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The present study analyzed lexical processing efficiency in Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) and their monolingual English-speaking peers from kindergarten through second grade. Specifically, changes in the patterns of speed and accuracy on a rapid object-naming task were evaluated across languages for the ELL children and across the groups of children. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that ELL children have a rapid shift in language processing efficiency from Spanish to English by the end of kindergarten. Results also showed that by the end of kindergarten ELL children were slightly faster and more accurate in English compared with their monolingual peers. This work provides perspective on how lexical processing is impacted by the development of a dual lexical system. We discuss how lexical density, strength of lexical connections, and environmental constraints may influence this rapid shift in lexical processing efficiency for young Spanish-speaking ELL children.
Minority ethnic and migrant groups face an elevated risk of compulsory admission for mental illness. There are overlapping cultural, socio-demographic, and structural explanations for this risk that require further investigation.
By linking Swedish national register data, we established a cohort of persons first diagnosed with a psychotic disorder between 2001 and 2016. We used multilevel mixed-effects logistic modelling to investigate variation in compulsory admission at first diagnosis of psychosis across migrant and Swedish-born groups with individual and neighbourhood-level covariates.
Our cohort included 12 000 individuals, with 1298 (10.8%) admitted compulsorily. In an unadjusted model, being a migrant [odds ratio (OR) 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–1.73] or child of a migrant (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.10–1.47) increased risk of compulsory admission. However after multivariable modelling, region-of-origin provided a better fit to the data than migrant status; excess risk of compulsory admission was elevated for individuals from sub-Saharan African (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.51–2.49), Middle Eastern and North African (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.17–1.81), non-Nordic European (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.61), and mixed Swedish-Nordic backgrounds (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03–1.72). Risk of compulsory admission was greater in more densely populated neighbourhoods [OR per standard deviation (s.d.) increase in the exposure: 1.12, 95% CI 1.06–1.18], an effect that appeared to be driven by own-region migrant density (OR per s.d. increase in exposure: 1.12; 95% CI 1.02–1.24).
Inequalities in the risk of compulsory admission by migrant status, region-of-origin, urban living and own-region migrant density highlight discernible factors which raise barriers to equitable care and provide potential targets for intervention.
This paper examines the velocity distribution function and cyclotron resonance conditions for a beam of electrons moving in a magnetic field which gradually changes with time. A spatial gradient of magnetic field is known to result in an unstable horseshoe distribution of electrons. The field gradient in time adds additional effects due to an induced electric field. The resultant anisotropic velocity distribution function, which we call a Luvdisk distribution, has some distinctive properties when compared to the horseshoe. Fitting the cyclotron resonance condition circle shows that the frequency of the resultant emission is under the local cyclotron frequency. While the spatial gradient results in the emission coming almost perpendicularly to the field, the direction of the radiation under a time-changing field has more variability. The Luvdisk distribution also arises when the magnetic field has a gradient both in space and time. The beam can be unstable if those gradients are added or subtracted from each other (if the gradients are of equal or different sign), which occurs even when the total change of magnetic field is negative. While the frequency of the emission is related to the final magnetic field value, its direction is indicative of the field’s history which produced the instability.
Since its introduction into clinical practice in the early 1950s, the indications for CPB have broadened, from operations on or within the heart, to include non-cardiac thoracic, abdominal and neurological procedures. The indications for CPB for non-cardiac surgery are shown in Box 28.1.
The normal adult MV area is 4–6 cm2. Unlike other heart valves, the MV consists of two asymmetric leaflets. The aortic (anterior) leaflet makes up 65% of the valve area but its base forms only 35% of the circumference. The mural (posterior) leaflet usually consists of three main scallops, although there may be up to five. The leaflets are joined at the anterolateral and posteromedial ends of the commissure. The aortic MV leaflet shares the same fibrous attachment as the non-coronary cusp of the AV.
A comprehensive review of the complications of cardiac surgery would fill an entire volume. This chapter covers the more common and life-threatening complications. The reader is directed to the publications list under further reading.
This fully-updated third edition provides a practical and concise guide to all aspects of the perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients. Produced by recognised leaders from world-renowned cardiac centres, this is the authoritative text for residents and fellows in anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, clinical perfusionists, and critical care nurses. Updated chapters include regional anesthesia, paediatric cardiac anaesthesia, and anaesthesia for specific procedures such as aortic valve surgery and cardiac transplantation. An entire section is dedicated to transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in recognition of the increasing demand for basic TOE training. The book also includes an expanded chapter on the applications and anaesthetic implications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The text focuses on clinical practice and the basic science and pharmacology underpinning cardiac anaesthesia, ensuring the reader can easily apply the knowledge gained to real-life situations.