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Technology has been a central theme in archaeological discussion. Different approaches have been developed in order to understand and better explain the processes that lead to the production of objects and things. The anthropology of technology has been one such effort, with its focus on technological style and the chaîne opératoire. In this paper we argue that, despite their many contributions, these approaches tend to isolate the process of production, as well as to see it as the imposition of culture over nature. Instead, we propose a relational approach to technology, one that considers the multiple participants in the social actions involved, stressing the affective qualities of the different entities participating in the process of making. We focus this discussion on the production process of rock art in North Central Chile by Diaguita communities (c. ad 1000–c. 1540), arguing that making petroglyphs was a central activity that aimed at the balancing of the world and its participants, creating a mediating space that facilitated connectedness between the multiple members of the Diaguita world, humans and other-than-humans.
This article describes an atomic force microscope (AFM) that can operate in any scanning electron microscope (SEM) or SEM combined with a focused ion-beam (FIB) column. The combination of AFM, SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), FIB milling, and nanofabrication methods (field-emission scanning probe lithography, tip-based electron beam induced deposition, and nanomachining) provides a new tool for correlative nanofabrication and microscopy. Piezoresistive, thermo-mechanically actuated cantilevers (active cantilevers) are used for fast imaging and nanofabrication. Thus, the AFM with active cantilevers integrated into an SEM (AFMinSEM) can generate and characterize nanostructures in situ without breaking vacuum or contaminating the sample.
In this Research Communication we present a study of the effect of Ca-binding salts on the recovery of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) from buttermilk. Sodium phosphate buffer was used for the purpose of MFGM recovery from buttermilk for the first time and we showed that 0.1 M buffer at pH 7.2 was the most effective for the recovery of MFGM. The fact of high efficacy of sodium phosphate buffer in recovery of MFGM from buttermilk allowed us to suggest that MFGM in buttermilk is present in association with casein through Ca- bridges formed between phospholipids of MFGM and phosphate groups of casein, primarily with k-casein as the peripheral protein of casein micelles.
Although Christianity would seem by its very nature to be a missionary religion, both the sense of what ‘mission’ means and the specific motivations of missionaries have varied as each generation reads afresh the Gospels’ injunctions. Early Christians were keen to stress the ‘international’ character of their religion and the primordial equality of all peoples, yet a different conceptual system was embedded in the very language in which the early Christian apologists wrote. St Paul already uses the term barbarian, with its implicit contrast between ‘us’ and ‘them’. Early Christians also appropriated the discourse of the Roman world, which was similarly permeated with the spirit of empire. If the empire was ‘the world’, then those beyond the imperial borders were automatically assigned to an ‘other’ world, not inhabited by real people. Primitive Christianity opposed this kind of logic. St Christopher, for example, was – according to his Life – ‘from the race of dog-heads, from the land of cannibals’; but this did not prevent him becoming a Christian martyr. Does this imply that natural savagery could be eradicated? An answer can be found in another legend – the ‘Tale of St Christomeus’ – one of the apocryphal stories of the wanderings of the apostles Andrew and Bartholomew. The legend tells how a certain cannibal was visited by an angel, who breathed grace into him and ordered him to assist the apostles. When the inhabitants of ‘the city of the Parthians’ incited wild beasts against the preachers in the circus, Christomeus asked God to give him back his former nature: ‘and God heeded his prayer and returned his heart and mind to their former savagery’. This monster then tore the beasts to pieces, whereupon many of the pagans died of fright. Only after this did Andrew come up to Christomeus and say: ‘“the Holy Spirit commands that your natural savagery should leave you”… and in that moment his good nature returned’. The legend is clearly designed to glorify Christomeus and its superficial message is that even a cannibal can become a Christian. Yet the deeper message – which perhaps reveals itself despite the author’s best intentions – is precisely the opposite: that there is always a beast sleeping within any barbarian.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
With an estimated < 50 adult individuals remaining, the Critically Endangered Balkan lynx Lynx lynx balcanicus is one of the rarest, most threatened and least-studied large carnivores. To identify priority conservation areas and actions for the subspecies, during 2006–2014 we conducted 1,374 questionnaire surveys throughout the potential range of the Balkan lynx to (1) evaluate human–lynx interactions and identify potential threats, and (2) determine the probability of site use in 207 grid cells through occupancy modelling. Human–lynx interactions were related mainly to poaching of lynx, and damage to livestock by lynx. Poaching was intense throughout the potential range of the subspecies, apparently having affected 50–100% of the total estimated extant population. Damage to livestock was recorded only in relation to sheep, mainly in the southern part of the lynx's potential range. Occupancy modelling indicated 108 grid cells with high probability of site use, which was affected mainly by increased terrain ruggedness and reduced forest cover. Based on the combined results of our study we identified five priority areas for conservation, as well as in situ habitat protection, community participation in the conservation of the subspecies, and the improvement and implementation of the existing legal framework as the priority conservation actions for the Balkan lynx.
For a prime
be a finitely generated free pro-
-group of rank at least
. We show that the second discrete homology group
is an uncountable
-vector space. This answers a problem of A. K. Bousfield.
Herein, we show that scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an effective tool permitting to disclose the nature of the colossal dielectric permittivity characteristic of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) compound. SPM data confirm the existence of micro- and nanoscale barrier layer capacitance mechanisms which simultaneously contribute to the electrical conductivity of the material. The former mechanism is associated with the potential grain-to-grain barriers. The latter mechanism involves the barriers created by intragrain structural defects. The results of the SPM study shed new light on the origin of the colossal dielectric constant in CCTO.
Species that belong to the Aphidius eadyi group have been used as biocontrol agents against Acyrthosiphon pisum worldwide. However, despite their extensive use, there are still gaps in our knowledge about their taxonomy and distribution. In this study, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach by combining genetic analyses (mtDNA COI barcoding) with standard morphological analyses and geometric morphometrics of forewing shape. We identified three species within the A. eadyi species group, viz., A. smithi, A. eadyi and A. banksae. Genetic separation of all three species was confirmed, with mean genetic distances between species ranging from 5 to 7.4%. The following morphological characters were determined as the most important for separating species of the A. eadyi group: number and shape of costulae on the anterolateral part of the petiole, shape of the central areola on the propodeum, and shape and venation of the forewings. The differences in wing shape of all three species were statistically significant, but with some overlapping. We identified A. banksae as a widely distributed pea aphid parasitoid, whose known range covers most of the western Palaearctic (from the UK to Israel). Aphidius banksae is diagnosed and redescribed.
The Mathieu groups have many fascinating and unusual characteristics and have been studied at length since their discovery. This book provides a unique, geometric perspective on these groups. The amalgam method is explained and used to construct M24, enabling readers to learn the method through its application to a familiar example. The same method is then used to construct, among others, the octad graph, the Witt design and the Golay code. This book also provides a systematic account of 'small groups', and serves as a useful reference for the Mathieu groups. The material is presented in such a way that it guides the reader smoothly and intuitively through the process, leading to a deeper understanding of the topic.
“There are almost as many different constructions of M24 as there have been mathematicians interested in that most remarkable of all finite groups”.
In this book the study of the Mathieu group M24 (and other Mathieu groups it contains) falls within the scope of what E. E. Shult called the Ivanov– Shpectorov theory of geometries. This theory has been developed to construct and identify large sporadic simple groups including the Baby Monster, the Fourth Janko Group J4 and the Monster. The most dramatic outcome of the theory was the proof of the famous Y -presentation conjecture for the Monster, which for a long time remained unobtainable by use of the other techniques. In the case of M24 the way in which the theory develops can be projected onto the familiar structures of the Steiner system on 24 points and the Golay code, thus presenting a bold illustration of the theory as well as providing a fresh look at familiar, nearly classical structures. I am extremely grateful to Madeleine Whybrow, William Giuliano and the anonymous referees for suggesting thoughtful corrections, clarifications and modifications after reading earlier versions of the book.