To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper, we look at a linear system of ordinary differential equations as derived from the two-dimensional Ginzburg–Landau equation. In two cases, it is known that this system admits bounded solutions coming from the invariance of the Ginzburg–Landau equation by translations and rotations. The specific contribution of our work is to prove that in the other cases, the system does not admit any bounded solutions. We show that this bounded solution problem is related to an eigenvalue problem.
The satiating efficiency of food has been increasingly quantified using the Satiety Quotient (SQ). The SQ integrates both the energy content of food ingested during a meal and the associated change in appetite sensations. This systematic review examines the available evidence regarding its methodological use and clinical utility. A literature search was conducted in six databases considering studies from 1900 to April 2020 that used SQ in adults, adolescents and children. All study designs were included. From the initial 495 references found, fifty-two were included. Of the studies included, thirty-three were acute studies (twenty-nine in adults and four in adolescents) and nineteen were longitudinal studies in adults. A high methodological heterogeneity in the application of the SQ was observed between studies. Five main utilisations of the SQ were identified: its association with (i) energy intake; (ii) anthropometric variables; (iii) energy expenditure/physical activity; (iv) sleep quality and quantity and (v) to classify individuals by their satiety responsiveness (i.e. low and high satiety phenotypes). Altogether, the studies suggest the SQ as an interesting clinical tool regarding the satiety responsiveness to a meal and its changes in responses to weight loss in adults. The SQ might be a reliable clinical indicator in adults when it comes to both obesity prevention and treatment. There is a need for more standardised use of the SQ in addition to further studies to investigate its validity in different contexts and populations, especially among children and adolescents.
To identify correlates and underlying beliefs regarding the adolescents’ intention to abstain from consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the consumption of ≤1 daily portion of SSB.
Region of Chaudière-Appalaches in the province of Quebec, Canada.
311 adolescents aged 13–18 years completed a self-administrated online questionnaire based on the Reasoned Action Approach. Frequency and quantity of different types of SSB within the past month were measured.
Total mean SSB intake was 882·6 ml/d (654·0 kJ/d ). Only 11·3 % abstained from SSB within the last month. Intention to abstain from SSB was explained by identification as SSB abstainers (β = 0·47), perceived norm (β = 0·32), attitude (β = 0·30), age 13–14 years (β = –0·27) and perception of the school environment (β = 0·14), which explained 66 % of the variance. Consumption of ≤1 daily portion of SSB was explained by the intention to abstain (OR = 1·55; 95 % CI 1·14, 2·11), perceived behavioural control to abstain (OR = 1·80; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·52), sex (girls v. boys: OR = 2·34; 95 % CI 1·37, 3·98) and socio-economic status (advantaged v. disadvantaged school: OR = 2·08; 95 % CI 1·21, 3·56). Underlying beliefs (i.e. more energy, decreased risk of addiction and friends’ approval) associated with intention as well as perceived barriers (e.g. access to SSB, after an activity that makes you thirsty), and facilitating factors (e.g. access to water) linked to SSB consumption were identified.
The results can inform public health interventions to decrease SSB consumption and their associated health problems among adolescents.
Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the Échelle québécoise de triage préhospitalier en traumatologie (EQTPT) to identify patients who will need urgent and specialized trauma care in the La Capitale-Nationale region, province of Quebec. Methods: A detailed review of prehospital and in-hospital medical charts was conducted for a sample of patients transported following a trauma by ambulance to one of the five CHU de Quebec's emergency departments (ED) between November 2016 and March 2017. Data related to the trauma mechanism, population, injuries sustained, diagnosis, intervention and patient outcomes were extracted. The study primary outcome was the use of at least one urgent and specialized trauma care defined as: admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), urgent surgery within less than 24 hours after arrival (excluding orthopedic surgery for one limb only), intubation in ED, angioembolization within 24 hours after ED arrival, activation of a massive transfusion protocol in the ED. Also, patients who died secondary to their trauma were also considered as requiring urgent care. Results: 902 patients were included. The mean age (SD) was 59 (28.5) years old, 494 (54.8%) were female. The main trauma mechanisms were falls (592 (65.6%)) followed by motor vehicle accident (201 (22%)). 367 (40.7%) patients were transported directly to the tertiary trauma centre from the field. 231 (25.6%) patients had at least one criteria included in the steps 1, 2 or 3 of the EQTPT. Subsequently, most patients (649 (71.9%) were discharged home from the ED while 177 (19.6%) patients were admitted to the hospital. 82 (9.1%) patients required urgent and specialized trauma care. Of these 82 patients, 27 patients (32%) were identified in step 1 of the protocol, 12 patients (14.6%) in step 2, 5 patients (6.1%) in step 3, 13 patients (15.9%) in step 4 and 2 patients (2.4%) in step 5 while 23 (28.0%) patients were not identified by any steps of the EQTPT protocol. Therefore, 44 (53.6%) of the patients requiring urgent and specialized trauma care were identified by the criteria proposed in the steps 1, 2 or 3. Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort study, the EQTPT was insensitive to identify trauma patients who will need prompt and complex trauma management. Studies are required to determine the factors that could help improve its accuracy.
Neuronal plasticity alterations including cytoskeletal dynamics and synaptic markers have been recently associated with the treatment of major depression. Here we investigated the effects of agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with melatonergic (MT1/MT2) agonist and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist properties, on cytoskeletal microtubular proteins and synaptic markers in the rat hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala.
Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received daily i.p. administration of hydroxyethylcellulose 1% (vehicle) or agomelatine (40mg/kg) for 22 days. The rats were then sacrificed and hippocampi, PFC and amygdala dissected for analyses of microtubule dynamics markers (Tyr/Glu-Tub, Delta2-Tub and Acet-Tub) and synaptic markers (synaptophysin, PSD-95 and spinophilin) by Western blot.
In the PFC, agomelatine decreased Tyr/Glu-Tub and the neuronal-specific Delta2-Tub, suggesting decreased microtubule dynamics. In contrast, in the hippocampus Tyr/Glu-Tub and Delta2-Tub were increased, indicative of enhanced microtubule dynamics. A similar pattern to those seen in the hippocampus, but of higher magnitude, was observed in the amygdala where an important increase of Tyr/Glu-Tub accompanied by a decrease of the stable form Acet-Tub was observed. These findings were paralleled by decreased hippocampal spinophilin (dendritic spines marker), increased synaptophysin (pre-synaptic marker) and spinophilin in the PFC and amygdala and increased PSD-95 (post-synaptic marker) in the amygdala, all consistent with synaptic remodelling phenomena.
Taken together, these data shown that chronic agomelatine induces a differential modulation of microtubule dynamics and synaptic markers in the rat hippocampus, PFC and amygdala. These findings may have a particular relevance considering the fundamental role of these three brain areas in depression.
Cognitive impairment is central to many psychiatric conditions and is a determinant factor of functioning. The evaluation of cognition is time-consuming and recourse to it limited by cost, accessibility of expertise, and, in the case of computerized batteries, equipment. The SCIP is a 15 minute paper and pencil evaluation of cognitive function which can be integrated into clinical practice. It is thus a tool which can assist in determining which patients require a more extensive evaluation and can inform the elaboration of a personalized treatment plan. Our group (Groupe Comorbidité psychiatrique et Dimensions) has validated a french translation of the SCIP and is testing the acceptability of its integration into clinical practice in selected clinical populations. We will present preliminary data regarding the use of the SCIP in adult attention deficit disorder. Forty adult patients with attention deficit disorder were invited to participate in the study. In order to maintain a sample representative of clinical practice the only exclusion criteria were inability to speak french and inability to give informed consent. Demographic characteristics were collected, and a multiaxial DSM-IV diagnosis determined by the treating physician, SCIP was administered. The time to administer the SCIP was recorded, and a qualitative questionnaire of patient impressions was completed. We will present preliminary results of this study.
This paper presents a legal-economic analysis of key aspects of the WTO Panel Report involving a challenge by Indonesia against the anti-dumping and countervailing duties imposed by the US on certain coated paper from Indonesia. We focus on the findings in this case relevant to the determination of a ‘benefit’ to the recipient, a core requirement to establish the existence and extent of a subsidy. We examine benchmarking for determining benefit in cases of predominant government ownership of a natural resource and the use of ‘adverse facts available’ against a non-cooperative respondent to infer the existence of a benefit. The benefit analysis in this case may have broader implications. First, it may limit the scope for governments to determine their own policies regarding the ownership and management of natural resources. Second, it may create a loophole allowing investigating authorities to fill gaps in the factual record by intentionally using the ‘facts available’ to the disadvantage of a respondent. In both cases, the panel's findings may open the door to potential misuse of these flexibilities to find a benefit where none exists, or to inflate the margin of benefit to allow for higher countervailing duties.
The benefit of late window endovascular treatment (EVT) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke has been demonstrated using perfusion-based neuroimaging. We evaluated whether non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT-angiogram (CTA) alone can select late-presenting patients for EVT.
We performed a retrospective comparison of all patients undergoing EVT at a single comprehensive stroke center from January 2016 to April 2017. Patients planned for EVT were divided into early (<6 hours from onset) and late (≥6 hours from onset or last time seen normal) window groups. Incidence of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations (sHTs) at 24 hours and 3-month modified Rankin scores (mRSs) were compared.
During the study period, 204 (82%) patients underwent EVT in the early and 44 (18%) in the late window. Median (interquartile range) NIH Stroke Scale Score was similar between groups (early: 18 [15–23] vs. late: 17 [13–21]), as were median ASPECT scores (early: 9 [8–10] vs. late: 9 [7–9]). In the late window, 42 (95%) strokes were of unknown onset. Similar proportions of sHT occurred at 24 hours (early: 12 [6%] vs. late: 4 [9%], p = 0.43). At 3 months, the proportion of patients achieving functional independence (mRS 0–2) were comparable in the early (80/192 [42%]) and late (16/41 [39%]) windows (p = 0.76).
NCCT- and CTA-based patient selection led to similar functional independence outcomes and low proportions of sHT in the early and late windows. In centers without access to perfusion-based neuroimaging, this pragmatic approach could be safe, particularly for strokes of unknown onset.
Exercise modifies energy intake (EI) in adolescents with obesity, but whether this is mediated by the exercise-induced energy deficit remains unknown. The present study examined the effect of exercise with and without dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure on appetite, EI and food reward in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12–15-year-old adolescents with obesity (eight girls; Tanner 3–4; BMI 34·8 (sd 5·7) kg/m2; BMI z score 2·3 (sd 0·4)) randomly completed three experimental conditions: (i) rest control (CON); (ii) 30-min cycling (EX) and (iii) 30-min cycling with dietary energy replacement (EX + R). Ad libitum EI was assessed at lunch and dinner, and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) before and after lunch. Appetite was assessed at regular intervals. Lunch, evening and total EI (excluding the post-exercise snack in EX − R) were similar across conditions. Lunch and total EI including the post-exercise snack in EX + R were higher in EX − R than CON and EX; EX and CON were similar. Total relative EI was lower in EX (6284 (sd 2042) kJ) compared with CON (7167 (sd 2218) kJ; P < 0·05) and higher in EX + R (7736 (sd 2033) kJ) compared with CON (P < 0·001). Appetite and satiety quotients did not differ across conditions (P ≥ 0·10). Pre-meal explicit liking for fat was lower in EX compared with CON and EX + R (P = 0·05). There was time by condition interaction between EX and CON for explicit wanting and liking for fat (P = 0·01). Despite similar appetite and EI, adolescents with obesity do not adapt their post-exercise food intake to account for immediate dietary replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit, favouring a short-term positive energy balance.
Weaning is known to induce important nutritional and energetic stress in piglets. Low-birthweight (LBW) piglets, now frequently observed in swine production, are more likely to be affected. The weaning period is also associated with dysfunctional immune responses, uncontrolled inflammation and oxidative stress conditions that are recognized risk factors for infections and diseases. Mounting evidence indicates that mitochondria, the main cellular sources of energy in the form of adenosine 5′ triphosphate (ATP) and primary sites of reactive oxygen species production, are related to immunity, inflammation and bacterial pathogenesis. However, no information is currently available regarding the link between mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress in weaned piglets. The objective of this study was to characterize markers of cellular and mitochondrial energy metabolism and oxidative status in both normal-birthweight (NBW) and LBW piglets throughout the peri-weaning period. To conduct the study, 30 multiparous sows were inseminated and litters were standardized to 12 piglets. All the piglets were weighted at day 1 and 120 piglets were selected and assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: NBW (n = 60, mean weight of 1.73 ± 0.01 kg) and LBW piglets weighing less than 1.2 kg (n = 60, 1.01 ± 0.01 kg). Then, 10 piglets from each group were selected at 14, 21 (weaning), 23, 25, 29 and 35 days of age to collect plasma and organ (liver, intestine and kidney) samples. Analysis revealed that ATP concentrations were lower in liver of piglets after weaning than during lactation (P < 0.05) thus suggesting a significant impact of weaning stress on mitochondrial energy production. Oxidative damage to DNA (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) and proteins (carbonyls) measured in plasma increased after weaning and this coincides with a rise in enzymatic antioxidant activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial activities of both GPx and SOD are also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in kidney of piglets after weaning. Additionally, oxidative damage to macromolecules is more important in LBW piglets as measured concentrations of 8-OHdG and protein carbonyls are significantly higher (P < 0.05) in plasma and liver samples, respectively, than for NBW piglets. These results provide novel information about the nature, intensity and duration of weaning stress by revealing that weaning induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular oxidative stress conditions which last for at least 2 weeks and more severely impact smaller piglets.
Several factors can affect the nutritional status of children undergoing cancer therapy. The present review aims to describe children’s food intake during cancer treatments and to explore the contributing determinants. It also assesses the nutritional educational interventions developed for this clientele. Scientific literature from January 1995 to January 2018 was searched through PubMed and MEDLINE using keywords related to childhood cancer and nutritional intake. Quantitative and qualitative studies were reviewed: forty-seven articles were selected: thirty-eight related to food intake and parental practices and nine related to nutritional interventions. Patients’ intakes in energy, macronutrients and micronutrients were compared with those of healthy controls or with requirement standards. Generally, patients ate less energy and proteins than healthy children, but adhered similarly to national guidelines. There is a lack of consensus for standard nutrient requirement in this population and a need for more prospective evaluations. Qualitative studies provide an insight into the perceptions of children, parents and nurses on several determinants influencing eating behaviours, including the type of treatment and their side effects. Parental practices were found to be diverse. In general, savoury and salty foods were preferred to sweet foods. Finally, most interventional studies in childhood cancer have presented their protocol or assessed the feasibility of an intervention. Therefore, because of the variability of study designs and since only a few studies have presented results, their impact on the development of healthful eating habits remains unclear. A better understanding of children’s nutritional intakes and eating behaviours during cancer treatment could guide future nutritional interventions.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate intraoperative methods to generate patient-specific PMMA bone implants during a craniotomy. The proposed methods combine a cost-efficient, and non-invasive structured light scanner (SLS) as an imaging modality and a prototype printer for rapid generation of implant molds. Methods: This simulation study was performed using retrospective data from three craniotomy patients. The extracted bone flap and the cranial defect were scanned using a SLS, which generates a 3D surface model of an object by projecting a series of light-patterns on it. Prototype printed implant models were generated using two different techniques. The molds were then used to shape PMMA bone implants. These implants were evaluated regarding their accuracy to reconstruct the natural skull anatomy and compared to freehand formed implants. Results: The patient-specific bone implants reconstructed the preoperative anatomy with an average RMS error of 1.37mm (StDev 0.27), compared to an error of 1.5mm (StDev 0.43) for the freehand shaped implants. On average the intraoperative scanning time was 4.7min. The average time to generate and print the implant molds was 204 min. Conclusions: Results of this study have shown great promise for the proposed method to be used for patient-specific bone flap reconstruction during craniotomies.
Background: Migraine is a prevalent and disabling condition with limited understanding in the developing brain. Adults with chronic migraine show structural alterations in pain and sensory processing regions. Similar data is lacking in children and required for early intervention. Methods: Case-control feasibility study assessing structural brain differences between adolescents with chronic migraine and healthy controls using 3T Siemens structural volumetric MRI analysis. Fifteen subjects with chronic migraine were compared to 25 age and sex matched healthy controls. Non-parametric statistics performed (Kruskal-Wallis). Results: Migraine subjects had reduced volumes in total brain (grey and white matter) (KW p <0.03), total thalamus (KW p <0.01) and hippocampal regions (KW p <0.03). Unilateral (right) cerebellar grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in migraine subjects versus controls (KW p<0.05). No significant differences were found in other regions, including basal ganglia, cortical grey matter and brainstem. Conclusions: Total brain, hippocampal and thalamic volumetric reductions are seen in adolescents with chronic migraine. The regions identified are involved in migraine pathogenesis. This volumetric imaging study should improve understanding of the causes and effects of pediatric migraine.
Background: Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) tractography is commonly used in neurosurgical practice, but is largely limited to the preoperative setting. This is due primarily to image degradation caused by susceptibility artifact when conventional single-shot (SS) echo-planar imaging DTI is acquired for open cranial, surgical position intraoperative DTI (iDTI). A novel, artifact-resistant, readout-segmented (RS) DTI has not yet been evaluated in the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) environment. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of RS-DTI versus SS-DTI for intraoperative white matter imaging. Methods: Pre- and intraoperative 3T, T1-weighted and DTI (RS-iDTI and SS-iDTI) in 22 adults undergoing intraaxial iMRI resections (low-grade glioma: 14, 64%; high-grade glioma: 7, 32%; cortical dysplasia: 1). Regional susceptibility artifact, anatomical deviation relative to T1WI, and tractographic output were compared between iDTI sequences. Results: RS-iDTI resulted in less regional susceptibility artifact and mean anatomic deviation (RS-iDTI: 2.7±0.2 mm versus SS-iDTI 7.5±0.4 mm; p<0.0001). Tractographic failure occurred in 8/22 (36%) patients for SS-iDTI whereas RS-iDTI permitted successful reconstruction in 4 of these 8. Maximal tractographic differences between DTI sequences were substantial (mean 9.7±5.7 mm). Conclusions: Readout-segmented EPI enables higher quality and more accurate DTI for surgically relevant tractography of major white matter tracts in intraoperative, open cranium, neurosurgical applications at 3T.
This review examines the metabolic adaptations that occur in response to negative energy balance and their potential putative or functional impact on appetite and food intake. Sustained negative energy balance will result in weight loss, with body composition changes similar for different dietary interventions if total energy and protein intake are equated. During periods of underfeeding, compensatory metabolic and behavioural responses occur that attenuate the prescribed energy deficit. While losses of metabolically active tissue during energy deficit result in reduced energy expenditure, an additional down-regulation in expenditure has been noted that cannot be explained by changes in body tissue (e.g. adaptive thermogenesis). Sustained negative energy balance is also associated with an increase in orexigenic drive and changes in appetite-related peptides during weight loss that may act as cues for increased hunger and food intake. It has also been suggested that losses of fat-free mass (FFM) could also act as an orexigenic signal during weight loss, but more data are needed to support these findings and the signalling pathways linking FFM and energy intake remain unclear. Taken together, these metabolic and behavioural responses to weight loss point to a highly complex and dynamic energy balance system in which perturbations to individual components can cause co-ordinated and inter-related compensatory responses elsewhere. The strength of these compensatory responses is individually subtle, and early identification of this variability may help identify individuals that respond well or poorly to an intervention.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Objectives: Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Methods: Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Results: Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–11)
This article theorises the simultaneous enaction of securitising and desecuritising moves. It argues that the frequent simultaneity of these two processes, which are normally considered mutually exclusive within Securitisation Theory (ST), has previously gone unnoticed given a set of methodological, temporal, and ontological biases that have developed within ST. Demonstrating how these biases can be overcome – and even reconciled with the seminal texts of ST – by drawing on work from within social theory and elsewhere, we argue that the frequent simultaneity of (de)securitising moves most urgently requires us to reconsider the normative status of desecuritisation within ST. Although desecuritisation has traditionally been viewed as normatively positive, we argue that its temporally immanent enaction alongside securitising moves might introduce more violence into security politics and, in fact, exacerbate protracted conflicts. Ultimately, we make the normative ambitions of some within ST more opaque. Desecuritisation is not a shortcut to the ethical-political good within ST.