, the community-based method was used to identify the ability of two microalgae, Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to defend against protozoan grazing. Mature protozoan samples with 14-day age were collected, using microscopy glass slides, in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. For both microalgae, a gradient of concentrations was designed as 100 (control), 104, 105, 106 and 107 cell ml−1, respectively. Results showed that both test algal species represented strong defence effects on protozoan grazing, especially at high density levels. Species richness, abundance and taxonomic distinctness of the protozoan assemblages showed a sharp decrease at high concentration level (107 cell ml−1) of both algae. A significant variation in protozoan community structures was found to be driven by the gradient of the algal concentrations. The paired taxonomic distinctness indices of the protozoan communities showed an increasing trend of departure from the expected taxonomic pattern with increase of algal concentrations. Based on the results, we suggest that the community-based bioassay might be used as a feasible tool for identifying defence against protozoan grazing of microalgae.
BMI is a proxy for fat accumulation in the body. Increased diabetes and CVD risks have been observed for Asian populations at lower BMI than the WHO-recommended BMI cut-off points for overweight (≥25·0 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30·0 kg/m2). The current study aimed to quantify the increased hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Bangladeshi adults with moderately increased BMI (23·0–24·9 kg/m2).
Data from the most recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2011) were analysed. Modified Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) for HTN or T2DM by BMI category, considering BMI=18·5–22·9 kg/m2 as the reference. All analyses incorporated the complex sampling design of the survey.
BMI, blood pressure, blood sugar and related information were collected from a nationally representative sample.
Adults (n 7433) aged≥35 years.
About 12 % of Bangladeshi adults, both male and female, were within the BMI range 23·0–24·9 kg/m2 or moderately overweight. Compared with the reference BMI group (18·5–22·9 kg/m2), they had an increased PR for HTN (1·55–1·77) and T2DM (1·54–1·93). These increased PR are similar to those for the WHO-defined overweight group (BMI=25·0–29·9 kg/m2).
Our findings support the recommendation that calls for setting the optimum BMI for Asian populations to 18·5–23·0 kg/m2 for health promotion and for public health interventions like leisure-time physical activity. WHO cut-off points for overweight (≥25 kg/m2) should be used to facilitate international comparisons.
The use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. An isotope dilution technique using [U-13C]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. Six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial BW=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) (MH-diet) or mixed hay and fresh plantain (1 : 1 ratio, dry matter basis, PL-diet) and exposed to a thermoneutral (TN, 20°C; 70% relative humidity (RH)) environment or a heat exposure (HE, 30°C; 70% RH) for 5 days using a crossover design for two 23-day periods. The isotope dilution was conducted on days 18 and 23 of the experimental period during TN and HE, respectively. Plasma concentration of α-tocopherol was greater (P<0.0001) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet and remained comparable between environmental treatments. Plasma glucose concentration before isotope dilution technique was reduced for sheep (P=0.05) during HE compared with TN and remained comparable between diets. Plasma glucose turnover rate during the preinfusion period of insulin did not differ (P=0.10) between dietary treatments and between environments (P=0.65). The response of plasma glucose utilization to exogenous insulin administration was lower (P=0.04) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet. Under present experimental conditions, the plantain group was found to be resistant to the effects of insulin infusion.
The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (p<0.01) related with BMI. Number of children was negatively related with women’s BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband’s education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.
Fish is the most important animal-source food (ASF) in Bangladesh, produced from capture fisheries (non-farmed) and aquaculture (farmed) sub-sectors. Large differences in micronutrient content of fish species from these sub-sectors exist. The importance of fish in diets of vulnerable groups compared with other ASF; contribution from non-farmed and farmed species to nutrient intakes; and differences in fish consumption among age, gender, wealth groups and geographic regions were analysed, using quantitative intra-household fish consumption data, focusing on the first 1000 d of life.
Two-stage stratified sample.
Nationally representative of rural Bangladesh.
Households (n 5503) and individuals (n 24 198).
Fish consumption in poor households was almost half that in wealthiest households; and lower in females than males in all groups, except the wealthiest, and for those aged ≥15 years (P<0·01). In infants of complementary feeding age, 56 % did not consume ASF on the survey day, despite 78 % of mothers knowing this was recommended. Non-farmed fish made a larger contribution to Fe, Zn, Ca, vitamin A and vitamin B12 intakes than farmed fish (P<0·0001).
Policies and programmes aimed to increase fish consumption as a means to improve nutrition in rural Bangladesh should focus on women and young children, and on the poorest households. Aquaculture plays an important role in increasing availability and affordability of fish; however, non-farmed fish species are better placed to contribute to greater micronutrient intakes. This presents an opportunity for aquaculture to contribute to improved nutrition, utilising diverse production technologies and fish species, including small fish.
We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 466 underweight and 446 normal-weight children aged 6–24 months living in the urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh to determine the association between vitamin D and other micronutrient status with upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Incidence rate ratios of URI and ALRI were estimated using multivariable generalized estimating equations. Our results indicate that underweight children with insufficient and deficient vitamin D status were associated with 20% and 23–25% reduced risk of URI, respectively, compared to children with sufficient status. Underweight children, those with serum retinol deficiency were at 1·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–2·4] times higher risk of ALRI than those with retinol sufficiency. In normal-weight children there were no significant differences between different vitamin D status and the incidence of URI and ALRI. However, normal-weight children with zinc insufficiency and those that were serum retinol deficient had 1·2 (95% CI 1·0–1·5) times higher risk of URI and 1·9 (95% CI 1·4–2·6) times higher risk of ALRI, respectively. Thus, our results should encourage efforts to increase the intake of retinol-enriched food or supplementation in this population. However, the mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on the incidence of childhood respiratory tract infection still needs further research.