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In this research, in situ high-temperature electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping is applied to record and analyze the migration of the α/γ interfaces during cyclic austenite–ferrite phase transformations in a medium manganese steel. The experimental study is supplemented with related 3D phase field (PF) simulations to better understand the 2D EBSD observations in the context of the 3D transformation events taking place below the surface. The in situ EBSD observations and PF simulations show an overall transformation behavior qualitatively similar to that measured in dilatometry. The behavior and kinetics of individual austenite–ferrite interfaces during the transformation is found to have a wide scatter around the average interface behavior deduced on the basis of the dilatometric measurements. The trajectories of selected characteristic interfaces are analyzed in detail and yield insight into the effect of local conditions in the vicinity of interfaces on their motion, as well as the misguiding effects of 2D observations of processes taking place in 3D.
A Last affiliation changed 3 to 4 against MS. Please check and confirm if it is fine. small number of the sample of 184 carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds show signs that they are in the act of evolving off of the asymptotic giant branch. Most carbon stars grow progressively redder in all infrared colors and develop stronger pulsation amplitudes as their circumstellar dust shells become optically thicker. The reddest sources, however, have unexpectedly low pulsation amplitudes, and some even show blue excesses that could point to deviations from spherical symmetry as they eject the last of their envelopes. Previously, all dusty carbon-rich AGB stars have been labeled “extreme,” but that term should be reserved for the truly extreme carbon stars. These objects may well hold the clues needed to disentangle what actually happens when a star ejects the last of its envelope and evolves off of the AGB.
We derive azimuthally-averaged surface-brightness profiles of 16 AGB stars in the far-IR and sub-mm with the aim of studying the resolved historic mass loss in the extended circumstellar envelope. The PSF-subtracted extended component fluxes were found to be ∼40% of the total source flux. By fitting SEDs at each radial point we derive the dust temperature, column density and spectral index of emissivity via Bayesian inference. The measured dust-to-gas ratios were somewhat consistent with canonical values however with a large scatter.
Accurate (< 10%) distances of Galactic star clusters allow a precise estimation of the physical parameters of any physically associated Planetary Nebula (PN) and also that of its central star (CSPN) and its progenitor. The progenitor’s mass can be related to the PN’s chemical characteristics and, furthermore, provides additional data for the widely used white dwarf (WD) initial-to-final mass relation (IFMR) that is crucial for tracing the development of both carbon and nitrogen in entire galaxies. To date, there is only one PN (PHR1315- 6555) confirmed to be physically associated with a Galactic open cluster (ESO 96 -SC04) that has a turn-off mass ∼2Mʘ. Our deep HST photometry was used for the search of the CSPN of this currently unique PN. In this work, we present our results.
Fall rates from 3.2 to 17.1 falls per 1,000 hospital days in geriatric psychiatry facilities have been reported to date. Up to 5% of the falls result in severe injuries, but data concerning medical consequences are scare. This brief report presents a retrospective analysis of one year fall protocols from a geriatric psychiatry department focusing on consequences of falls. Fall-induced injuries were rated in four categories: no injuries, mild injuries (contusions, hematomas, abrasions), moderate injuries (lacerations, dislocations), and severe injuries (fractures, cerebral hemorrhages). In total, 510 falls were registered during the study period, indicating a fall rate of 17.7 falls per 1,000 hospital days. Overall, 375 falls (73.5%) resulted in no injuries, 67 (13.1%) resulted in mild injuries, 59 (11.6%) resulted in moderate injuries, and only 9 (1.8%) falls led to severe injuries (fractures and cerebral hemorrhages). These results indicate a quite high fall rate in our sample of hospitalized geriatric psychiatry patients with only a relatively small number of severe injuries resulting from the falls. These results raise the question about the use of physical restraints and the use of bedrails in geriatric patients to prevent falls as the medical implications of falls may be less problematic than previously thought.
Evaluation of lifetime productivity of individual animals in response to various interventions allows assessment of long-term investment opportunities for farmers. In order to gain a better understanding of promising feed interventions for improvement of small ruminant production in Southwestern Nigeria, a dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of different feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Modifications were made to the current version of Livestock Simulator developed for cattle production to simulate goat production systems particularly for WAD goats. Effects of changes in input parameters (quality of feed and potential adult weight) confirmed the sensitivity of the modelled weight development and reproductive performance. The values of simulated model outputs corresponded well with observed values for most of the variables, except for the pre-weaning mortality rate in the cut-and-carry system where a wide discrepancy between simulated (2.1%) and observed (23%) data was found. The scenario analysis showed that simulated goats in the free grazing system attained sexual maturity and kidded much later than those in the grazing with supplementation and the cut-and-carry systems. The simulated results suggested that goats require supplementation with protein and energy sources, in order to promote lifetime productivity, early sexual maturity and higher birth weight. In terms of economic returns based on feed cost alone, the moderately intense system produced the most profit. We therefore conclude that grazing with adequate supplementation using farm-generated feed resources offers an opportunity for improving smallholder goat production systems in West Africa.
Planetary nebulae form in stellar populations with ages from 1 to 10 Gyr, and can be used to trace their star formation histories. Here we apply this to the Galactic bulge, where there are indications both for an old origin and for younger stars. We use new stellar models, which have significant different evolutionary speeds during the post-AGB phase. We apply these new models to a sample of 32 planetary nebulae with HST imaging and VLT spectroscopy. The results show evidence for an old starburst, followed by continuous star formation until at least 2Gyr ago. This agrees very well with recent analysis of colour-magnitude diagrams of the bulge. We show that the new models can also explain the [OIII] luminosity functions, and predict the uniform luminosity cut-off both in spiral galaxies and old elliptical galaxies.
V4334 Sgr (a.k.a. Sakurai's object) is the central star of an old planetary nebula that underwent a very late thermal pulse a few years before its discovery in 1996. We have been monitoring the evolution of the optical emission line spectrum since 2001. The goal is to improve the evolutionary models by constraining them with the temporal evolution of the central star temperature. In addition the high resolution spectral observations obtained by X-shooter and ALMA show the temporal evolution of the different morphological components.
The assessment of patients’ motor behavior is a key challenge in dementia care. Common geriatric assessment questionnaires or actigraphy measurements often lack methodological quality and are unsuitable to individually tailor interventions. Hence, there is a need for developing objective tools to assess patterns of motor behavior. Therefore, the feasibility of a sensor-based assessment of mobility-related behavior in patients with dementia is investigated.
A cross-sectional investigation on three dementia care wards in a psychiatric hospital was conducted. Forty-five patients with stages of dementia were included. Hybrid motion sensors, recording the sequence of body-postures, were attached on the patients’ lower back for 72 consecutive hours.
Eighty-nine percent of the assessment periods were completed. On average patients spent 10.9 h/day lying (45%), 9.7 h/day sedentary while sitting or standing (41%), 1.7 h/day active while sitting or standing (7%), 1.7 h/day walking (7%), and reached on average 8,829 steps per day (SD = 7,428). Though overall activity levels were low, the results indicate a wide spectrum of activity patterns – ranging from almost inactive to highly active with general restlessness and wandering behavior.
The excellent adherence to the assessment protocol compared to wrist-worn actigraphy and the consistency of the sensor-derived analyses with clinical observations are pivotal findings of this study. These results show that it is possible to acquire objective data on individual motor behavior of patients suffering from dementia. This information is essential for tailoring the therapeutic management of these patients in a hospital context.
Based on a new sample of (IRAS based) OH/IR stars, and a catalogue of planetary nebulae compiled by Acker (1983), we study the relation between these two groups of objects, in terms of the kinematics and the Galactic distribution. In contrast with earlier analyses of samples of OH/IR stars, we find a close correlation between the kinematics of the planetary nebulae and the IRAS based sample of OH/IR stars. In particular, we find that the distribution of the planetary nebulae (PN) shows a good correlation with the OH/IR stars which have a low outflow velocity (Vexp < 12.5 km s−1). Whether the high outflow velocity OH/IR stars also have a counterpart among PN is not clear.
Canola co-products are sources of amino acid and energy in pig feeds, but their fermentation characteristics in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined the in vitro fermentation characteristics of the canola co-products Brassica juncea solvent-extracted canola meal (JSECM), Brassica napus solvent-extracted canola meal (NSECM), B. napus expeller-pressed canola meal (NEPCM) and B. napus cold-pressed canola cake (NCPCC) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM). Samples were hydrolysed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer solution with fresh pig faeces as inocula for 72 h to measure gas production. Concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) per gram of dry matter (DM) of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) of gross energy (GE) for feedstuffs were obtained from pigs fed the same feedstuffs. On DM basis, SBM, JSECM, NSECM, NEPCM and NCPCC contained 15, 19, 22, 117 and 231 g/kg ether extract; and 85, 223, 306, 208 and 176 g/kg NDF, respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) of SBM (82.3%) was greater (P<0.05) than that of JSECM (68.5%), NSECM (63.4%), NEPCM (67.5%) or NCPCC (69.8%). The JSECM had greater (P<0.05) IVDDM than NSECM. The IVDDM for NSECM was lower (P<0.05) than that for NEPCM, which was lower (P<0.05) than that for NCPCC. Similarly, AID of GE was greatest for SBM followed by NCPCC, JSECM, NEPCM and then NSECM. Total VFA production for SBM (0.73 mmol/g) was lower (P<0.05) than that of JSECM (1.38 mmol/g) or NSECM (1.05 mmol/g), but not different from that of NEPCM (0.80 mmol/g) and NCPCC (0.62 mmol/g). Total VFA production of JSECM was greater (P<0.05) than that of NSECM. Total VFA production of NSECM was greater (P<0.05) than that of NEPCM or NCPCC, which differed (P<0.05). The ranking of feedstuffs for total VFA production was similar to AHF of GE. In conclusion, in vitro fermentation characteristics of canola co-products and SBM simulated their fermentation in the small and large intestine of pigs, respectively. The 30% greater VFA production for JSECM than NSECM due to lower lignified fibre of JSECM indicates that fermentation characteristics differ between canola species. The NSECM had the highest fermentability followed by NEPCM and then NCPCC, indicating that fat in canola co-products can limit their fermentability in the hindgut.
The role of magnetic field in late type stars such as proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (PPNe/PNe), is poorly known from an observational point of view. We present submillimetric observations realized with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) which unveil the dust continuum polarization in the envelopes of two well known PPNe: CRL 618 and OH 231.8+4.2. Assuming the current grain alignment theory, we were then able to trace the geometry of the magnetic field.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether a multicomponent cognitive behavioral group intervention is preferable to usual care in terms of (healthcare) costs and effects on fear of falling and activity avoidance.
Methods: This economic evaluation was embedded in a randomized controlled trial among 540 community-living adults in the Netherlands, aged 70 years and older who reported fear of falling and fear-induced activity avoidance. The participants allocated to the intervention group received a multicomponent cognitive behavioral group intervention consisting of eight weekly sessions and a booster session. The sessions were aimed at instilling realistic views of falls, reducing fall risk, and increasing activity and safe behavior. Participants in the control group received usual care. Cost outcome measures were healthcare costs, and patient and family costs. Clinical outcomes were fear of falling and activity avoidance. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 2, 8, and 14 months by means of registration forms, self-administered questionnaires, and interviews by telephone.
Results: Participants were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 280) and control groups (n = 260). Costs for the intervention program were on average €276 per person. Total costs per person were comparable (€4,925 in intervention group and €4,828 in control group). Furthermore, favorable effects of the program were observed for fear of falling and activity avoidance.
Conclusions: This study showed that the intervention program is preferable to usual care in terms of costs and effects. The program had comparable costs and significantly reduced fear of falling and associated activity avoidance among older community-living persons.
The present study investigated the impact of salt labelling and repeated in-home consumption on liking of reduced-salt soups.
Participants received a chicken noodle soup to be consumed twice weekly at home for 5 weeks. Three soups were included: (i) regular-salt soup as available on the market; (ii) 22 %-reduced-salt soup; and (iii) 32 %-reduced-salt soup. The soups were tasted blind or with the label: ‘same great taste, less salt and more herbs’. In total, there were six experimental groups. All groups received the same soup over the whole period. Desire and liking were measured at each time of consumption.
In-home and central location test.
French consumers (n 646).
There was no significant difference in liking between the three soups when consumed at home, whereas the reduced-salt soups were less liked than the regular-salt soup in the central location test. Labelling did not boost liking scores, which is probably explained by the fact that all soups were similarly liked when eaten at home.
The surprising results of the present study in France suggest that a salt reduction of up to 32 % in a chicken noodle soup did not affect long-term liking score as assessed by consumers at home. In addition, initial liking measured at the central location was not predictive of liking after repeated in-home consumption. How far we can go in reducing salt in other products without compromising product quality, and how this impacts consumers’ choice behaviour and in turn table salt use at home, are still unanswered questions.
Amoebiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histiolytica and has a world-wide distribution. It is estimated that 40–50 million cases of amoebic colitis and liver abscess occur annually with 40 000–110 000 deaths (WHO/PAHO/UNESCO, 1997). The infection occurs all over Africa. Transmission is through the faecal–oral route and therefore the infection can flourish whenever sanitation and hygiene is poor. Outbreaks of amoebiasis are frequent during disasters or crises when people are crowded together in refugee camps, after floods and during famine or war.
Organism and life cycle
Entamoeba histiolytica can take two forms: cysts and trophozoites. The cystic form is responsible for transmission from one person to another, but does not have the potential to become invasive and cause disease. Finding cysts in a stool sample therefore, only signifies amoebic infection and does not necessarily indicate amoebic disease. The cysts are shed with the faeces and remain viable for 100 hours at 25 °C under moist conditions (Warhurst, 1999) but much longer in water of lower temperature. Infection of the next person occurs by intake of food or water that is contaminated in which flies often play a role. The cysts can survive gastric acidity so that amoebae can cause infection with a low infective dose (<100 organisms) (Warhurst, 1999). Once in the large intestine, the cysts may release eight trophozoites that are the potentially invasive form which can cause disease. The trophozoites may invade the colonic mucosa causing amoebic colitis or amoeboma; further spread within the portal bloodstream may lead to amoebic liver abscess or abscesses at other sites.
We present the results of the search for candidate Planetary Nebulae interacting with the interstellar medium (PN–ISM) in the framework of the INT Photometric Hα Survey (IPHAS) and located in the right ascension range 18–20 h. The detection capability of this new Northern survey, in terms of depth and imaging resolution, has allowed us to overcome the detection problem generally associated to the low surface brightness inherent to PNe-ISM. We discuss the detection of 21 IPHAS PN–ISM candidates. Thus, different stages of interaction were observed, implying various morphologies i.e. from the unaffected to totally disrupted shapes. The majority of the sources belong to the so-called WZO2 stage which main characteristic is a brightening of the nebula's shell in the direction of motion. The new findings are encouraging as they would be a first step into the reduction of the scarcity of observational data and they would provide new insights into the physical processes occurring in the rather evolved PNe.
•To ensure that scientific symposia on planetary nebulae take place regularly, ideally every 5 years. These symposia would preferably be sponsored by the IAU;
•To organize and coordinate the Joint Discussions on the subject at the IAU General Assemblies. These discussions should address topics of interest not only to our Division VI but to other Divisions as well; and
•To maintain a Web page with general information about the WG, the activities related to planetary nebulae, and the future meetings and symposia.