To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster of unprecedented proportions with global repercussions. Psychological preparedness, the primed cognitive awareness and anticipation of dealing with emotional responses in an adverse situation, has assumed a compelling relevance during a health disaster of this magnitude.
An anonymized eSurvey was conducted in India to assess psychological preparedness toward the ongoing pandemic with a focus on knowledge, management of own and others’ emotional response, and anticipatory coping mechanisms among the survey population. An adapted version of the qualitative Psychological Preparedness for Natural Disaster Scale validated by the World Health Organization was widely circulated over the Internet and various social media platforms for assessment. Results are expressed as median ± standard deviation. Descriptive statistics were used and figures downloaded from surveymonkey.com.
Of the 1120 respondents (M:F 1.7:1, age 35 years ±14.1), most expressed a high level of perceived knowledge and confidence of managing COVID-19, such as awareness of the symptoms of the illness (95.1%), actions needed (94.4%), hospital to report to (88.9%), and emergency contact number (89.1%). A majority (95%) monitored regularly the news bulletins and scientific journals regarding COVID-19. However, nearly one-third (29.2%) could not assess their likelihood of developing COVID-19, and 17.5% were unaware of the difference between a mild and severe infection. Twenty-three percent (23.3%) were unfamiliar with the materials needed in an acute illness situation.
Psychological disaster preparedness is reasonable, although lacking in specific domains. Timely but focused interventions can be a cost-efficient administrative exercise, which federal agencies may prioritize working on.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Isolated aortic regurgitation and myocardial infarction are a rare congenital defect among neonatal patients. We present a case of a neonate with an unusual aortic valve morphology causing both regurgitation and obstruction of the left coronary artery ostium. Despite both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities, accurate diagnosis of the valve morphology was only determined by direct visualisation at the time of surgical repair. To the knowledge of authors, this particular aortic valve morphology in neonatal population has not been previously reported in the literature.
The Ethiopian great famine was one of the severe forms of global famines ever documented in Africa as well as in the recent history of the world. Earlier famine studies, as natural experiments, had tested the association between prenatal famine exposure and the metabolic syndrome and reported heterogeneous findings. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of prenatal exposure to the 1983–1985 Ethiopian great famine on the metabolic syndrome in adults. Self-reported birth date and age of the study subjects were used to classify the status of famine exposure. The International Diabetes Federation criterion was used to assess the metabolic syndrome. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to examine relationship between prenatal famine exposure and the metabolic syndrome. The findings showed that, adjusted for covariates, adults who had prenatal exposure to famine were 2·94 times more likely to develop the metabolic syndrome compared with non-exposed groups (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·94, 95 % CI 1·66, 5·27). More specifically, famine exposure during prenatal life was associated with increased waist circumference (AOR 2·27 cm, 95 % CI 0·28, 4·26), diastolic blood pressure (AOR 2·47 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·84, 4·11), TAG (AOR 0·20 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·10, 0·28) and fasting blood glucose (AOR 0·24 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·43) compared with the control groups. Higher proportion of the metabolic syndrome, risky anthropometric and dyslipidaemic parameters were observed among exposed groups. This finding adds further evidence on fetal origin of adult diseases hypothesis. The finding may imply that one potential means of preventing adulthood metabolic syndrome is to optimise maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Variants in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are a common cause of severe early onset epilepsy. Changes in CSF neurotransmitters (NT) were identified in 2 cases of VGSC-related epilepsy. Here we investigate NT changes in patients and a novel mouse model of VGSC-related epilepsy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a single site IRB approved retrospective chart review of patients with VGSC-related epilepsy who underwent CSF NT testing for diagnostic purposes. In parallel, we examined NT levels from the brains of wild-type (WT) and a novel VGSC-related epilepsy mouse model after obtaining IACUC approval. We rapidly isolated forebrain, cortex, striatum, and brainstem from 5-6 animals per sex and genotype. A combination of HPLC with electrochemical detection and mass spectrometry were used to quantify NT levels from brain samples. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 10 patients with VGSC-related epilepsy who received CSF NT testing. Two of these patients had abnormal NT results including changes to dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) metabolites. We analyzed NT levels from four brain regions from male and female WT and VGSC-related epilepsy mice. We anticipate that most of the NT levels will be similar to WT, however subtle changes in the DA or 5-HT metabolites may be seen in VGSC-related epilepsy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Patients with VGSC-related epilepsy often have autism spectrum disorder, sleep, and movement disorders. Understanding the role of aberrant NT levels in VGSC-related epilepsy may provide additional therapeutic targets that address common neuropsychological comorbidities as well as seizures.
Quantum computing, sensing, and communications are emerging technologies that may circumvent known limitations of their existing traditional counterparts. While the promises of these technologies are currently narrow in scope, it is possible that they will broadly impact our lives by revolutionizing the capabilities of data centers and medical diagnostics, for example. At the heart of these technologies is the use of a quantum object to contain information, called a quantum bit or qubit. Current realizations of qubits exist in a broad variety of material systems, including individual spins in semiconductors or insulators, superconducting circuits, and trapped ions. Further advancement of qubits requires significant contributions from materials science in areas of materials selection, synthesis, fabrication, simulation and characterization. Here, we discuss some of the needs and opportunities for contributions to advance the fundamental understanding of materials used in quantum information applications.
Coronary artery embolism is extremely rare in children with Fontan palliation. We report a 10-year-old boy with hypoplastic left heart syndrome post-Fontan procedure who presented with acute onset chest pain and ST-segment changes on electrocardiogram. Cardiac catheterisation revealed coronary artery emboli requiring stent placement. Our case highlights the importance of evaluating chest pain in a systematic manner in Fontan patients as acute coronary artery embolism can be a part of the spectrum of well-known thromboembolic complications.
Elevated temperature co-sputtering of immiscible elements results in a variety of self-organized morphologies due to phase separation. Cu–Ta is used as a model system to understand the evolution of phase-separated microstructural morphologies by co-sputtering thin films with nominal 50–50 at.% composition at four temperatures: 25, 400, 600, and 800 °C. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy of the film cross sections showed the microstructure morphology varied from nanocrystalline Cu–Ta at 25 °C to a wavy ribbon-like structure at 400 °C, to Cu-rich agglomerates surrounded by Ta-rich veins at 600 and 800 °C. In the agglomerate-vein morphology, microstructural features were present on two length scales, from a few nanometers to a few tens of nanometers, thus making the structures hierarchical. On the nanoscale, the Cu-rich agglomerates contained Ta precipitates, whereas the Ta-rich veins had embedded Cu nanocrystals. The various microstructures can be attributed to the highly disparate constituent element interdiffusion at the deposition temperatures with the Cu having orders of magnitude higher mobility than Ta at the deposition temperatures. This study of processing–microstructure relationship will be useful in guiding the design of hierarchical multiphase microstructures in binary or multicomponent thin films with tailored mechanical properties.
There are 3 High Secure Psychiatric Hospitals in United Kingdom. The Autism Act passed in 2009 introduced the Adult Autism Strategy, which sets out how local services should be improved to meet the needs of adults with Autism.
There are specialist services available to care for offenders with Autism in low and medium secure forensic settings but there is a lack of dedicated support in high secure settings.
The objective was to identify whether current care provided for such patients is appropriate.
The aim of the audit was to evaluate the need for specialist service for offenders with Autistic Spectrum Disorder within High Secure Psychiatric Care.
The hospital wide secure email system was used to identify wards which had patients with ASD. A questionnaire was developed which explored the clinical practice, willingness and knowledge of the Gold standards of care. It was circulated on the 9 identified wards to the staff on 3 different shifts. 100 completed forms were received which were stored in a secure area.
The results revealed that most of the staff was aware about ASD but majority had not heard about standard approach of care. Majority of the staff were willing to train and work in a dedicated ASD team.
Effort should be made to increase awareness and train the staff to care for offenders with ASD. Work should be done towards accreditation with the National Autistic Society to set up specialist care for ASD patients in High Secure Unit.
Gender, gender identity, and sexuality permeate interactions, institutions, and societies, including the organization of the political sphere, as well as the policies that states enact (Connell 1990, 2009; Orloff 1993; Risman 2004; Walby 2002). Expectations and norms around gender, gender identity, and sexuality vary from place to place, over time, and even within the same society, and play a central role in organizing all societies. Such cultural expectations are instantiated in the organization of the state, through its laws, policies, and institutions.
How will political sociology help us discern and analyze such changes now and in the next few decades? The future of politics is as uncertain as ever, but a brief overview of the history of political sociology may offer some clues to the theoretical challenges and opportunities ahead. For convenience, we divide the recent history of political sociology into three periods, suggesting that the field is now entering a fourth period with an expanding focus.