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The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is the main cellular proteolytic system responsible for the degradation of normal and abnormal (e.g. oxidised) proteins. Under catabolic conditions characterised by chronic inflammation, the UPS is activated resulting in proteolysis, muscle wasting and impaired muscle function. Milk proteins provide sulphur-containing amino acid and have been proposed to affect muscle inflammation. However, the response of the UPS to aseptic inflammation and protein supplementation is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how milk protein supplementation affects UPS activity and skeletal muscle function under conditions of aseptic injury induced by intense, eccentric exercise. In a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measures design, eleven men received either placebo (PLA) or milk protein concentrate (PRO, 4×20 g on exercise day and 20 g/d for the following 8 days), following an acute bout of eccentric exercise (twenty sets of fifteen eccentric contractions at 30°/s) on an isokinetic dynamometer. In each trial, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at baseline, as well as at 2 and 8 d post exercise, whereas blood samples were collected before exercise and at 6 h, 1 d, 2 d and 8 d post exercise. Muscle strength and soreness were assessed before exercise, 6 h post exercise and then daily for 8 consecutive days. PRO preserved chymotrypsin-like activity and attenuated the decrease of strength, facilitating its recovery. PRO also prevented the increase of NF-κB phosphorylation and HSP70 expression throughout recovery. We conclude that milk PRO supplementation following exercise-induced muscle trauma preserves proteasome activity and attenuates strength decline during the pro-inflammatory phase.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
The sources of inspiration concerning the poems of C.P. Cavafy are not known in their whole scope. In the following pages some eight poems of the Alexandrian poet are discussed, the sources of which were either completely unknown or only partly recognized. The cases in question do not exhaust this topic.
The development, in size as well as importance, of the international civil service is a relatively recent phenomenon in the international scene. One of its consequences is an increase in die number of problems that may and do arise between an international organization and the members of its staff. Such problems exist in all civil services, national as well as international; they arise in relation to the legal position of the service officials, to their dismissals and promotions (or lack of them), to disciplinary measures against any of them, to their salaries, leaves of absence and other such administrative “details”. On all such questions, the views on which the organization, as represented by its higher administrative officers, bases its actions, may differ from the views of the officials concerned. The facts in each case may be in dispute, or the meaning of the terms and provisions of the contracts of employment and the regulations of the service, may be understood in different ways by die parties concerned.
Greek military recruits (993) were examined for carriage of meningococci during July 1990. Blood, saliva and throat swab specimens were obtained and each recruit answered a questionnaire providing information on age, education (a measure of socioeconomic level), place of residence, smoking habits and recent infections.
The overall carriage rate was 25% but differed between the two camps: 79/432 (18%) in Camp A and 168/561 (30%) in Camp B (P < 0·0005). In Camp B, there were significantly higher proportions of recruits who were non-secretors (P < 0·0005), and/or heavy smokers (P < 0·0005). They were also younger ( < 19 years old) (P < 0·001), and on the whole had fewer years of education (P < 0·0005). By univariate analysis, carriage was significantly associated with smoking. By multiple logistic regression analysis, carriage was associated with smoking (P < 0·001), age (P < 0·01) and the camp in which the recruits were based (P < 0·01). Among recruits in Camp B, 15/38 (40%) of those with recent viral infections were carriers compared with 30% for the camp in general.
Presentation of evidence from multiple disciplines is the most impressive feature of Nell's article. I have observations and objections, however, about the following issues: (1) violence as a by-product of cruelty; (2) the equation of animal and human cruelty; (3) social psychological evidence contrary to the biological model; (4) whether prevention of cruelty best arises from predispositional or situational factors.
The new Greek Constitution which entered into force on June 11, 1975, offers to international lawyers an illustration of the increasing importance given to international legal issues by politicians and constitutional experts as they attempt to fashion constitutional structures more in keeping with contemporary international realities. The provisions of the new Constitution concerning international law and relations which are discussed here are largely consistent with current constitutional trends in Western Europe. They, and the debate around them, may also yield useful insights into the role and importance of the international legal context for a small country actively involved in and influenced by world affairs. They are thus of interest not only to those who follow political events in Greece but to a wider public concerned with democracy and internationalism.