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To understand who engages in home gardening and whether gardening is associated with fruit and vegetable intake and weight status.
A national cross-sectional survey.
Online survey panel in the USA.
Adults aged 18–75 years representing the US population with respect to gender, age, race/ethnicity, income and geographic region (n 3889).
Approximately 30 % of survey respondents reported growing edible plants in a home garden. Gardeners were more likely to be White or Asian, employed, have higher income, be married, have children in the household and live in rural areas. Gardeners were less likely to be obese and more likely to meet US dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption. In multivariable analyses, home gardens remained associated with fruit and vegetable intake and BMI when controlling for a range of socio-demographic characteristics and level of rurality.
The current study identifies who is gardening in the USA and provides useful information for public health efforts to increase gardening as a nutrition intervention. Future research should examine the benefits of home gardening and interventions to increase home gardening using more rigorous designs.
We forward the hypothesis and empirically establish that variations in the strength of family ties are rooted in culture. In particular, we show that individualism is associated with looser family ties. We exploit the associations between contemporary individualism and historical climatic and disease environments to establish a causal relationship. At both the individual- and country-levels, we find strong support that individualism reduces family ties. The estimated effects are economically large and robust to a wide variety of potentially confounding variables.
The present study aims to assess associations between parental depression and parental and child nutritional status and diets in Nepal.
A cross-sectional survey conducted from June to September 2017.
This monitoring survey was conducted in sixteen of forty-two Suaahara intervention districts spanning mountains, hills and plains in Nepal. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to sample communities in this survey.
Women and men with a child 6–59 months of age were randomly selected (n 3158 mothers and children; n 826 fathers).
Overall, 36 % of mothers, 37 % of fathers and 55 % of children met minimum dietary diversity, indicating that they consumed foods from at least four of seven food groups (children) and at least five of ten food groups (adults) in the 24 h prior to the interview. The percentage of children stunted, wasted and underweight was 28, 11 and 23, respectively. Only 5 % of mothers and 3 % of fathers screened positive for moderate or severe depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10). In adjusted models, we found maternal depression was positively associated with maternal underweight (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·17). Maternal and paternal depression, however, were not associated with other indicators of anthropometric status or dietary diversity.
Maternal and paternal depression, measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, were not associated with dietary diversity or anthropometric status of fathers or children in Nepal, whereas depressed mothers were at increased risk of being underweight. Additional studies are needed to further assess relationships between mental health and nutritional outcomes.
In this paper, we investigate the impingement of a two-dimensional (2-D) vortex pair translating downwards onto a horizontal wall with a wavy surface. A principal purpose is to compare the vortex dynamics with the complementary case of a wavy vortex pair (deformed by the long-wavelength Crow instability) impinging onto a flat surface. The simpler case of a 2-D vortex pair descending onto a flat horizontal ground plane leads to the well known ‘rebound’ effect, wherein the primary vortex pair approaches the wall but subsequently advects vertically upwards, due to the induced velocity of secondary vorticity. In contrast, a wavy vortex pair descending onto a flat plane leads to ‘rebounding’ vorticity in the form of vortex rings. A descending 2-D vortex pair, impinging on a wavy wall, also generates ‘rebounding’ vortex rings. In this case, we observe that the vortex pair interacts first with the ‘hills’ of the wavy wall before the ‘valleys’. The resulting secondary vorticity rolls up into a concentrated vortex tube, ultimately forming a vortex loop along each valley. Each vortex loop pinches off to form a vortex ring, which advects upwards. Surprisingly, these rebounding vortex rings evolve without the strong axial flows fundamental to the wavy vortex case. The present research is relevant to wing tip trailing vortices interacting with a non-uniform ground plane. A non-flat wall is shown to accelerate the decay of the primary vortex pair. Such a passive, ground-based method to diminish the wake vortex hazard close to the ground is consistent with Stephan et al. (J. Aircraft, vol. 50 (4), 2013a, pp. 1250–1260; CEAS Aeronaut. J., vol. 5 (2), 2013b, pp. 109–125).
Historians of Britain after 1914 used to leave religion out of political history, and politics out of religious history. A striking, though under-appreciated, feature during recent decades has been a reduction in this demarcation, with more political historians commenting on the significance of religion and the role of the churches, and an increasing number of historians of religion addressing political issues. Yet these studies, while pioneering and important, have so far been piecemeal and limited in scope, rather than wide-ranging and systematic. In general, twentieth-century British politics and religion continue to be pursued too much as discrete areas of historical enquiry, and those studies that bridge these areas do not always draw upon the full breadth of available sources.
The separation is particularly striking when the position of the Church of England is considered. As the established Church in England (and in Wales until 1920), it was ultimately subject to royal authority and parliamentary control. It intersected at many levels with the institutions of the British state, from the monarchy, parliament, government, civil service and armed forces of the United Kingdom, to local government in England. Its archbishops, bishops and other senior clergy were appointed formally by the sovereign and in practice by the prime minister; the two archbishops and twenty-four other bishops had seats in the House of Lords (as the ‘Lords Spiritualʼ), and until the 1970s most substantial changes in worship, organization, funding and property required parliamentary approval. The Church of England had the inherent strength of being the largest church in the United Kingdom, but its public importance derived chiefly from its connections with the British state. These relationships conferred an influence which reached well beyond the numbers of regular churchgoers – always a low proportion of the British population, even at the start of the twentieth century – and the much larger number who associated themselves with the Church in a looser, more cultural, sense. Although political transformations early in the twentieth century and sharp declines in church attendance and Christian belief from the middle of the century changed the character of the Church's political activities when compared with those of earlier centuries, it continued to be much engaged in political life across a broad range of issues.
Bringing together researchers in modern British religious, political, intellectual and social history, this volume considers the persistence of the Church's public significance, despite its falling membership.
The Church of England remains the established church in England; it retains representation in the parliament of the United Kingdom; and it continues to be prominent in British public life and influential in British politics. Yet early in the twentieth century, it could appear to be politically vulnerable. It was easily presented as a sectional interest, intent on defending its privileges in England and Wales with the support of the Conservative and Unionist Party. It was assailed by ‘political nonconformity’, expressed through the Liberal Party and from 1905 through a Liberal government, which after the general elections of 1910 was maintained in office by Roman Catholic Irish Nationalist MPs, another group unsympathetic towards the Church's interests. In 1914 this Liberal political alliance partially dismembered the Church of England by an act to disestablish and disendow its dioceses in Wales. Yet, as Matthew Grimley has written, after 1918 ‘the Church of England was in some ways in a stronger national position than it had been in the late Victorian period’. Even as church attendance and traditional Christian belief declined steeply from the 1950s, the Church retained a substantial public presence: in Simon Green's words, the Church ‘survived its unpopularity. Indeed, it might almost be said to have transcended it.’ How did the Church maintain its position and influence through the social, political and religious transformations of the twentieth century?
Explanations of the Church's continued status and influence have turned chiefly on the falling away of denominational and political opposition. Green and Grimley stress the collapse of nonconformity as a coherent political force, and the Liberals as a major political party. Green adds the removal of most Roman Catholic MPs when much of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom in 1922, and the rise of a Labour Party with no particular denominational attachments or antagonisms. Expressed in more synoptic terms, the political agenda had been transformed. The constitutional and denominational issues that had defined nineteenth-century party politics were almost exhausted, and were replaced during the First World War by the dominance of social and economic issues and by a reconstituted party system. No political party now had particular cause to attack (or defend) the Church of England, and the receding interest in institutional reform removed other pressures on the Church establishment, including episcopal representation in the House of Lords.
The Church of England's place in British politics has rarely in recent times commanded such popular attention and consideration. The politics of economic austerity have attracted sustained criticism from senior Anglican clergy of government policies of a kind unseen since the mid-1980s. Debates over the ordination of women, the appointment of women as bishops and legislation on same-sex marriage have re-emphasized and re-politicized the privileges of the religious establishment. The advance of political devolution and the approach of a new coronation have also raised questions about the relevance of the ‘traditional’ Church establishment in a modern multicultural society.
Not without cause, then, academic interest in the established Church’s influence in British politics during the twentieth century has been growing. There have been studies of, among others, the enduring influence of Christian political thought, the archbishop of Canterbury's institutional political functions, the Church's practical role in decolonization and – most prolifically – its influence on the various ‘permissive’ initiatives of the 1960s.
As this list suggests, the historical literature on the Church, the state and politics during the century has so far been characterized largely by tightly focused studies of particular themes and incidents. More work of this nature is certainly needed, but there is now also a need to draw the literature together, developing understanding of the connections between the more specific studies.
This volume originated in a day conference in 2015 on ‘The Church of England and British politics since 1900’, which I organized at Hatfield College, Durham University. Its purpose was to gather diverse perspectives on the Church's political role and consider the scope of the developing field of enquiry. The papers and the discussions at the conference suggested the potential for a collection of essays, and I am grateful that so many colleagues have shared these aims and been keen to contribute. The result is a volume that indicates the different ways in which the Church of England influenced ‘British politics’ in the broadest sense and how it retained and renewed its significance in British public life despite the growth of a more secularized, multi-faith and individualized society.
The editors thank the Faculty of Arts and Humanities and the Department of History at Durham University, which funded and supported the 2015 conference and have assisted the publication of this volume.
Volcanic rocks from the Davis Strait were studied to elucidate the tectonomagmatic processes during rifting and the start of seafloor spreading, and the formation of the Ungava transform zone between Canada and Greenland. The rocks are from the wells Hekja O-71, Gjoa G-37, Nukik-2 and Hellefisk-1, and from dredges on the northern Davis Strait High. Ages range from Danian to Thanetian (dinocyst palynozones P2 to P5, 62.5–57.2 Ma). The rocks are predominantly basaltic, but include picrites on the Davis Strait High. Calculated mantle potential temperatures for the Davis Strait High are c. 1500°C, suggesting the volume of magma generated was large; this is consistent with geophysical evidence for magmatic underplating in the region. The rare earth element patterns indicate residual mantle lithologies of spinel peridotite and, together with Sr–Nd isotopes, indicate melting beneath regionally extensive, depleted asthenosphere beneath a lithosphere of thickness similar to, or thinner than, beneath Baffin Island and distinctly thinner than beneath West Greenland. Some sites include basalts with more enriched compositions. Depleted and enriched basalts in the Hellefisk well show contemporaneous melting of depleted and enriched mantle components in the asthenosphere. The Hekja and Davis Strait High basalts and picrites have unique, ultradepleted compositions with (La/Sm)N < 0.5, (Tb/Lu)N < 1 and Nb/Zr = 0.013–0.027. We interpret these compositions as a product of the melting regime within the Ungava transform zone, where the melting column would be steep-sided in cross-section and not triangular as expected at normal spreading ridges. Magmatism along the transform stopped when the tectonic regime changed from transtension to transpression during earliest Eocene time.
International research shows that media can increase knowledge, raise public awareness and reduce stigma relating to mental health.
Following the broadcast of a documentary on national television featuring interviews with young people who had experienced mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour, an anonymous online survey, aimed at examining public perceptions of the impact of a television documentary, was conducted, using a mixed methods approach.
2311 people completed the survey. Of those who watched the documentary and answered the closed questions (n = 854), 94% stated that the documentary will positively impact young people’s mental health and well-being. The majority (91%) stated that the documentary will encourage young people to talk to someone if experiencing difficulties and 87% indicated it will help to reduce stigma associated with mental health. Viewers had a 5% higher level of intention to seek help than non-viewers. Participants indicated that the identifiable personal stories and discourse around stigma and shame, and the increased understanding and awareness gained, had the most profound impact on them.
These findings indicate that a documentary addressing mental health and suicidal behaviour, which incorporates real life identifiable stories of resilience and recovery, has the potential to impact positively on emotional well-being and general mood, to reduce stigma related to mental health and to encourage help-seeking behaviour. Documentaries including these concepts, with a public mental health focus and a consistent message, incorporating pre- and post-evaluations, and customisation for target audiences in compliance with current media recommendations, should be considered.
Advances in immunohistochemistry have spearheaded major developments in our understanding and classification of sinonasal tumours. In the last decade, several new distinct histopathological entities of sinonasal cancer have been characterised.
This review aims to provide a clinical update of the major emerging subtypes for the ENT surgeon and an overview of the management strategies available for this heterogeneous group of pathologies.
Although rare, knowledge of sinonasal neoplasm subtypes has implications for prognosis, treatment strategies and the development of novel therapeutic targets.