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Psychiatric illnesses are prevalent in general hospitals and associated with length of stay (LOS). Liaison psychiatry teams provide psychiatric care in acute hospitals and can improve mental health-related outcomes but, to achieve ambitious policy targets, services must understand local need.
Using electronic patient records, we investigate associations between psychiatric diagnoses and LOS in South East London hospitals.
Patient records were extracted using the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search system. There were 6378 admissions seen by liaison psychiatry aged <65 years between 2011 and 2016. Linear mixed-effects models investigated the impact of psychiatric diagnoses on LOS. Potential confounders included medical diagnoses, gender, age, ethnicity, social deprivation, hospital site and investment per admission.
According to marginal means, longer LOS is associated with primary diagnoses of organic disorders (mean: 23 days, 95% CI 20.39–25.61), depressive disorders (mean: 11.03 days, 95% CI 9.74–25.61) and psychotic disorders (mean: 10.63 days, 95% CI 8.75–12.51). Shorter LOS is associated with personality disorders (mean: 6.28 days, 95% CI 4.12–8.45), bipolar affective disorders (mean 6.81 days, 95% CI 3.49–10.14) and substance-related problems (mean 7.53 days, 95% CI 6.01–9.05).
Psychiatric diagnoses have differential associations with in-patient LOS. Liaison psychiatry teams aim to mitigate the impact of psychiatric illness on patient and hospital outcomes but understanding local need and the wider context of care provision is needed to maximise potential benefits.
Declaration of interest
M.H. is a consultant liaison psychiatrist for King's College Hospital adult liaison psychiatry team. At the time of writing, H.T. was senior business manager at SLaM psychological medicine and integrated care clinical academic group. These may be considered financial and/or non-financial interests given the implications of findings for service funding.
The waiting room in psychiatric services can provide an ideal setting for offering evidence-based psychological interventions that can be delivered through electronic media. Currently, there is no intervention available that have been developed or tested in mental health.
This proof-of-concept study aimed to evaluate a pilot design of RESOLVE (Relaxation Exercise, SOLving problem and cognitiVe Errors) to test the procedure and obtain outcome data to inform future, definitive trials (trial registration at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02536924, REB Number: PSIY-477-15).
Forty participants were enrolled and equally randomised to the intervention, RESOLVE plus treatment as usual arm (TAU), or to a control group (TAU only). Those in the intervention group watched RESOLVE in a room adjacent to the waiting area. Participants in the control received routine care. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluations outcome measure; and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. These measures were performed by a masked assessor at baseline and at 6-week follow-up. Additionally, we measured the number of contacts with mental health services during the prior 4 weeks. Both intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were performed.
The study proved feasible. We were able to recruit the required number of participants. There was a statistically significant improvement in depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), general psychopathology (P < 0.001) and disability (P = 0.0361) in favour of the intervention group. People in the intervention group were less likely to contact the service (P = 0.012) post-intervention.
Findings provide preliminary evidence that evidence-based psychosocial interventions can be delivered through electronic media in a waiting-room setting. The outcome data from this study will be used for future definitive trials.
The complex healthcare needs of pregnant patients, where care is tailored to not one but two patients, pose specific challenges to anesthesiologists. This book provides concise, case-based discussion on the clinical scenarios and challenges faced in the provision of anesthesia and pain relief for expectant mothers. In the style of problem-based learning, each case is presented as a short scenario, followed by discussion of the causes, risk factors, management and controversies involved. The textbook features a wide range of cases, from common clinical scenarios that are experienced in day-to-day practice to the rare but significant pathologies less familiar to most clinicians. With a global base of contributors, the book is relevant to practice across the world. The concise format supports both trainee anesthesiologists in their initial experiences of obstetrics and exam preparation, and experienced clinicians in need of a reliable, quick-reference text.
In early October 2014, 7 months after the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa began, a cluster of reported deaths in Koinadugu, a remote district of Sierra Leone, was the first evidence of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the district. Prior to this event, geographic isolation was thought to have prevented the introduction of Ebola to this area. We describe our initial investigation of this cluster of deaths and subsequent public health actions after Ebola was confirmed, and present challenges to our investigation and methods of overcoming them. We present a transmission tree and results of whole genome sequencing of selected isolates to identify the source of infection in Koinadugu and demonstrate transmission between its villages. Koinadugu's experience highlights the danger of assuming that remote location and geographic isolation can prevent the spread of Ebola, but also demonstrates how deployment of rapid field response teams can help limit spread once Ebola is detected.
A third of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Relatively few pharmacological agents have established efficacy for TRD. Therefore, the evaluation of novel treatments for TRD is a pressing priority. Statins are pleiotropic agents and preclinical studies as well as preliminary clinical trials have suggested that these drugs may have antidepressant properties.
To report on a protocol for a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of add-on treatment with simvastatin for patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD who have failed to respond to at least two adequate trials with approved antidepressants. The trial has been registered with Clinicaltrials.gov in (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03435744).
After screening and randomisation to the two parallel arms of the trial, 75 patients will receive simvastatin and 75 patients will receive placebo as adjuncts to treatment as usual. The primary outcome is change in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to week 12 and secondary outcomes include changes in scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Clinical Global Impression scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale and change in body mass index from baseline to week 12. Assessments will take place at screening, baseline, and weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Checklists for adverse effects will be undertaken at each visit. Simvastatin (20 mg) will be given once daily. Other secondary outcomes include C-reactive protein and plasma lipids measured at baseline and week 12.
This trial will assess simvastatin's efficacy and tolerability as an add-on treatment option for patients with TRD and provide insights into its putative mechanisms of action.
As the first trial investigating the use of simvastatin as an augmentation strategy in patients with TRD, if the results indicate that adjuvant simvastatin is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms, it will deliver immediate clinical benefit.
Declaration of interest
I.B.C. and N.H. have given lectures and advice to Eli Lilly, Bristol Myers Squibb, Lundbeck, Astra Zeneca and Janssen pharmaceuticals for which they or their employing institution have been reimbursed. R.R. and M.M.H. have received educational grants and support for academic meetings from Pfizer, Roche, Novartis and Nabiqasim. A.H.Y. has been commissioned to provide lectures and advice to all major pharmaceutical companies with drugs used in affective and related disorders. A.H.Y. has undertaken investigator-initiated studies from Astra Zeneca, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck and Wyeth. None of the companies have a financial interest in this research.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in a cohort of pancreas transplant recipients and assess predisposing risk factors for SSI
Retrospective cohort study
Single transplant center in Canada
Patients who underwent any simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) or pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant procedures between January 2000 and December 2015
In this retrospective cohort evaluation of SPK or PAK recipients, we assessed the incidence of SSI and risk factors associated with superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI in SPK and PAK recipients.
In total, 445 adult transplant recipients were enrolled. The median age of these patients was 51 years (range, 19–71 years), and 64.9% were men. SSIs were documented in 108 patients (24.3%). Organ/space SSIs predominated (59 patients, 54.6%), followed by superficial SSIs (47 patients, 43.5%) and deep SSIs (3 patients, 2.8%). Factors predictive of SSIs in the multivariate analysis were cold pancreas ischemic time (odds ratio [OR], 1.002; P=.019) and SPK transplant (compared to PAK transplant recipients; OR, 2.38; P=.038). Patients with SSIs developed graft loss more frequently (OR, 16.99; P<.001).
Organ/space SSIs remain a serious and common complication after SPK and PAK. Prolonged cold ischemic time and SPK transplant were the risk factors predictive of SSIs. Appropriate perioperative prophylaxis in high-risk patients targeting the potential pathogens producing SSIs in kidney and/or pancreas transplant recipients and a reduction in cold ischemia may prove beneficial in reducing these SSIs.
Hospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (“Xpert”) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.
To compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation.
Consecutive patients over 17 years of age in AII for suspected pulmonary TB between October 1, 2014, and March 31, 2016, with leftover respiratory AFB samples were enrolled in this study. A single Xpert was performed on the first available sample. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were recorded for each patient. We compared the duration of AII using a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy under multiple theoretical scenarios using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves and the log-rank test.
In total, 131 samples were included in our performance analysis of the Xpert, and 114 samples were included in our AII analysis. Overall, 81 patients (65%) were immunosuppressed, of whom 46 (37%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection were 67% and 100%, respectively. Xpert was negative in all cases of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Use of a single Xpert reduced AII duration from a median of 67 hours per patient to 42 hours with usual reporting, to 26 hours with direct communication, and to 12 hours with immediate testing.
A single negative Xpert result can reduce AII duration compared to the AFB smear microscopy technique under multiple theoretical scenarios.
This comprehensive yet practical text reviews the pathology of neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions of the pleura and peritoneum, with a particular focus on mesothelioma. The anatomy and embryology of serous membranes are discussed, and the causes, epidemiology, and clinical and radiologic features of malignant mesothelioma are reviewed. A comprehensive review of immunostains used for diagnosing serous membrane lesions is given, current treatment options for patients are outlined. The markers of asbestos exposure and their significance are also assessed. The pathology of non-neoplastic conditions of serous membranes, from peritoneal cysts and endometriosis to deciduosis and gliomatosis peritonei are also covered, as are lymphomas and soft tissue tumors in serous membranes. This makes Practical Pathology of Serous Membranes an essential resource for effective diagnosis.