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Photonic crystal surfaces represent a class of resonant optical structures that are capable of supporting high intensity electromagnetic standing waves with near-field and far-field properties that can be exploited for high sensitivity detection of biomolecules and cells. While modulation of the resonant wavelength of a photonic crystal by the dielectric permittivity of adsorbed biomaterials enables label-free detection, the resonance can also be tuned to coincide with the excitation wavelength of common fluorescent tags - including organic molecules and semiconductor quantum dots. Photonic crystals are also capable of efficiently channeling fluorescent emission into a preferred direction for enhanced extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can be designed to support multiple resonant modes that can perform label free detection, enhanced fluorescence excitation, and enhanced fluorescence extraction simultaneously on the same device. Because photonic crystal surfaces may be inexpensively produced over large surface areas by nanoreplica molding processes, they can be incorporated into disposable labware for applications such as pharmaceutical high throughput screening. In this talk, the optical properties of surface photonic crystals will be reviewed and several applications will be described, including results from screening a 200,000-member chemical compound library for inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions, gene expression microarrays, and high sensitivity of protein biomarkers.
The authors report on 7Li, 19F, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of 26 organosilyl nitrile solvent-based electrolytes of either lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium hexafluorophosphate. Lithium transport numbers (as high as 0.50) were measured and are highest in the LiTFSI electrolytes. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes of fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate. Solvent diffusion measurements on an electrolyte with 6% FOS suggest both the FOS and EC solvate the lithium cation. By comparing lithium transport and transference numbers, the authors find less ion pairing in FOS nitrile carbonate blend electrolytes and difluoroorganosilyl nitrile electrolytes.
The story of the Annunciation (Lk 1:26–38) inspired a flourishing tradition of homiletic and hymnographic literature in early Christianity. A recurring feature of this strand was the portrayal of characters through dialogue.
This book explores how the Virgin Mary's life is told in hymns, sermons, icons, art, and other media in the Byzantine Empire before AD 1204. A group of international specialists examines material and textual evidence from both Byzantine and Muslim-ruled territories that was intended for a variety of settings and audiences and seeks to explain why Byzantine artisans and writers chose to tell stories about Mary, the Mother of God, in such different ways. Sometimes the variation reflected the theological or narrative purposes of story-tellers; sometimes it expressed their personal spiritual preoccupations. Above all, the variety of aspects that this holy figure assumed in Byzantium reveals her paradoxical theological position as meeting-place and mediator between the divine and created realms. Narrative, whether 'historical', theological, or purely literary, thus played a fundamental role in the development of the Marian cult from Late Antiquity onward.
Although this text is regularly classed among the early narratives of Mary’s dormition and assumption, the Coptic Homily on the Theotokos attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem is actually an early example of a Life, or vita, of the Virgin Mary, and indeed, it is one of the earliest such texts to survive.
The veneration of the Mother of God and the imagery dedicated to her developed gradually in the Early Christian Church. Scholars still struggle to single out the earliest and most relevant evidence for the cult of the Virgin and to determine the starting point of devotion that is specifically Marian in focus.
Sodium valproate and related preparations have recently undergone regulatory review following concern about effects on the unborn child and doctors' failure to communicate risk. The issues are wider. Valproate is overused in psychiatry based on the false perception that ‘ease’ of use equates to better safety than alternatives. Valproic acid can disrupt fundamental physiological processes, the consequences of which are poorly understood and little discussed in the psychiatric literature. Valproate may be useful in a small number of patients with bipolar disorder but current prescribing patterns are unjustified. Perception needs to change.
Declaration of interest
D.C.O. is psychiatric commissioner on the Commission on Human Medicines and a member of the European Medicines Agency's Scientific Advisory Group on Psychiatry. He chaired the European Medicines Agency's review of the psychiatric use of valproate in pregnancy and women of childbearing potential.
Lack of trust toward medical research is a major barrier to research participation, particularly among some population groups. Valid measures of trust are needed to develop appropriate interventions. The study purpose was to compare two previously validated scales that measure trust in biomedical research – one developed by Hall et al. (H-TBR; 2006) and the other by Mainous et al. (M-TBR; 2006) – in relation to socio-demographic variables and attitudes toward research. Differences between Black and White respondents were explored.
Two nearly identical surveys – one with H-TBR and the other with M-TBR – were systematically administered to a convenience sample. Internal consistency reliability of each scale was assessed. Associations were computed between scores on each scale with attitudes toward biomedical research and demographic variables (i.e., gender, age, race, and socioeconomic status). The difference between White and Black respondents on each TBR score while controlling for age, education, and race was also investigated.
A total of 2020 participants completed the H-TBR survey; 1957 completed the M-TBR survey. Mean item scores for M-TBR were higher (F = 56.05, p < 0.001) among Whites than Blacks. Whites also had higher mean item scores than Blacks on H-TBR (F = 7.09, p < 0.001). Both scales showed a strong association with participants’ perceived barriers to research (ps < 0.001) and significant, positive correlations with interest in research participation (ps < 0.001). Age and household income were positive predictors of TBR scores, but the effects of education differed.
Both scales are internally consistent and show associations with attitudes toward research. Whites score higher than Blacks on both TBR scales, even while controlling for age and socioeconomic status.
Through use of a unique, multi-year public opinion survey, this paper seeks to measure changes in self-reported governmental satisfaction among Chinese citizens between 2003 and 2016. Despite the persistence of vast socio-economic and regional inequalities, we find evidence that low-income citizens and residents living in China's less-developed inland provinces have actually reported comparatively greater increases in satisfaction since 2003. These results, which we term the “income effect” and “region effect” respectively, are more pronounced at the county and township levels of government, which are most responsible for public service provision. Our findings also show that the satisfaction gap between privileged and more marginalized populations in China is beginning to close, in large part owing to efforts by the Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping administrations to rebalance the gains of economic growth and shift resources towards the populations most overlooked during China's first few decades of reform.