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The mechanisms involved in kidney disturbances during development, induced by vitamin D3 deficiency in female rats, that persist into adulthood were evaluated in this study. Female offspring from mothers fed normal (control group, n=8) or vitamin D-deficient (Vit.D-, n=10) diets were used. Three-month-old rats had their systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured and their blood and urine sampled to quantify vitamin D3 (Vit.D3), creatinine, Na+, Ca+2 and angiotensin II (ANGII) levels. The kidneys were then removed for nitric oxide (NO) quantification and immunohistochemical studies. Vit.D- pups showed higher SBP and plasma ANGII levels in adulthood (P<0.05) as well as decreased urine osmolality associated with increases in urinary volume (P<0.05). Decreased expression of JG12 (renal cortex and glomeruli) and synaptopodin (glomeruli) as well as reduced renal NO was also observed (P<0.05). These findings showed that renal disturbances in development in pups from Vit.D- mothers observed in adulthood may be related to the development of angiogenesis, NO and ANGII alterations.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the matrices was the following: ground corn (26.25%), wheat bran (26.25%) and soya bean meal (47.5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 30% CP. Supplemented matrices received 150 kg of supplement (1 and 1.5 kg/day for cows in the MID and LATE groups, respectively). After birth, a biopsy was performed to obtain samples of skeletal muscle tissue from calves to determine number and size of muscle fibres and for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the progeny was the following: ground corn grain (30%), wheat bran (30%), soya bean meal (35%) and molasses (5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 25% CP and offered in an amount of 6 g/kg BW. Performance of the progeny was monitored throughout the suckling period. Means were submitted to ANOVA and regression, and UNS, MID and LATE periods of supplementation were compared. Differences were considered at P<0.10. Birth weight, average daily gain and weaning weight of the offspring did not differ among treatments (P>0.10). Similarly, no differences were observed between calves for nutrient intake (P>0.10). However, greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P=0.006) was observed in the calves of LATE group. The ribeye area (P=0.077) was greater in calves born from supplemented compared with UNS cows. The supplementation of pregnant cows did not affect the muscle fibre size of their progeny (P=0.208). On the other hand, calves born from dams supplemented at mid-gestation had greater muscle fibre number (P=0.093) compared with calves from UNS group. Greater mRNA expression of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor α (P=0.073) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (P=0.003) was observed in the calves born from MID cows. Although strategic supplementation did not affect the BW of offspring, it did cause changes in carcass traits, number of myofibres, and mRNA expression of a muscle hypertrophy and lipid oxidation markers in skeletal muscle of the offspring.
Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.
Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs.
General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure.
Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types – witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury – accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events.
Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.
Hosts and parasites interact with each other in a variety of ways, and this diversity of interactions is reflected in the networks they form. To test for differences in interaction patterns of ecto- and endoparasites we analysed subnetworks formed by each kind of parasites and their host fish species in fish–parasite networks for 22 localities. We assessed the proportion of parasite species per host species, the relationship between parasite fauna composition and host taxonomy, connectance, nestedness and modularity of each subnetwork (n = 44). Furthermore, we evaluated the similarity in host species composition among modules in ecto- and endoparasite subnetworks. We found several differences between subnetworks of fish ecto- and endoparasites. The association with a higher number of host species observed among endoparasites resulted in higher connectance and nestedness, and lower values of modularity in their subnetworks than in those of ectoparasites. Taxonomically related host species tended to share ecto- or endoparasites with the same interaction intensity, but the species composition of hosts tended to differ between modules formed by ecto- and endoparasites. Our results suggest that different evolutionary and ecological processes are responsible for organizing the networks formed by ecto- and endoparasites and fish.
Different dietary interventions have been identified as potential modifiers of adiponectin concentrations, and they may be influenced by lipid intake. We identified studies investigating the effect of dietary lipids (type/amount) on adiponectin concentrations in a systematic review with meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted until July 2013 using databases such as Medline, Embase and Scopus (MeSH terms: ‘adiponectin’, ‘dietary lipid’, ‘randomized controlled trials (RCT)’). Inclusion criteria were RCT in adults analysing adiponectin concentrations with modification of dietary lipids. Among the 4930 studies retrieved, fifty-three fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were grouped as follows: (1) total dietary lipid intake; (2) dietary/supplementary n-3 PUFA; (3) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation; (4) other dietary lipid interventions. Diets with a low fat content in comparison to diets with a high-fat content were not associated with positive changes in adiponectin concentrations (twelve studies; pooled estimate of the difference in means: − 0·04 (95 % CI − 0·82, 0·74) μg/ml). A modest increase in adiponectin concentrations with n-3 PUFA supplementation was observed (thirteen studies; 0·27 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·47) μg/ml). Publication bias was found by using Egger's test (P= 0·01) and funnel plot asymmetry. In contrast, CLA supplementation reduced the circulating concentrations of adiponectin compared with unsaturated fat supplementation (seven studies; − 0·74 (95 % CI − 1·38, − 0·10) μg/ml). However, important sources of heterogeneity were found as revealed by the meta-regression analyses of both n-3 PUFA and CLA supplementation. Results of new RCT would be necessary to confirm these findings.
In this talk we present a novel way to use optical polarimetric observations to provide independent constraints and guide to the modelling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars. The approach is particularly useful to judge when a two-zone model description of the SED of the source is required and is able to provide with extra information that helps breaking some of the degeneracies on the fit parameters of the two SSC model components. The method will be presented in some detail and will be subsequently applied to the 2008 multi-wavelength campaign of PKS 2155-304 as an illustration of its potential.
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide and can lead to annual losses of up to 80% of backyard chickens in Africa. All bird species are considered susceptible to ND virus (NDV) infection but little is known about the role that wild birds play in the epidemiology of the virus. We present a long-term monitoring of 9000 wild birds in four African countries. Overall, 3·06% of the birds were PCR-positive for NDV infection, with prevalence ranging from 0% to 10% depending on the season, the site and the species considered. Our study shows that ND is circulating continuously and homogeneously in a large range of wild bird species. Several genotypes of NDV circulate concurrently in different species and are phylogenetically closely related to strains circulating in local domestic poultry, suggesting that wild birds may play several roles in the epidemiology of different NDV strains in Africa. We recommend that any strategic plan aiming at controlling ND in Africa should take into account the potential role of the local wild bird community in the transmission of the disease.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25·5% of the patients were seronegative and 74·5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27·3% had OT and 72·7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·24–3·98, P = 0·009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1·77, 95% CI 1·05–2·98, P = 0·03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48·2 ± 21·2 years vs. OOD: 69·5 ± 14·7 years, P < 0·0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0·414, 95% CI 0·2231–0·7692, P = 0·007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.
Calculi in salivary glands and ducts (sialoliths) can be found in about 1% of the general population. Typically sialolithiasis causes long-term obstruction of salivary secretions, leading to atrophy of the gland with concomitant ceasing of the secretory function and ultimately fibrosis. Although some theories have been put forward regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of salivary calculi, the exact nucleation and growth mechanisms remain elusive. An exhaustive characterization of salivary calculi and systematic evaluation of the existing etiologic theories is therefore required.
In a recent study by our group on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed that about 50% of the inhabitants were parasitized and had some knowledge of intestinal parasitic infections but did not apply this knowledge in daily practice. We were thus motivated to implement strategies in health education to promote preventive measures in the locality. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the region in an effort to strengthen public policies for controlling these diseases in Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on action-research and a theoretical framework of health promotion. Our results demonstrate that the study population exhibited an enhanced awareness of the importance of disease from intestinal parasitic infections. Attitudes and practices related to prevention were significantly improved after the shared health education. In conclusion, this study allowed the shared construction of knowledge that reflected the true needs of the residents.
High sodium salicylate doses can cause reversible hearing loss and tinnitus, possibly due to reduced outer hair cell electromotility. Sodium salicylate is known to alter outer hair cell structure and function. This study determined the reversibility and cochlear recovery time after administration of an ototoxic sodium salicylate dose to guinea pigs with normal cochlear function.
Prospective experimental investigation.
All animals received a single 500 mg sodium salicylate dose, but with different durations of action. Function was evaluated before drug administration and immediately before sacrifice. Cochleae were processed and viewed using scanning electron microscopy.
Changes in outer hair cell function were observed to be present 2 hours after drug administration, with recovery of normal anatomy beginning after 24 hours. Subsequently, derangement and distortion of cilia reduced, with effects predominantly in row three. At 168 hours, cilia were near-normal but with mild distortions which interfered with normal cochlear physiology.
Ciliary changes persisted for up to 168 hours after ototoxic sodium salicylate administration.
Assessments of natural gamma radiation were done for urban sites in the city of Ribeirão Preto – SP – Brazil, allowing to infer the average annual effective dose value for the population in these areas. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Eberline, with a plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), to collect measurements of gamma dose rate and its spatial distribution. Using the national census information, the stored data allowed mapping the radiometric measurements through the ArcGIS software, correlating the geographical coordinates with their respective dose rates. These maps illustrate how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlate the collective dose values for these populations. Around 45,000 georeferenced effective dose values, ranging from 12.2 up to 59.8 nSv/h raised an average value of 0.034 ± 0.004 mSv/year, which is less than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.07 mSv/year  (for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and less than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Poços de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas, Caldas and Meaípe [2,10].
A Salmonella agona strain has caused a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis in a pediatric unit in Rio de Janeiro. It bears two plasmids, a small (6·5 MDa molecular weight) plasmid coding for type B colicin production and a larger one (36 MDa molecular weight) determining resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The R-plasmid, but not the Col-plasmid, is self-transferable to a Escherichia coli recipient strain. Curing for the R-plasmid was achieved by treatment with 0·05 % SDS followed by incubation at 44°C. It has not been possible to cure the S. agona strain for its Col-plasmid.
Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in leaves of drought-stressed coconut palms and its involvement with stomatal regulation of gas exchange during and after stress were investigated. Two Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut ecotypes from hot/humid and hot/dry environments were submitted to three consecutive drying/recovery cycles under greenhouse conditions. ABA accumulated in leaflets before significant changes in pre-dawn leaflet water potential (ΨPD) and did not recover completely in the two ecotypes after 8 days of rewatering. Stomatal conductance was influenced by ABA under mild drought and by ΨPD under severe drought. There were no significant differences between the ecotypes for most variables measured. However, the ecotype from a hot/dry environment showed higher water use efficiency after repeated cycles of water stress.
The automobile industry has been marked for continuous modernization
of its projects, in order to meet a high demand of safety, durability,
fuel consumption, design and cost.
This paper reports the latest developments that have been carried
out by ArcelorMittal Brasil for improving the quality of coated and
non-coated steel products for automotive use, taking into account
an integrated management among Companhia Siderurgica de
Tubarão (CST), Vega do Sul and ArcelorMittal Auto.
Introduction: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered the most effective and well-established pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a chronic and disabling condition. However, ~40% of patients do not have a significant improvement, suggesting that new medications are needed. This study was designed to investigate the treatment response to escitalopram in OCD patients.
Methods: This open-label study involved 11 adult OCD outpatients diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders. Data were collected and the treatment response was assessed by an experienced psychiatrist by using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Subjects received escitalopram 30 mg/day for 12 weeks starting at 10 mg/day. Dosage adjustments were made within 2 weeks, depending on the tolerability of the patient.
Results: Six of the 11 patients (54.5%) presented a reduction of at least 40% in the baseline total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores.
Conclusion: Despite the small sample size and the open-label nature of this trial, these data suggest that escitalopram may be a useful option for patients with OCD.
Studies conducted in tertiary care hospitals of different European countries and the United States have shown incidence rates of candidemia ranging from 0.17 to 0.76 and 0.28 to 0.96 per 1,000 admissions, respectively. So far, only 1 study has evaluated the incidence rates of candidemia in tertiary care hospitals in Latin American countries.
To evaluate the epidemiology of candidemia in 4 tertiary care hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil.
Multicenter, laboratory-based surveillance of candidemia.
A total of 7,038 episodes of bloodstream infection were identified, and Candida species accounted for 282 cases (4%). The incidence rate of candidemia was 1.66 candidemic episodes per 1,000 hospital admissions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida species in all hospitals, but Candida species other than C. albicans accounted for 62% of isolates, including predominantly Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Azole resistance was restricted to only 2% of all Candida isolates (1 isolate of Candida glabrata and 4 isolates of Candida rugosa). Candidemia was mostly documented in surgical patients with long durations of hospital stay. The crude mortality rate was 61%, and advanced age and high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were both conditions independently associated with risk of death.
We observed in our series a higher incidence rate of candidemia than that reported in European countries and the United States. Advanced age and a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were factors associated with a higher probability of death in candidemic patients. Fluconazole-resistant Candida strains are still a rare finding in our case-based study of candidemia.