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This is the first modern edition of Book X of the Historia Animalium. It argues that the first five chapters are a summary, from the hand of Aristotle, of a medical treatise by a physician practicing in the fourth-century BCE. This gives short shrift to Hippocratic staples such as trapped menses and the wandering womb, and describes a woman's climax during sex in terms that can be easily mapped onto modern accounts. In summarizing the treatise and examining its claims in the last two chapters, Aristotle follows the method described in the Topics for a philosopher embarking on a new field of study. Here we see Aristotle's ruminations over the conundrum of a woman's contribution to conception at an early stage in the development of his theory of reproduction. Far from being an insignificant pseudepigraphon, this is a central text for understanding the development of ancient gynaecology and Aristotelian methodology.
Richard Strauss in Context offers a distinctive approach to the study of a composer in that it places the emphasis on contextualizing topics rather than on biography and artistic output. One might say that it inverts the relationship between composer and context. Rather than studies of Strauss's librettists that discuss the texts themselves and his musical settings, for instance, this book offers essays on the writers themselves: their biographical circumstances, styles, landmark works, and broader positions in literary history. Likewise, Strauss's contributions to the concert hall are positioned within the broader development of the orchestra and trends in programmatic music. In short, readers will benefit from an elaboration of material that is either absent from or treated only briefly in existing publications. Through this supplemental and broader contextual approach, this book serves as a valuable and unique resource for students, scholars, and a general readership.
Over the last decade many hundreds of new psychoactive drugs have emerged onto illicit markets. This flood of new drugs has led to clinicians being unsure of the rapidly emerging changing evidence base and uncertain of the best approaches to assessment and clinical management. This book provides a concise, accessible summary of these emerging drugs. By categorizing the hundreds of new drugs by their predominant psychoactive effect - sedative, stimulant and hallucinogenic - the book helps clinicians to manage a drug they are unfamiliar with by using their experience of other drugs with similar psychoactive properties. Written for clinicians from across the frontline, from A&E staff to drug treatment professionals, the authors draw on numerous clinical examples from their own clinical experiences to illustrate aspects of assessment and management. Club drugs and novel psychoactive substances will continue to challenge clinicians and this handbook provides readers with an invaluable introduction to this complex area.
In the year 1884, a north Indian Christian by the name of Zahur-al-Haqq, from what is now the state of Uttar Pradesh, penned a religious autobiography in Urdu, which was translated the following year into English as a 31-page pamphlet simply entitled Autobiography of Rev. Zahur-Al-Haqq. This work is in fact an extended conversion narrative that recounts Haqq's religious commitments and changes from his childhood to the time of writing, and also summarises his career as a worker in the mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, an American Protestant evangelical denomination that had been active in India since 1856. Haqq was 50 years old when he wrote his work in Urdu and had been a Christian for 25 years; he would go on to live for 12 more years, dying in 1896 (Barclay 1949: 456). Two years before writing his autobiography, he had been named to the position of Presiding Elder in the Methodist mission in India, the first Indian so appointed. The Presiding Elder was the second highest official, after bishop, in the American Methodist ecclesiastical hierarchy, and since at that time there were no Methodist bishops residing in India, Haqq was part of the cadre of the most senior Methodist leaders in his country, the rest of whom were American missionaries.
This chapter engages in a close reading of Haqq's narrative in order to explore some personal, religious and social dimensions of conversion to evangelical Christianity in nineteenth-century British north India, and to delineate differences between Indian and American Methodist understandings of religious conversion. The fundamental argument is that Haqq adapted an American Methodist template of spiritual autobiography in order to elaborate a distinctly Indian Methodist model for religious movement and change.
Two preliminary observations need to be made about this examination of Haqq's writing. First, the essay does not by any means assume that the autobiography is a completely reliable or unquestionably authentic historical account of the events described. In terms of its reliability, an autobiography may contain unintentional or even intentional factual errors. For example, Haqq's Autobiography definitively states on the cover page that he was the first convert of the Methodist mission in India. That claim, however, is questionable in light of the evidence from a number of sources (Barclay 1949: 456–457).
Did you know that Beethoven contemplated, however fleetingly, writing more than forty symphonies and that for the Missa solemnis he sought stimulus from a Latin-German dictionary? And what about the underappreciated sociable side of Beethoven's music to set alongside the familiar one of the heroic? Beethoven Studies 4 is a collection of ten chapters that approach the composer and his music from an appealing range of critical standpoints, aesthetic, analytical, biographical, historical and performance. Alongside essays that offer new information on Beethoven's compositional practice and broaden understanding of the music's contemporary and posthumous appeal, there are essays on his interaction with specific environments, Bonn and post-Napoleonic Austria, and vocal and piano performance practice. The volume will appeal to cultural historians and practitioners as well as Beethoven enthusiasts.
Neuroscience reveals that human beings are interdependent creatures, hardwired for empathy and relationship. Natural selection has favored prosocial traits like empathy, kindness, sharing, cooperative play, mutual understanding, perspective taking, and trust [1, 2]. Social connection is central to both physical and mental well-being and increased survival [1, 3]. Conversely, social isolation is correlated with myriad deleterious consequences to health and longevity. Nervous system development, genetic expression, and health are integrally dependent on social connection [4, 5]. Children who are raised within secure environments with healthy bonds of presence, attunement, and resonance and trust will develop a neural framework that promotes receptivity, flexibility, self-understanding, mindful awareness, empathy (the ability to feel with others), and compassion (the feeling that arises when confronted with another’s suffering and desire to alleviate that suffering).
For a small minority of personnel, military service can have a negative impact on their mental health. Yet no studies have assessed how the mental health of UK veterans (who served during the recent operations in Afghanistan or Iraq) compares to non-veterans, to determine if they are at a disadvantage. We examine the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse in UK veterans compared to non-veterans.
Veteran data were taken from the third phase of the King's Centre for Military Health Research cohort study (n = 2917). These data were compared with data on non-veterans taken from two large general population surveys: 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 5871) and wave 6 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS, n = 22 760).
We found that, overall, UK veterans who served at the time of recent military operations were more likely to report a significantly higher prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) (23% v. 16%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (8% v. 5%) and alcohol misuse (11% v. 6%) than non-veterans. Stratifying by gender showed that the negative impact of being a veteran on mental health and alcohol misuse was restricted to male veterans. Being ill or disabled was associated with a higher prevalence of CMD and PTSD for both veterans and non-veterans.
Whilst the same sociodemographic groups within the veteran and non-veteran populations seemed to have an increased risk of mental health problems (e.g. those who were unemployed), male veterans, in particular, appear to be at a distinct disadvantage compared to those who have never served.
Head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine if one season of HIE in youth football was related to cognitive changes.
Over 200 participants (ages 9–13) wore instrumented helmets for practices and games to measure the amount of HIE sustained over one season. Pre- and post-season neuropsychological tests were completed. Test score changes were calculated adjusting for practice effects and regression to the mean and used as the dependent variables. Regression models were calculated with HIE variables predicting neuropsychological test score changes.
For the full sample, a small effect was found with season average rotational values predicting changes in list-learning such that HIE was related to negative score change: standardized beta (β) = -.147, t(205) = -2.12, and p = .035. When analyzed by age clusters (9–10, 11–13) and adding participant weight to models, the R2 values increased. Splitting groups by weight (median split), found heavier members of the 9–10 cohort with significantly greater change than lighter members. Additionaly, significantly more participants had clinically meaningful negative changes: X2 = 10.343, p = .001.
These findings suggest that in the 9–10 age cluster, the average seasonal level of HIE had inverse, negative relationships with cognitive change over one season that was not found in the older group. The mediation effects of age and weight have not been explored previously and appear to contribute to the effects of HIE on cognition in youth football players.
Despite its seeming defeat at the hands of the new domestic melodrama and, later, the innovations of dramatic realism, the Gothic, beyond its heyday during period 1790–1830, continued to stalk the English stage well into the nineteenth century. Shape-shifting and refusing to die outright, the Gothic mode would inform melodrama, domestic drama, sensation drama and even the emerging realist dramas to the end of the century. Moreover, while according to received narratives of theatre history, the new modes of realism would claim a victorious precedence over the archaic drama of immured heroines and haunted castles, this chapter argues that as the fin de siècle loomed, attempts to repress the theatrical Gothic were met with an increasingly Gothic representation of the theatre itself within the wider popular and literary imagination.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is a circumglobal species and is listed as vulnerable globally. The North Pacific population nests in Japan and migrates to the Central North Pacific and Pacific coast of North America to feed. In the Mexican Pacific, records of loggerhead presence are largely restricted to the Gulf of Ulloa along the Baja California Peninsula, where very high fisheries by-catch mortality has been reported. Records of loggerhead turtles within the Sea of Cortez also known as the Gulf of California (GC) exist; however, their ecology in this region is poorly understood. We used satellite tracking and an environmental variable analysis (chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)) to determine movements and habitat use of five juvenile loggerhead turtles ranging in straight carapace length from 62.7–68.3 cm (mean: 66.7 ± 2.3 cm). Satellite tracking durations ranged from 73–293 days (mean: 149 ± 62.5 days), transmissions per turtle from 14–1006 (mean: 462 ± 379.5 transmissions) and total travel distance from 1237–5222 km (mean: 3118 ± 1490.7 km). We used travel rate analyses to identify five foraging areas in the GC, which occurred mainly in waters from 10–80 m deep, with mean Chl-a concentrations ranging from 0.28–13.14 mg m−3 and SST ranging from 27.8–34.4°C. This is the first study to describe loggerhead movements in the Gulf of California and our data suggest that loggerhead foraging movements are performed in areas with eutrophic levels of Chl-a.