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Individuals with mental illness have poorer physical health, nutritional status and lowered life expectancy. Optimising their physical and nutritional status has become an increasingly important therapeutic goal. Current experience with Covid-19 has further emphasised the susceptibility to physical illness and poorer outcomes among individuals with mental illness and those who are nutritionally compromised. Although life as we knew it has been suspended until the arrival of a vaccine, individuals can take immediate action to improve physical and mental health by attending to and optimising their nutritional wellbeing. Clinicians within mental health services have a crucial role to play in assisting such change, and reminding their patients of the importance of pursuing a healthy and balanced diet.
5. Competition and Emulation: The Amorite Koine from Dilmun to Avaris, 1800–1550 BC
The establishment of an Amorite koine culture during the second half of the Middle Bronze Age is articulated in the context of intensive and long-distance exchanges of personnel through trade, warfare, and land tenure. Both competition between Amorite dynasties as well as the emulation of elites are discussed as the principal means by which a wide range of traditions were embraced across the Near East in the construction of an Amorite social identity.
1. Introduction: Amorites, Their Legacy, and the Study of Identity
The legacy of Amorites in the ancient Near East is discussed as well as the various approaches employed in this study for addressing the archaeological, historical, and iconographic evidence. The purpose, scope, and aims of the discussions of discrete historical moments that compose this work are outlined.
This chapter provides an outline of identity theory as it has developed out of its structural symbolic interaction origins. Identities are sets of meanings that define who we are in terms of the roles we have, the groups or social categories to which we belong, or the unique characteristics that make us different from others. The chapter reviews the origins of identity theory, including the characteristics, content, and bases of identities; in addition, it discusses how identities operate, change, and protect themselves as well as how they provide us with self-esteem. It concludes with a discussion of how identities provide a link between individuals and their society.
Peter Burke is a winner of the American Sociological association’s Cooley-Mead Award for Career Contributions to Social Psychology. He is a Professor of the Graduate Division of the University of California, Riverside, Distinguished Professor (Emeritus) in the Department of Sociology, and a Fellow of both the AAAS and the APS.
In this book, Aaron A. Burke explores the evolution of Amorite identity in the Near East from ca. 2500–1500 BC. He sets the emergence of a collective identity for the Amorites, one of the most famous groups in Ancient Near Eastern history, against the backdrop of both Akkadian imperial intervention and declining environmental conditions during this period. Tracing the migration of Amorite refugees from agropastoral communities into nearby regions, he shows how mercenarism in both Mesopotamia and Egypt played a central role in the acquisition of economic and political power between 2100 and 1900 BC. Burke also examines how the establishment of Amorite kingdoms throughout the Near East relied on traditional means of legitimation, and how trade, warfare, and the exchange of personnel contributed to the establishment of an Amorite koiné. Offering a fresh approach to identity at different levels of social hierarchy over time and space, this volume contributes to broader questions related to identity for other ancient societies.
2. Communities at the Margins: The Origins of Amorite Identity, 2500–2200 BC
The earliest evidence for Amorites in textual sources is discussed in the context of locating them among agropastoral communities across a marginal zone ranging from the Levant to northern Mesopotamia. The onset of arid conditions with the beginning of the Meghalayan Period (i.e., the 4.2 ka BP event) and its correlation with an intensification in Akkadian military activity are implicated in precipitating a refugee crisis among Amorite communities in this zone of uncertainty that led to their movement into neighboring regions.
4. Mercenaries and Merchants: Networks of Political and Economic Power, 2000–1800 BC
The establishment of Amorite dynasties are documented from Mesopotamia to the Levant during the early second millennium BC. The increasing role of Amorites in mercantile endeavors, including the founding of new settlements, are illustrated, and this activity is placed in context with the contemporaneous evidence for the Old Assyrian merchant colony at Kanesh in Anatolia and the Asiatic enclave at Avaris in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom.
The long history of developments contributing to the creation of Amorite social identity are framed in the context of sources of social power that were acquired by Amorites from the mid-third to the mid-second millennium BC. This interpretation is supported by a brief examination of the legacy of Amorite identity immediately after the end of the Middle Bronze Age, when a loss of ideological, economic, military, and political power contributed to a critical decline in the importance of social identification with Amorites.
3. Beyond Pastoralism: Diaspora and Opportunity, 2200–2000 BC
Following a significant decline in local environmental conditions ca. 2200 B.C., which contributed to the collapse of agropastoralism in the zone of uncertainty, the movements of Amorite refugees are documented from Mesopotamia to the Levant. Mercenarism and state service are highlighted as significant avenues to economic and political power across the Near East in the late third millennium.
To test the effectiveness of a social network intervention (SNI) to improve children’s healthy drinking behaviours.
A three-arm cluster randomised control trial design was used. In the SNI, a subset of children were selected and trained as ‘influence agents’ to promote water consumption–as an alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)–among their peers. In the active control condition, all children were simultaneously exposed to the benefits of water consumption. The control condition received no intervention.
Eleven schools in the Netherlands.
Four hundred and fifty-one children (Mage = 10·74, SDage = 0·97; 50·8 % girls).
Structural path models showed that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·20 less SSB per day compared to those in the control condition (β = 0·25, P = 0·035). There was a trend showing that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·17 less SSB per day than those in the active control condition (β = 0·20, P = 0·061). No differences were found between conditions for water consumption. However, the moderation effects of descriptive norms (β = –0·12, P = 0·028) and injunctive norms (β = 0·11–0·14, both P = 0·050) indicated that norms are more strongly linked to water consumption in the SNI condition compared to the active control and control conditions.
These findings suggest that a SNI promoting healthy drinking behaviours may prevent children from consuming more SSB. Moreover, for water consumption, the prevailing social norms in the context play an important role in mitigating the effectiveness of the SNI.
The concept of knowledge mobilization (KMb) is prominent in governance frameworks of tri-council funding in Canada. Yet there are a number of conceptual and practical challenges when such ideas are proposed for adoption across large multidisciplinary contexts. This research note introduces the concept of critical knowledge mobilization as a way to understand KMb in large multidisciplinary teams and social gerontology. It begins with a high-level sketch of the historic changes in knowledge production and knowledge sharing, followed by a definition of critical knowledge mobilization and examples of historical ideas and everyday tensions in practice. Building on these, we propose the need to advance and shift the culture of KMb, and to embark on engaged research as a means of innovation. We suggest that a reflexive process of critical KMb can facilitate innovation and promote a culture of knowledge mobilization in Canadian social gerontology.