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The Six Dynasties Period (220–589 CE) is one of the most complex in Chinese history. Written by leading scholars from across the globe, the essays in this volume cover nearly every aspect of the period, including politics, foreign relations, warfare, agriculture, gender, art, philosophy, material culture, local society, and music. While acknowledging the era's political chaos, these essays indicate that this was a transformative period when Chinese culture was significantly changed and enriched by foreign peoples and ideas. It was also a time when history and literature became recognized as independent subjects and religion was transformed by the domestication of Buddhism and the formation of organized Daoism. Many of the trends that shaped the rest of imperial China's history have their origins in this era, such as the commercial vibrancy of southern China, the separation of history and literature from classical studies, and the growing importance of women in politics and religion.
The repetitive use of ALS-inhibitors for Cyperus difformis L. control has selected for herbicide-resistant (R) populations, which threaten the sustainability of rice production and demand alternative control measures to be developed. A better understanding of seedling recruitment patterns at the field level is required to optimize the timing and efficacy of control measures. Therefore, a population-based threshold model was developed for optimizing germination prediction in multiple ALS-R and –S (susceptible) C. difformis biotypes and applied to field-level emergence predictions. Estimated base temperatures (Tb) ranged from 16.5 to 17.6 °c with no clear pattern between biotypes; such values are higher than Tb of other important rice weeds, as well as for rice. Germination rates increased linearly from 16 to 33.7 °c. ALS-R seeds germinate faster due to smaller median thermal times to germination (θT(50)) while also displaying lower germination synchronicity across water potentials. Interestingly, ALS-R biotypes were capable of germinating under lower moisture availability, as indicated by their lower (more negative) base water potential values (Ψb(50)) for seed germination; Ψb(50) values ranged from -0.24 to -1.13 MPa. In-field soil germination measurements found thermal-times to emergence varied across three water regimes (daily water, flooded, or saturated). Seedling emergence under the daily water treatment was fastest; however, total seedling density lower than for the other water regimes. In order to optimize springtime C. difformis seedling emergence, soil moisture should be kept around field capacity, as germination is hindered at lower moisture contents. By predicting when most of the seed population germinates, the thermal-time model can address issues regarding the optimal timing for herbicide applications, thereby allowing for improved C. difformis management in rice fields.
Field studies were conducted from 2009 through 2011 at the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center near Lingle, Wyoming, to evaluate great northern bean response to PRE flumioxazin mixed with either trifluralin, pendimethalin, or ethalfluralin. Seven treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block with three or four replicates y−1. The soil texture of the study site was loam in 2009 and 2011, and sandy loam in 2010. Soil organic matter ranged from 1.4% to 1.8%. Treatments included flumioxazin plus trifluralin, flumioxazin plus pendimethalin, flumioxazin plus ethalfluralin, ethalfluralin plus EPTC, imazamox plus bentazon (POST), hand-weeded control, and nontreated control. Dry bean density 4 wk after planting differed among herbicide treatments (P < 0.001). Treatments that included flumioxazin reduced dry bean density 54% compared with treatments without flumioxazin. Dry bean yield was influenced by dry bean density; on average, yield in flumioxazin-containing herbicide treatments was 30% less than treatments not containing flumioxazin, even though weed control was generally greater in flumioxazin treatments.
Modular design allows to reduce costs based on scaling effects. However, due to strong alternating effects between the resulting modules and products, methods and tools are required that enable engineers to use specific views in which the respective information can be linked and retrieved according to the situation. Within the scope of this paper, the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach is used to model the complex real-world problem of vehicle modular kits. The aim is to investigate the potentials in this context, how modular kits and products can be efficiently modeled and finally how MBSE can support modular design. In order to investigate this in detail, two extensive studies are carried out in a company over a period of three years. The studies show that modular kits lead to an increased complexity of development. Across industries and companies, the demand for reference product models is shown, which facilitate the unification of inhomogeneous partial models and serve as a knowledge repository for the development of future product generations. On this basis, a framework is derived which enables the reuse of large proportions of the product models of previous product generations. This framework is evaluated on the basis of five case studies.
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and progressive condition that is either idiopathic or heritable, or associated with one or multiple health conditions, with or without congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease. Recent developments have tremendously increased the armamentarium of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children and young adults with pulmonary hypertension that is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. These modalities include non-invasive imaging, pharmacotherapy, interventional and surgical procedures, and supportive measures. The optimal, tailored diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for pulmonary hypertension in the young are rapidly evolving but still face enormous challenges: Healthcare providers need to take the patient’s age, development, disease state, and family concerns into account when initiating advanced diagnostics and treatment. Therefore, there is a need for guidance on core and advanced medical training in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology working group “pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and transplantation” has produced this document as an expert consensus statement; however, all recommendations must be considered and applied in the context of the local and national infrastructure and legal regulations.
The effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is correlated with drying time, which depends on the volume applied. Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in the amount of ABHR used by healthcare providers.
We sought to identify the volume of ABHR preferred for use by nurses.
A prospective observation study was performed in 8 units at a tertiary-care hospital. Nurses were provided pocket-sized ABHR bottles with caps to record each bottle opening. Nurses were instructed to use the volume of ABHR they felt was best. The average ABHR volume used per hand hygiene event was calculated using cap data and changes in bottle mass.
In total, 53 nurses participated and 140 nurse shifts were analyzed. The average ABHR dose was 1.09 mL. This value was greater for non-ICU nurses (1.18 mL) than ICU nurses (0.96 mL), but this difference was not significant. We detected no significant association between hand surface area and preferred average dose volume. The ABHR dose volume was 0.006 mL less per use as the number of applications per shift increased (P = .007).
The average dose of ABHR used was similar to the dose provided by the hospital’s automated dispensers, which deliver 1.1 mL per dose. The volume of ABHR dose was inversely correlated with the number of applications of ABHR per shift and was not correlated with hand size. Further research to understand differences and drivers of ABHR volume preferences and whether automated ABHR dosing may create a risk for people with larger hands is warranted.
For many species abundance data from across their entire range are incomplete, and therefore it is difficult to accurately assess their conservation status. Even for species that are large, charismatic and relatively easy to study, conservation assessments are often hampered by lack of data. Here we report a marked, previously undescribed, increase in numbers at a breeding colony of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, a species that is Critically Endangered in several parts of its range, and place this report in the global context for this species. We present a 10-year (2008–2017) dataset of nesting activities for this species on the island of Sal, one of the Cape Verde islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Foot patrols recorded 21,938 nests during the study period. We estimate that the annual number of nests on Sal increased from 506 in 2008 to 7,771 in 2017. Taking into account that there are only two known loggerhead turtle rookeries (on Masirah Island, Oman, and in Florida, USA) with > 50,000 nests reported annually, and few with > 1,000 nests per year, our results suggest that Sal is one of the 10 largest loggerhead turtle rookeries globally. Our work highlights the conservation significance of reporting trends in abundance at breeding sites for marine turtles and other taxa.
The design of government portfolios – that is, the distribution of competencies among government ministries and office holders – has been largely ignored in the study of executive and coalition politics. This article argues that portfolio design is a substantively and theoretically relevant phenomenon that has major implications for the study of institutional design and coalition politics. The authors use comparative data on portfolio design reforms in nine Western European countries since the 1970s to demonstrate how the design of government portfolios changes over time. Specifically, they show that portfolios are changed frequently (on average about once a year) and that such shifts are more likely after changes in the prime ministership or the party composition of the government. These findings suggest a political logic behind these reforms based on the preferences and power of political parties and politicians. They have major implications for the study of institutional design and coalition politics.
In order to automatically infer the resource consumption of programs, analyzers track how data sizes change along program’s execution. Typically, analyzers measure the sizes of data by applying norms which are mappings from data to natural numbers that represent the sizes of the corresponding data. When norms are defined by taking type information into account, they are named typed-norms. This article presents a transformational approach to resource analysis with typed-norms that are inferred by a data-flow analysis. The analysis is based on a transformation of the program into an intermediate abstract program in which each variable is abstracted with respect to all considered norms which are valid for its type. We also present the data-flow analysis to automatically infer the required, useful, typed-norms from programs. Our analysis is formalized on a simple rule-based representation to which programs written in different programming paradigms (e.g., functional, logic, and imperative) can be automatically translated. Experimental results on standard benchmarks used by other type-based analyzers show that our approach is both efficient and accurate in practice.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
Evidence suggests that low birth weight and fetal exposure to extreme maternal undernutrition is associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a clinical entity characterized by severe nausea and excess vomiting leading to a suboptimal maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several studies also showed that different measures related to hyperemesis gravidarum, such as maternal daily vomiting or severe weight loss, are associated with increased risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes. Not much is known about long-term offspring consequences of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum and related measures during pregnancy. We examined the associations of maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy, as a measure related to hyperemesis gravidarum, with childhood cardiovascular risk factors.
In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 4,769 mothers and their children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we measured childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, preperitoneal fat mass area, blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. We used multiple regression analyses to assess the associations of maternal vomiting during early pregnancy with childhood cardiovascular outcomes.
Compared with the children of mothers without daily vomiting during early pregnancy, the children of mothers with daily vomiting during early pregnancy had a higher childhood total body fat mass (difference 0.12 standard deviation score [SDS]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.20), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (difference 0.13 SDS; 95% CI 0.04–0.23), and preperitoneal fat mass area (difference 0.10 SDS; 95% CI 0–0.20). These associations were not explained by birth characteristics but partly explained by higher infant growth. Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy was not associated with childhood blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels.
Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy is associated with higher childhood total body fat mass and abdominal fat mass levels, but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to explore the underlying mechanisms and to assess the long-term consequences.
When programs feature a complex control flow, existing techniques for resource analysis produce cost relation systems (CRS) whose cost functions retain the complex flow of the program and, consequently, might not be solvable into closed-form upper bounds. This paper presents a novel approach to resource analysis that is driven by the result of a termination analysis. The fundamental idea is that the termination proof encapsulates the flows of the program which are relevant for the cost computation so that, by driving the generation of the CRS using the termination proof, we produce a linearly-bounded CRS (LB-CRS). A LB-CRS is composed of cost functions that are guaranteed to be locally bounded by linear ranking functions and thus greatly simplify the process of CRS solving. We have built a new resource analysis tool, named MaxCore, that is guided by the VeryMax termination analyzer and uses CoFloCo and PUBS as CRS solvers. Our experimental results on the set of benchmarks from the Complexity and Termination Competition 2019 for C Integer programs show that MaxCore outperforms all other resource analysis tools.
Undisturbed megalithic burials are extremely rare because in addition to human activities, natural disturbances due to water influence and erosion or faunal activity are likely to occur over time. The dolmen of Oberbipp discovered in 2011 provides a unique opportunity for multidisciplinary research since anthropogenic and natural disturbances are minor. Morphological analysis indicates that approximately 42 individuals were buried in the grave chamber. Using archaeological methods alone, it would not have been possible to determine different occupation periods within the inhumations. Neolithic communities often reused dolmen over centuries. Therefore, radiocarbon (14C) dating is the only method that can solve the question of temporal resolution. Fragments of the same bone element (right femora) were analyzed by two (in some cases three) different laboratories to date all inhumations individually. The aim of this study was threefold: (1) to determine the total occupation time of the dolmen (2) to evaluate the sequence of the burials, and (3) to compare the results of the same skeletal element from different laboratories. In total, 79 radiocarbon dating results from three different laboratories of the right femora (n = 32) were obtained. The total time span of the occupation of the dolmen was between 3350 and 2650 BC. The broad application of radiocarbon dating allowed the determination of two occupation periods within the burial.
Burning postharvest sugarcane residue is a standard practice to remove extraneous leaf material before spring regrowth. Live-fires were simulated from field-collected postharvest sugarcane residue and seeds of divine nightshade and itchgrass were exposed to dry and moistened postharvest residue (PHR) at four densities (6.1, 12.1, 18.2, and 24.2 Mg ha−1) and a nonburned control. The moisture content of residue exposed to simulated rainfall was 14% more in Experiment 2 than Experiment 1; however, burning PHR with 44% moisture when wind speeds were lower allowed the fire to continue and created a smoldering effect that reduced weed emergence by 23% when compared with burning PHR with 30% moisture during breezy conditions. The moistened 6.1 Mg ha−1 PHR treatment resulted in 53% more divine nightshade and itchgrass emergence when compared with dry 6.1 Mg ha−1 PHR after burning, and greater emergence was attributed to more seed survival for divine nightshade than itchgrass. The PHR moisture condition failed to influence the burn duration; however, the burn duration increased 103% and 56% as the amount of PHR increased from 6.1 to 12.1 Mg ha−1 and 12.1 to 18.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. The combination of high wind speeds and moistened PHR did not enhance the maximum burn temperature near the soil surface, but surface-deposited divine nightshade and itchgrass seeds were susceptible to prolonged exposure times at 100 C. Burning PHR from fields with poor stands or older ratoon, especially when PHR is abundantly wet, will not produce temperatures lethal to divine nightshade and itchgrass seeds. The fluid-filled and fleshy content that comprises divine nightshade fruit protected seed from short durations of high temperatures, but may not insulate seeds long enough when exposed to a smoldering fire.
Additive manufacturing used with custom electromyographic sensors has been demonstrated for neuroprosthetic limb manufacturing and is now translating to the clinical environment. These manufacturing methods have dramatically reduced device weight while increasing the capability for multi-finger dexterity. Using wearable electromyography sensors standalone from the prosthetic limb, a new virtual training method has been designed and tested to improve human–machine interaction. This type of training leverages real-time visual feedback to user inputs, supporting improved timing and magnitudes of muscle contractions. The combination of these technologies may provide a stronger affinity between the pediatric patient group and the device.
It is known that the education of significant others may affect an individual's mortality. This paper extends an emerging body of research by investigating the effect of having highly educated adult children on the longevity of older parents in Europe, especially parents with low educational attainment. Using a sample of 15,015 individuals (6,620 fathers and 8,395 mothers) aged 50 and above, with 1,847 recorded deaths, over a mean follow-up period of 10.9 years from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we examine whether the well-established socio-economic gradient in mortality among parents is modified when their adult children have higher educational attainment than their parents. We find that having highly educated adult children is associated with reduced mortality risks for fathers and mothers with low educational attainment, compared to their counterparts whose adult children have only compulsory education. The association is stronger in early older age (ages 50–74) than in later older age (ages 75 and over). Part of the association appears to be explained by health behaviours (physical (in)activity) and health status (self-rated health). Our findings suggest that the socio-economic–mortality gradient among older parents might be better captured using an intergenerational approach that recognises the advantage of having highly educated adult children, especially for fathers and mothers with only compulsory education.