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This article compares the impact of the economic crisis of 1787–1832, including the war and the loss of colonial markets, on the silk industry in Barcelona and Manresa, the two main centres of silk production in eighteenth-century Catalonia. In particular, it explores how families adopted different strategies in adapting to the crisis. Some moved into different sectors, including the emerging cotton industry, sometimes accompanied by geographical mobility. Others innovated by manufacturing specialised products, such as ribbons and handkerchiefs, often taking advantage of technological innovations in the textile industry. The article also offers some reflections on the role of women in these adaptative strategies, as far as the limited evidence allows.
An 84-year-old woman presented reticulate, lace-like and white keratotic bilateral lesions in the oral mucosa. No bullous or ulcerated lesions were observed (Figure 1). The diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP) was suspected and one lesion was biopsied.
A 56-year-old woman with a clinical history of rheumatoid arthritis for 15 years was on treatment with methotrexate, corticosteroids, and TNF-α antagonists at the moment of the current disease. The patient was admitted with a two-month history of a progressive infiltrative mucosal tumor affecting the upper lip, hard palate, and nasal septum (Figure 1A, B). Oral antibiotics and antifungals were administered without clinical improvement. Because of the progression of the lesions, two biopsies from the lip were carried out. The clinical diagnosis of lymphoma was initially suspected.
A 60-year-old woman had a previous history of resected pleomorphic adenoma in the left parotid gland in another hospital, 13 years before. She presented with a nodule again in the same location, 2 cm large, fixed, and firm in consistency. The patient was admitted to our hospital with the clinical suspicion of recurring pleomorphic adenoma. The lesion was removed.
A 54-year-old man presented with a history of 2 months of a painless, rapidly growing mass in right parotid region. The CT scan disclosed a 2 cm tumor in the parotid gland and several cervical regional adenopathies. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the tumor was performed before the surgical excision of the right parotid gland. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and he without evidence of disease, after 2 years of follow-up.
This paper focuses on the three dimensional flight path planning for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) on a low altitude terrain following\terrain avoidance mission. The UAV trajectory planning problem is to compute an optimal or near-optimal trajectory for a UAV to do its mission objectives in a surviving penetration through the hostile enemy environment, considering the shape of the earth and the kinematics constraints of the UAV. Using the three dimensional terrain information, three dimensional flight path from a starting point to an end point, minimising a cost function and regarding the kinematics constraints of the UAV is calculated. The geographic information of the earth shape and enemy locations is generated using digital terrain model (DTM) and geographic information system (GIS), and is displayed in a 3D environment. Using 3D-maps containing the geographic data accompanied by DTM, and GIS, the problem is modelled by deriving the motion equations of the UAV. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed for this problem: genetic and particle swarm algorithms. Genetic and particle swarm algorithms are general purposes algorithms, because they can solve a wide range of problems, so they have to be adjusted to solve the trajectory planning problem. To test and compare the paths obtained from these algorithms, a software program is built using GIS tools and the programming languages C# and MATLAB.
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a major wheat disease that can inflict yield losses of up to 70% on susceptible varieties under favourable environmental conditions. The timely identification of plant genetic resources likely to possess novel resistance to this disease would facilitate the rapid development of resistant wheat varieties. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach was used to predict stripe rust resistance in a collection of wheat landraces conserved at ICARDA genebank. Long-term climate data for the collection sites, from which these accessions originated and stripe rust evaluation scores for one group of accessions were presented to three different non-linear models to explore the trait×collection site environment interactions. Patterns in the data detected by the models were used to predict stripe rust resistance in a second and different set of accessions. The results of the prediction were then tested against actual evaluation scores of the disease in the field. The study mimics the real scenario where requests are made to plant genetic resources curators to provide accessions that are likely to possess variation for specific traits such as disease resistance.
The models used were able to identify stripe rust-resistant accessions with a high degree of accuracy. Values as high as 0·75 for area under the curve and 0·45 for Kappa statistics, which quantify the agreement between the models’ predictions and the curator's disease scores, were achieved. This demonstrates a strong environmental component in the geographic distribution of resistance genes and therefore supports the theoretical basis for FIGS. It is argued that FIGS will improve the rate of gene discovery and efficiency of mining genetic resource collections for adaptive traits by reducing the number of accessions that are normally required for evaluation to identify such variation.
The fan mussel Pinna nobilis is a long lived species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and is considered one of the biggest bivalve molluscs of the Mediterranean. A multitude of threats has provoked a great reduction in P. nobilis populations. To increase the knowledge about the recruitment period and number of Pinna nobilis recruits, two types of recruitment devices were deployed in July 2007 on a Marine Protected Area of Palma Bay, Mallorca (western Mediterranean). A total of 614 juveniles of P. nobilis, with a mean length and width of 2.76±0.04 and 1.10±0.01 cm respectively, were collected inside the artificial microhabitat generated by the knots of ‘device Type I’. Similarly, 691 P. nobilis were recruited with a mean length and width of 5.38±0.08 and 2.10±0.04 cm respectively from ‘device Type II’. Moreover, in the year 2007, the present study determined that P. nobilis recruitment takes place between the last week of August and the first week of September. This study produces some crucial information for effective protection and conservation of the fan mussel. Moreover, a Pinna nobilis artificial recruitment with seed collectors would permit an alternative tool for field studies without compromising the concentration of the vulnerable populations of this mollusc.
We prove that the Heston volatility is Malliavin differentiable under the classical Novikov condition and give an explicit expression for the derivative. This result guarantees the applicability of Malliavin calculus in the framework of the Heston stochastic volatility model. Furthermore, we derive conditions on the parameters which assure the existence of the second Malliavin derivative of the Heston volatility. This allows us to apply recent results of Alòs (2006) in order to derive approximate option pricing formulae in the context of the Heston model. Numerical results are given.
In Catalonia the hereditary system envisaged that the eldest son in the family would inherit. When there was no male heir, the oldest daughter would inherit, and was then called the pubilla. This circumstance allowed the possibility of an heir and an heiress marrying, which would result in the unification of their patrimonies. According to traditional historiography, this was one explanation of the concentration of rural patrimonies. This article demonstrates that the heir–heiress wedding was not the most often chosen scenario, however, and looks again at the options that families had to consider, according to their circumstances, when a daughter was the heir, and at the results of their choices.
This article verifies the existence of three different and complementary geographies in the 1790–1830 period, a stage in the Catalan industrialization process that has deserved little attention among historians. The first one, of manual spinning by means of an improved jenny –locally named bergadana– in inner Catalonia; a second one of improved water-frame spinning in Manresa and the surrounding villages; and, finally, a third one of wood mule-jenny in Barcelona and some towns of the seaside district of the Maresme. These three areas were characterized by using distinctive power sources and producing different types of thread; they also had different wage levels; but they were complementary until the 1830's when the introduction of new mechanical instruments required important and innovative organization changes. The article ends with two analitical case studies: Salient as a typical example of manual spinning, and Manresa as a case of water frame spinning.
The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) is a major regulator of peripheral and central nervous system development. Serum NGF was measured in normally developing control children (n=26) and in individuals affected by congenital syndromes associated with learning disability: either Williams syndrome (WS; n=12) or Down syndrome (DS; n=21). Participants were assessed at three distinct developmental stages: early childhood (2 to 6 years), childhood (8 to 12 years), and adolescence (14 to 20 years). A sample was taken only once from each individual. Serum NGF levels were markedly higher in participants with WS, than DS and control participants. In addition, different developmental profiles emerged in the three groups: while in normally developing individuals NGF levels were higher in early childhood than later on, children with WS showed constantly elevated NGF levels. When compared to control participants, those with DS showed lower NGF levels only during early childhood. Neuropsychological assessment confirmed previously reported differences among the three groups in the development of linguistic/cognitive abilities. Some features of individuals with WS, such as hyperacusis and hypertension, could be related to high-circulating NGF levels.