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Jessica Lake, Jessica Lake is a Lecturer in Law at Swinburne University, and researches at the intersection of law, technology and gender. She is the author of The Face that Launched a Thousand Lawsuits (2016, Yale University Press), demonstrating that women forged a “right to privacy” in the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries by bringing cases protesting the unauthorized use and abuse of images of their faces and bodies.
“IT MUST BE confessed that the etiquette of the ‘kodaker’ has not kept pace with the development of the ‘kodak.’ It is difficult for some people to understand that there are those who have a strong prejudice against being promiscuously ‘snapped at’ through a camera,” opined an article from the Ladies Home Journalin 1900. The invention and release of the Kodak camera by New York entrepreneur George Eastman in 1888 heralded a new generation of photographic cameras, intensified debates about the unauthorized capture and circulation of people's (particularly women's) images at a time of shifting and unstable gender roles, and contributed to the recognition of a right to privacy in the United States, the first in the common law world.
When Eastman first introduced the trademarked and patented Kodak camera to the world at the Convention of the Photographic Association of America in Minneapolis, he cemented his role as the father of modern photography. In previous decades, photography had been an expensive and time-consuming pursuit requiring expert knowledge, complicated bulky equipment and the ambient conditions of light and stillness only generally achievable indoors within a studio setting. Individuals who desired likenesses of themselves or their family members sat for professionals in their studios or shops. This was a popular pastime, sought after by a growing new middle class (of shopkeepers, managers, clerks, and small traders) as well as budding “celebrities” (such as Oscar Wilde, as discussed in the previous chapter). By 1850, Americans were spending between eight and 12 million dollars a year on photographic portraits, and portraits constituted an astonishing 95 percent of all photographic production.
Photography, from its beginnings in the 1830s as Louis Daguerre's “daguerreotype” and William Henry Fox Talbot's “calotype,” had radically altered the nature of portraiture, creating images that were simultaneously more authentic and more autonomous than their drawn or painted equivalents. As a form of writing with light (with all the attendant theological and philosophical associations), photography occupied a unique relationship to truth.
Travel to many parts of Africa is a complicated undertaking — visas and shots, tickets … delays. A trip to Southern Rhodesia, however, is a breeze. No visa is required, just one or two innoculations, a passport and a confirmed onward reservation. Air travel reservations? Drop by a Pan American ticket counter anywhere in the United States and in seconds the computer will confirm space for you on an Air Rhodesia flight from Johannesburg, South Africa to the Rhodesian capital of Salisbury. It is all very convenient. The trouble is that when Pan Am, TWA, and perhaps other American carriers help make the going great, they apparently do it illegally.
To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Takeaway Masterclass, a three-hour training session delivered to staff of independent takeaway food outlets that promoted healthy cooking practices and menu options.
A mixed-methods study design. All participating food outlets provided progress feedback at 6 weeks post-intervention. Baseline and 6-week post-intervention observational and self-reported data were collected in half of participating takeaway food outlets.
North East England.
Independent takeaway food outlet owners and managers.
Staff from eighteen (10 % of invited) takeaway food outlets attended the training; attendance did not appear to be associated with the level of deprivation of food outlet location. Changes made by staff that required minimal effort or cost to the business were the most likely to be implemented and sustained. Less popular changes included using products that are difficult (or expensive) to source from suppliers, or changes perceived to be unpopular with customers.
The Takeaway Masterclass appears to be a feasible and acceptable intervention for improving cooking practices and menu options in takeaway food outlets for those who attended the training. Further work is required to increase participation and retention and explore effectiveness, paying particular attention to minimising adverse inequality effects.
Syndromic surveillance is a form of surveillance that generates information for public health action by collecting, analysing and interpreting routine health-related data on symptoms and clinical signs reported by patients and clinicians rather than being based on microbiologically or clinically confirmed cases. In England, a suite of national real-time syndromic surveillance systems (SSS) have been developed over the last 20 years, utilising data from a variety of health care settings (a telehealth triage system, general practice and emergency departments). The real-time systems in England have been used for early detection (e.g. seasonal influenza), for situational awareness (e.g. describing the size and demographics of the impact of a heatwave) and for reassurance of lack of impact on population health of mass gatherings (e.g. the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games).We highlight the lessons learnt from running SSS, for nearly two decades, and propose questions and issues still to be addressed. We feel that syndromic surveillance is an example of the use of ‘big data’, but contend that the focus for sustainable and useful systems should be on the added value of such systems and the importance of people working together to maximise the value for the public health of syndromic surveillance services.
To many Englishmen of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Théodore de Bèze (or Beza, as he was usually called) was a famous and respected figure, widely known as the biographer and successor of Calvin and as the author of a number of theological treatises and Biblical commentaries which spelled out major aspects of Calvinist thought. English readers also knew him well as a translator of Scripture, whose Latin had angered both Lutheran and Catholic scholars, as a translator of the Psalms into French and Latin poetry, and perhaps, even, as the author of an early experiment in vernacular Biblical tragedy, Abraham sacrifiant.
Among the many poets who found popularity in Renaissance England none now seems an odder choice for as acclaim and translation than the French Huguenot Guillaume Salluste, Sieur du Bartas. In England Du Bartas was probably the most admired of contemporary European writers, if one excludes Erasmus and the chief figures of the Reformation, and his lengthy descriptions of the creation and history of the world received an adulation seldom given far better poetry. To most readers since the Restoration his poetry has seemed, as Dryden put it, abominable fustian. Yet to many Englishmen from the 1580s until the shift of taste in the 1660s Du Bartas was the very type of the ‘divine poet', whose lines were ‘sweet’ and delightful, and whose wealth of anecdote, description, and information provided a vivid reflection of the Maker's own fecundity.
It should be said at once that whatever his accomplishments as chief poet at the court of François I Clément Marot was never an important figure in Renaissance England. In his own country he was a popular and influential author, and although in La Deffence Du Bellay was to write of him in a tone verging on scorn Marot had in fact done a great deal to liberate French poetry from the Rhétoriqueur tradition and to ‘illustrate’ it with new grace, flexibility, and wit. To be sure, his early work owes much to the Rhétoriqueurs and to the Roman de la Rose, but some years before the Pléiade began its well-publicized program to improve French letters he had already experimented with such forms as the elegy and sonnet and had on occasion attempted intriguing combinations of Petrarchan themes and diction with older French forms.
Robert Barret, the author of The theorike and practike of moderne warres (1598), must be added to the somewhat surprisingly long list of those who translated the poetry of Du Bartas. The translation exists in a manuscript neatly written in Barret's hand and signed by him several times. Owned by a Welsh watchmaker in the eighteenth century who used the margins and blank areas to jot down memoranda to himself, it came into the possession of the Earl of Powis and was acquired by the Folger Library in 1942. The manuscript is numbered up to page 292, although there are several pages missing at the beginning and one leaf has been torn out. This section is followed by sixty unnumbered pages, although again several pages have been lost.
Barret must have written the translation at or around the turn of the sixteenth century, for in a digression in praise of Queen Elizabeth he says that she has reigned ‘full Lustrae eight, and now thirde-yeerescommence.’
In 1609 Gervase Markham, England's leading authority on horses, Sir John Harington's cousin, and not a truly bad poet, invited readers of The Famous Whore to give the prostitute “a kind welcome out of Italy.” According to the headnote of this long poem, the elderly woman who here makes her “lamentable complaint” was “Paulina the famous Roman Curtezan, sometimes M[istress] unto the great Cardinal Hypolito of Est.” Since Markham seems so confidently to direct our eyes to Rome, it is understandable both that the entry on him in the Dictionary of National Biography posits an unknown Italian model and that neither the modern bibliography of his works nor the revised Short Title Catalogue can identify his source. In fact, Markham's work is a fairly close imitation of Joachim Du Bellay's’ ‘Vieille courtisanne,'’ first published in 15 5 8 as part of a collection somewhat misleadingly entitled Divers jeux rustiques.
King David's rise from tending sheep to governing Israel impressed Renaissance writers, not least the poets and clergymen who found a model in his musical “psalmograph.” Yet ambiguities nestle in allusions to his career. Though many stressed that his ascent was thanks to divine election and not to ambition or guile, the fact remained that David did not inherit his scepter. Europe, though, was for the most part ruled by those with dynastic claims, and it had a class system in which literal shepherds should know their place, even if the Bible asserts that the valleys shall be exalted and the mountains made low. Comments on kings and bishops as shepherds, on shepherds as kings, and on David's upward career are fascinating to trace precisely because their social and political context can give them the energy of a concealed ambivalence.
Home health agencies have been tasked to improve their patients’ disaster preparedness. Few studies have evaluated the robustness of tools to support preparedness in home health. Through evaluation of the Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) Patient Assessment Tool, we conducted a survey to identify strengths and challenges in supporting the preparedness of patients served by home health programs such as the Veterans Health Administration’s HBPC program.
Practitioners from 10 HBPC programs fielded the Patient Assessment Tool with all patients during a 3-week period. Logistic regression and bivariate analyses were used to identify patient characteristics associated with the delivery of preparedness education.
A total of 754 Patient Assessment Tools were returned. The educational item most likely to be covered was how to activate 911 services (87%). The item least likely to be discussed was information on emergency shelter registration and emergency specialty transportation (44%). When compared to the low risk group, HBPC patients in the high/medium risk group were more likely to receive preparedness education materials for 6 of the 9 educational preparedness items (P values less than 0.05).
Practitioners are relaying preparedness education to their most vulnerable patients, suggesting that home health agencies can provide disaster preparedness in the home. Nonetheless, there is room for improvement. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:547-554)