Palygorskite has been widely reported as a clay phase in the Recent sediments of the northern Arabian Gulf (e.g. Aqrawi & Sadooni, 1988). It is usually thought to have originated from the sediments and soils of the Mesopotamian flood plains introduced by northwesterly (Shamal) winds (e.g. A1-Bakri et al., 1984). A1-Rawi et al. (1969) and Eswaran & Barzanji (1974) have detected palygorskite within Mesopotamian soils. This paper describes the occurrence of palygorskite in the Recent sediments of southern Mesopotamia and its possible origins will be discussed.