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The project was provided under the auspice and support of the Israel Agency for International Development Cooperation (MASHAV) at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). Togo, one of the smallest and least developed countries in West Africa, has a population of ~7.9 million. About 65% of its population lives in rural areas. Due to the lack of medical resources, Togo suffers from health problems including those related to trauma and mass events. In May 2017, a trauma and disaster team came to Togo to train the medical team in the new trauma unit, donated and built by the MFA. The unit was built in the Atakpame Regional Hospital (ARH), located 160km north of the capital, Lomé. ARH serves one million inhabitants, mostly from rural areas.
The training included lectures, simulations, drills, case studies, bedside teaching, and operation of medical technologies.
Following the training, it was recommended to continue the program and to move forward with advanced training. Following the team’s recommendations, MASHAV decided to expand the program and to provide a multilateral project to Togo and ten other West African countries within five months after the first training ended. Twenty participants (mostly senior doctors) were chosen from ten Western African countries and brought to Lomé. The participants joined a two-day Trauma and Disaster Preparedness seminar. Following the seminar, they were moved to Atakpame to join the local team and the facilitators, to visit the trauma unit, and to learn about it as a model for trauma care that can be modified to the capabilities of the local facility.
Lessons learned and recommendations from those two projects were brought to the MFA that will try to develop more training and cooperation models to help and establish better trauma care and disaster response, supported by the Israeli team.
Inadvertent hyperthermia during anaesthesia is a rare but life-threatening complication. We have encountered several cases of severe hyperthermia in paediatric patients undergoing anaesthesia for cochlear implantation.
This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children who developed hyperthermia while undergoing cochlear implantation, and to explore possible mechanisms and predisposing factors. The anaesthetic charts of all patients aged under 18 years who underwent cochlear implantation, or mastoid or ophthalmic surgery, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, at Soroka Medical Center in Beer Sheva, Israel, were reviewed. Patients undergoing mastoid and ophthalmic surgical procedures were used as controls.
A larger percentage of patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery (10 per cent) developed hyperthermia compared to controls (0.7 per cent, p < 0.05). In five of the seven cases, hyperthermia appeared in combination with tachycardia and hypercapnia, adhering to the clinical triad of malignant hyperthermia.
Patients undergoing cochlear implantation are susceptible to developing intra-operative hyperthermia. This article describes the hyperthermic events that occur during paediatric cochlear implantation, and attempts to identify potential triggers of hyperthermia.
Generation of third harmonic plasma emission by coalescence of second harmonic radiation with a plasma wave is more favourable than by direct coalescence of three plasma waves. The predicted ratio of the intensities at the third (III) and second (II) harmonics is IIIIω/IIIω ~ ωLWlL/Nmc3, where ωL is the plasma frequency, Wl is the energy density in plasma waves, L the linear dimensions of the source and N the ambient electron number density. The intensity at the second harmonic is
where LN(∼1010 cm at ωL ∼ 2π × 108 s−1) is the typical dimension of coronal inhomogeneities.
It was shown by Zheleznyakov and Zlotnik (1980a, b) that in complex configurations of solar magnetic fields (in hot loops above the active centres, in neutral current sheets in the preflare phase, in hot X-ray kernels in the initial flare phase) a system of cyclotron lines in the spectrum of microwave radiation is likely to be formed. Such a line was obtained by Willson (1985) in the VLA observations at harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. This communication interprets these observations on the basis of an active region model in which thermal cyclotron radiation is produced by hot plasma filling the magnetic tube in the corona above a group of spots. In this model the frequency of the recorded 1658 MHz line corresponds to the third harmonic of electron gyrofrequency, which yields the magnetic field (196 + 4) G along the magnetic tube axis. The linewidth Af/f ∼ 0.1 is determined by the 10% inhomogeneity of the magnetic field over the cross-section of the tube; the line profile indicates the kinetic temperature distribution of electrons over the tube cross-section with the maximum value 4 x 106 K. Analysis shows that study of cyclotron lines can serve as an efficient tool for diagnostics of magnetic fields and plasma in the solar active regions and flares.
We have discovered unusual inversion of circular polarization in both components of an active region. We have observed the region for six consecutive days in May 96 using the RATAN-600 radio telescope with high polarization accuracy up to 0.5 %. The observations were taken in the range of 1.7 to 30 cm. At short wavelengths the circular polarization scans revealed a bipolar structure, expected since the magnetic field is bipolar. However, for all six days and while the region was moving from the center of the disk to the west limb, the circular polarization dropped practically to zero at 14.5 cm and at longer wavelengths the sense of the polarization was reversed.
Various frequency spectra with the fine structure resulting from the thermal cyclotron radio emission from solar active regions are discussed. The conditions in sources (distribution of magnetic field and kinetic temperature over the height) are put forward which provide the frequency spectrum as a set of cyclotron lines and high frequency cut-offs. For each kind of distribution the frequency spectrum and polarization are of peculiar character. This permits one to find the conditions in the source through the properties of the observed microwave solar radio emission. To obtain reliable data on the fine structure and judge about conditions in the sources it is necessary to study microwave solar radio emission using the swept-frequency or multi-channel receivers combined with high directional antennae.
We consider an initial-boundary value problem for a generalized 2D time-dependent
Schrödinger equation (with variable coefficients) on a semi-infinite strip. For the
Crank–Nicolson-type finite-difference scheme with approximate or discrete transparent
boundary conditions (TBCs), the Strang-type splitting with respect to the potential is
applied. For the resulting method, the unconditional uniform in time L2-stability is
proved. Due to the splitting, an effective direct algorithm using FFT is developed now to
implement the method with the discrete TBC for general potential. Numerical results on the
tunnel effect for rectangular barriers are included together with the detailed practical
error analysis confirming nice properties of the method.
In this paper the control of flexible-joint manipulators while explicitly avoiding actuator saturation is considered. The controllers investigated are composed of a bounded proportional control term and a Hammerstein strictly positive real angular rate control term. This control structure ensures that the total torque demanded of each actuator is bounded by a value that is less than the maximum torque that each actuator is able to provide, thereby disallowing actuator saturation. The proposed controllers are shown to render the closed-loop system asymptotically stable, even in the presence of modeling uncertainties. The performance of the controllers is demonstrated experimentally and in simulation.
The present paper gives an account of the behaviour of the Golgi material, mitochondria, and nucleolar extrusions during the oogenesis of dog, cat, and rabbit. So far as the writer is aware there is no previous detailed work on the cytoplasmic components of the female germ-cells of the animals investigated.
R. Vander Stricht (1911) dealt with the oogenesis of the cat; O. Vander Stricht (1923) has made a comparative study of oogenesis of mammals, including the dog and the cat; P. del Rio Hortega (1913) described the behaviour of the Golgi material, and H. von Winiwarter (1900) studied the nuclear changes during oogenesis of the rabbit; H. von Winiwarter and G. Sainmont (1909) dealt with nuclear metamorphosis during the oogenesis of the cat; finally J. Nihoul (1926), in his paper on the rabbit, described the Golgi material during oogenesis. All the papers quoted, apart from those which deal with the nuclear changes, are either incomplete surveys, or the methods used are insufficiently delicate to reveal changes shown by modern techniques.
The work recorded in this paper was undertaken in order to obtain further knowledge regarding the behaviour of the cytoplasmic components of the male germ-cells of mammals and the contribution made by these bodies to the structure of the ripe sperm. Consequently, mammals from different groups were examined.
Investigations were carried out independently by Zlotnik on the male germ-cells of the dog, the cat, and the rabbit, by Gresson on the boar and the ram, and jointly by Gresson and Zlotnik on the white rat and the golden hamster. Zlotnik (1943) originally identified and described the nuclear-ring of the spermatid and sperm of the dog. The accessory body was recognised simultaneously by him and by Gresson, but Zlotnik was the first to observe an accessory body within the localised Golgi material of the spermatocyte and to follow its extrusion to the cytoplasm, and, later, Gresson identified an accessory body within the Golgi material of the spermatid of the boar. In general the conclusions of the two authors are closely similar, such differences of detail or of interpretation as exist are discussed in this paper.
C, a newborn infant, develops persistent vomiting on the second day of life. X-rays show midgut volvulus, a condition in which the intestines have twisted around their blood supply. Surgical exploration reveals necrosis of all but 15 cm of his small bowel. The necrotic bowel is removed and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is initiated. At one year of age, he is taking half of his nutritional needs through his intestinal tract; the other half is given intravenously. Blood chemistry tests show that he is starting to develop significant liver damage from the TPN. C's remaining small bowel has become dilated and dysfunctional. You have recently read about a new operation called the serial tapering enteroplasty (STEP), an innovative technique, which may be able to lengthen the remaining intestine and permit it to function more effectively. A surgical stapler in common use is deployed to segment the dilated bowel into a tapered, lengthened tube more closely resembling the shape of the small intestine (Kim et al., 2003). This operation, first developed in dogs, has been undertaken in a small number of infants with short bowel syndrome. It is considered a non-validated innovation by most pediatric surgeons and is not yet accepted as part of standard surgical practice. You would like to offer the procedure to your patient, but you do not think that there is time to go through the full Research Ethics Board approval process at your hospital. Your intention is to try to help, and perhaps other patients like him.[…]
We study the Cauchy problem for the one-dimensional equations of a viscous heat-conducting gas in the Lagrangian mass coordinates with the initial data in the Lebesgue spaces. We prove the existence, the uniqueness and the Lipschitz continuous dependence on the initial data of global weak solutions.
An aestimate of a typical life time of zebra pattern associated with escaping of fast particles from the trap into the loss-cone, is given. Besides, we estimate a number of fast electrons that is necessary to be injected into the trap in order to provide the observed brightness temperature of zebra stripes.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
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