To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We assessed the subjective quality of life (QOL) of 30 deficit schizophrenic patients compared to 112 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. The deficit patients did not differ in term of QOL, total score of positive symptoms, general psychopathology from the nondeficit patients. This result suggested an absence of impact of primary negative symptoms on the subjective QOL in schizophrenic patients.
In order to test the hypothesis that an excess of summer births is a risk factor for deficit syndrome, the month of birth was studied in 53 deficit schizophrenic patients compared to 158 non-deficit patients. No significant difference in terms of month of birth or season of birth was observed between deficit and non-deficit patients, suggesting that summer births might not be a risk factor for deficit schizophrenia.
The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype has been found to affect the expression of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We determined ApoE genotype frequencies and their relationship to primary negative symptoms in 61 non-deficit and 45 deficit schizophrenic patients, and compared them with 98 control subjects. No difference was observed when genotype or allele frequencies were compared between the three groups. Our data do not support a role for ApoE in the phenotypic expression of schizophrenia.
Because of the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, this study researched different cognitive patterns in distinct subtypes of schizophrenic patients.
Thirty-five Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV) schizophrenic patients and 35 healthy controls were included. Patients were categorized into deficit, disorganized and positive subtypes with the schedule for the deficit syndrome (SDS) and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Executive/attentional functions were assessed with the modified card sorting test (MCST), a test of verbal fluency, the trail making test (TMT) and the Stroop color-word test (Stroop test). Episodic memory was explored through the California verbal learning test (CVLT).
The positive subtype had some executive/attentional (fluency and Stroop tests) and mnesic performances in the normal range, suggesting the preservation of good cognitive skills. In contrast, the deficit and disorganized subtypes had major mnesic and executive/attentional dysfunctions compared to healthy subjects. The deficit subtype compared to the control group performed predominantly worse on the MCST and fluency, whereas the disorganized subtype had the lowest scores on the TMT and the Stroop test.
This study showed distinct cognitive patterns in deficit, disorganized and positive patients in comparison with the controls, suggesting a heterogeneous cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
The aim of this study was to test that deficit (D) schizophrenic patients as defined by Carpenter et al had a higher prevalence of family history of schizophrenia but less obstetric complications than non-deficit (ND) patients. A lower rate of obstetric complications but an excess of schizophrenic and a higher rate of alcoholism family antecedents in 18 D patients compared to 23 ND patients were found. These results could suggest that there is a different weight of genetic and early environmental factors in D and ND patients.
The involvement of companies is key for a sustainable society, but it is debated whether shareholders can stimulate the achievement of corporate sustainability goals. We investigate shareholder sustainability engagement in the Netherlands. First, we present the Dutch corporate law framework in a sustainability context. Dutch corporate law can generally be considered stakeholder-oriented. Afterwards, we present a novel empirical analysis of shareholder corporate sustainability engagement in the Netherlands using Dutch annual general meeting transcripts. We find that, although shareholders do not make use of their right to add proposals to the agenda to advocate corporate sustainability, shareholders do in fact use their right to ask questions. Our findings provide new indications that, in addition to the pivotal role of corporate boards, shareholders may be increasingly willing to play a positive role in corporate sustainability.
Capital and the capital structure of companies is a core theme in both corporate finance and corporate legal literature. In this study we address how the minimum capital and to a lesser extent the requirement for founders to present a financial plan in Belgian private limited liability companies is affecting their survival in the first six years of operations and how these requirements affect the companies’ solvency position. The number of private limited liability companies established with the minimum capital which went bankrupt or were liquidated is not significantly different from the number of companies which were established with a higher amount of capital. The number of limited liability companies that are still operational after six years is higher than the number of (limited) partnerships. However, this is due to the higher number of partnerships that were liquidated compared to the number of private (and public) limited liability companies. The establishment of a financial plan does not seem to have a major influence on the successfulness of the company. There is weak evidence that there are some differences in the size of the group of private limited liability companies established with a minimum capital that went bankrupt before the end of three year term and the group after three years of operation, affected by the requirements of the financial plan. Companies with a capital that exceeds the minimum capital are significantly more present in the group with a negative solvency ratio at the end of the second year of operation. For all other groups the financial position is not significantly different. The solvency of the private limited liability companies that during the first six years of operations went bankrupt deteriorates fast after being established. For the subgroup that was established with more than the minimum capital the solvency ratio is oft en negative within the first two years of operation. Companies that survive the first six years of operation have above average solvency ratios. It seems that the minimum capital threshold for private limited liability companies is, if anything and relatively speaking, set too high, which is contrary to the belief that the current low threshold is insufficient to adequately protect creditors.
This paper aims to identify barriers that frail community-dwelling older adults experience regarding access to formal care and support services.
Universal access to healthcare has been set by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a main goal for the post-2015 development agenda. Nevertheless, regarding access to care, particular attention has to be paid to the so-called vulnerable groups, such as (frail) older adults.
Both inductive and deductive content analyses were performed on 22 individual interviews with frail, community-dwelling older adults who indicated they lacked care and support. The coding scheme was generated from the conceptual framework ‘6A’s of access to care and support’ (referring to work of Penchansky and Thomas, 1981; Wyszewianski, 2002; Saurman, 2016) and applied on the transcripts.
Results indicate that (despite all policy measures) access to a broad spectrum of care and support services remains a challenge for older people in Belgium. The respondents’ barriers concern: ‘affordability’ referring to a lot of Belgian older adults having limited pensions, ‘accessibility’ going beyond geographical accessibility but also concerning waiting lists, ‘availability’ referring to the lack of having someone around, ‘adequacy’ addressing the insufficiency of motivated staff, the absence of trust in care providers influencing ‘acceptability’, and ‘awareness’ referring to limited health literacy. The discussion develops the argument that in order to make care and support more accessible for people in order to be able to age in place, governments should take measures to overcome these access limitations (eg, by automatic entitlements) and should take into account a broad description of access. Also, a seventh barrier (a seventh A) within the results, namely ‘ageism’, was discovered.
Many studies show that poor readers make more errors in nonword repetition than better readers. Although this finding is generally linked to the lower quality of poor readers’ phonological representations in verbal short-term memory, the nature of this poor performance remains unclear. We addressed this issue by focusing on two types of phoneme-related performance in a nonword repetition task: (a) recall of phonemes irrespective of their serial order (phoneme identity) and (b) recall of correctly reproduced phonemes’ serial order (serial order). We tested 91 young adults with and without dyslexia. Generalized linear mixed-effects models demonstrated that controls outperformed individuals with dyslexia in the recall of phonemes’ serial order but failed to detect a difference in the recall of phonemes’ identity. These findings are discussed not only in terms of the nature of or access to phonological representations but also in terms of another concept that has recently been advanced in the literature: a specialized serial order mechanism in verbal short-term memory. We also consider the possibility that individuals with dyslexia may be less sensitive to phonotactic constraints.
This study compared NRT-performance in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish–Dutch third-graders using a Dutch Nonword Repetition Task (NRT). Several novel response analyses at the phoneme level were applied to further understand the earlier reported overall accuracy differences in NRT-performance between bilinguals and monolinguals. Analyses in which the retention of phonemes and the retention of their serial order were disentangled revealed that monolinguals outperform bilinguals with respect to the retention of the phonemes themselves. However, both groups did not differ in their retention of the serial order of correctly recalled phonemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that expressive vocabulary skills do affect overall NRT-performance. The results are discussed in light of current short-term memory (STM) models and the role of long-term phonological knowledge in NRT tasks.
Risk management is high on the agenda of lawmakers, policymakers, supervisory bodies, academics, corporate advisors and corporate constituents. Risk management was acknowledged as early as World War II but the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center twin towers and the collapse of Enron, Worldcom and other companies, together with the recent financial crisis, the alleged Goldman Sachs’ fraudulent structuring and marketing of a synthetic mortgage bond, the (continuation of) skyrocketing bonus schemes and Greece's flirting with bankruptcy, prevent any dwindling of interest in risk management.
Knowledge is a vital component of engineering design. Computer systems enriched with logic and engineering knowledge can support engineering design by automating repetitive and time-consuming processes. This automation is enabled using knowledge based engineering (KBE) techniques and can be obtained using dedicated KBE systems or augmented CAD systems, already pervasive throughout engineering industry. The development of these KBE applications is supported by a six-phase development process ranging from engineering process analysis to software development to business implementation. Distinctions and similarities exploiting alternative KBE platforms are addressed for each phase of the development process. An example KBE application is discussed, supporting the design of laminate aircraft fuselage panels. The implementation of the application is emphasised and five key-aspects required for a successful implementation are defined.
The wide-ranging content of this book can be seen as a reflection of the academic career of the person it is dedicated to, Eddy Wymeersch. After receiving a Law degree at Ghent University in Belgium and a Master of Laws degree at Harvard Law School in the USA, Eddy Wymeersch ventured into academia as an assistant to Professor Jean Limpens at Ghent University. He briefly worked for the Belgian banking supervisor, then called Banking Commission, but soon left, only to return as the chair of its executive committee in 2001. In 1972 he was appointed professor at the newly established University of Antwerp. In 1984 he returned to his alma mater, Ghent University, to remain there until his retirement in 2008. At Ghent University, Wymeersch and his colleague Guy Schrans founded the Financial Law Institute in 1990, as a research center but also as a forum where (Belgian) academics and practitioners can meet to discuss new developments in company and financial law. Professor Wymeersch is still a source of inspiration to all members of the Institute and we all hope he will continue to stimulate younger members with his direct and critical but always constructive comments.
Speaking and/or reading Dutch, English, French, German and Italian and, being from little, outward-looking Belgium, Wymeersch has always closely monitored legal developments internationally, both in Europe and the USA, at a time when many were only interested in the technical intricacies of their national legal systems.