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A pioneering work in the history of philosophy, the ancient text of the Lives presents engaging portraits of nearly a hundred Greek philosophers. It blends biography with bibliography and surveys of leading theories, peppered with punchy anecdotes, pithy maxims, and even snatches of poetry, much of it by the philosophers themselves. The work presents a systematic genealogy of Greek philosophy from its origins in the sixth century BCE to its flowering in Plato's Academy and the Hellenistic schools. In this fully up-to-date and accessible translation, based on the most accurate texts and the latest advances in scholarship, Stephen White provides a valuable resource for students and scholars of ancient philosophy. Highlights include extended treatment of the 'Seven Sages' (Book 1), Socrates and his Socratic followers (Book 2), Plato (Book 3), Aristotle and his school (Book 5), Diogenes the Cynic (Book 6), Stoicism (Book 7), Pythagoreans (Book 8), Pyrrhonian skepticism (Book 9), and Epicureanism (Book 10).
The occupation history of the Cahokia archaeological complex (ca. AD 1050–1400) has received significant academic attention for decades, but the subsequent repopulation of the region by indigenous peoples is poorly understood. This study presents demographic trends from a fecal stanol population reconstruction of Horseshoe Lake, Illinois, along with information from archaeological, historical, and environmental sources to provide an interpretation of post-Mississippian population change in the Cahokia region. Fecal stanol data indicate that the Cahokia region reached a population minimum by approximately AD 1400, regional population had rebounded by AD 1500, a population maximum was reached by AD 1650, and population declined again by AD 1700. The indigenous repopulation of the area coincides with environmental changes conducive to maize-based agriculture and bison-hunting subsistence practices of the Illinois Confederation. The subsequent regional depopulation corresponds to a complicated period of warfare, epidemic disease, Christianization, population movement, and environmental change in the eighteenth century. The recognition of a post-Mississippian indigenous population helps shape a narrative of Native American persistence over Native American disappearance.
In these Anthropocene times humans are vulnerable through the effects of socio-ecological crises and are responsible for attending to past, present and future socio-ecological injustices and challenges. The purpose of this article is to challenge discursive structures that influence knowledge acquisition about/of the world through binary logics, acknowledging that we are never apart from the world we are seeking to understand, but that we are entangled through a mutual (re)configuring with the world. Through storytelling and entangled poetry from outdoor education and environmental science education contexts, this article explores discursive/material forces (socially meaningful statements/affective intensities) enacted through pedagogies ‘attuning-with’. As pedagogies ‘attuning-with’ take up a relational ontology, in which sense-making is generated from the grounded, lived, embodied and embedded politics of location in relationship with broader ecologies of the world, they illuminate a transdisciplinary environmental education. A transdisciplinary environmental education is important for these Anthropocene times, because it not only promotes a multivocal approach to environmental education, but in acknowledging our inherent and intrinsic responsibility and accountability for the kinds of worlds that we are co-constituting, it provides opportunities to change the story of how we choose to live with/in/for these Anthropocene times.
Prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a national priority and may be facilitated by deployment of the Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy, a quality improvement framework providing a focused approach to infection prevention. This article describes the process and outcomes of TAP Strategy implementation for CDI prevention in a healthcare system.
Hospital A was identified based on CDI surveillance data indicating an excess burden of infections above the national goal; hospitals B and C participated as part of systemwide deployment. TAP facility assessments were administered to staff to identify infection control gaps and inform CDI prevention interventions. Retrospective analysis was performed using negative-binomial, interrupted time series (ITS) regression to assess overall effect of targeted CDI prevention efforts. Analysis included hospital-onset, laboratory-identified C. difficile event data for 18 months before and after implementation of the TAP facility assessments.
The systemwide monthly CDI rate significantly decreased at the intervention (β2, −44%; P = .017), and the postintervention CDI rate trend showed a sustained decrease (β1 + β3; −12% per month; P = .008). At an individual hospital level, the CDI rate trend significantly decreased in the postintervention period at hospital A only (β1 + β3, −26% per month; P = .003).
This project demonstrates TAP Strategy implementation in a healthcare system, yielding significant decrease in the laboratory-identified C. difficile rate trend in the postintervention period at the system level and in hospital A. This project highlights the potential benefit of directing prevention efforts to facilities with the highest burden of excess infections to more efficiently reduce CDI rates.
The problem of optimal initial disturbances in thermal wind shear is revisited and extended to include non-hydrostatic effects. This systematic study compares transient and modal growth rates of submesoscale instabilities over a large range of zonal and meridional wavenumbers, aspect ratios and different Richardson number regimes. Selection criteria were derived to remove spurious and unresolved instability modes that arise from the eigenvalue problem and we generalize the study of the hydrostatic Eady problem by Heifetz & Farrell (J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 60, 2003; J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 64 (12), 2007, pp. 4366–4382; Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., vol. 134 (635), 2008, pp. 1627–1633) to thin fronts, characterized by large aspect ratios. Such fronts are commonly found at the early stages of frontogenesis, for example, in the ocean mesoscale eddies and near the eye wall of hurricanes. In particular, we show that transient energy growth rates are up to two orders of magnitude larger than modal counterparts for a wide range of Richardson number and that the effects of transient energy gain become even greater when non-hydrostatic effects become important and/or for large Richardson numbers. This study also compares the dominant energy pathways contributing to the energy growth at short and long times. For symmetric modes, we recover the inertia–gravity instability described in Xu et al. (J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 64 (6), 2007, pp. 1764–1781). These mechanisms are shown to be the most powerful mediator of vertical transport when compared with the fastest growing baroclinic and symmetric modes. These results highlight the importance of transient processes in the ocean and the atmosphere.
This chapter includes an overview of achievement assessments that are designed to measure performance across multiple academic domains or a single domain. First, commonly used comprehensive achievement tests, such as the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement – Fourth Edition, the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – Third Edition, and the Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement – Third Edition, are reviewed. Next, several single subject area tests in reading, writing, or mathematics are presented. Next curriculum-based measurements (CBMs), designed to provide ongoing evaluation of a student’s progress toward curriculum-based achievement goals, are described. We also discuss advances in technology, issues related to achievement testing, considerations of culture and diversity, and misuses and misinterpretations of achievement testing. Finally, we include several interpretive and practical recommendations for achievement testing.
Experimental and numerical studies over the past two decades indicate that as the Reynolds number becomes large the turbulent boundary layer is increasingly composed of zones of uniform streamwise momentum, segregated by narrow regions of high shear. Recent experimental evidence suggests that passive scalar fields (for example, temperature) in turbulent boundary layers at high Reynolds number show similar characteristics; namely, large uniform temperature zones (UTZs) separated by narrow regions of high gradient, which we term thermal fissures (TFs). Herein, a model informed by analysis of the mean scalar transport equation, and that leverages the dynamical model recently developed by the authors (Cuevas Bautista et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 858, 2019, pp. 609–633), is formulated to predict passive scalar transport using the UTZ/TF concept. First, a finite number of TFs are distributed across the boundary layer. In analogy with the aforementioned dynamical model, the wall-normal positions of the TFs and their characteristic temperatures are then perturbed to generate independent ensembles, from which statistical moments are computed. The model successfully reproduces the statistical profiles of the temperature field as well as the streamwise turbulent heat flux. Lastly, the Prandtl number dependency of the empirically chosen parameters is investigated. It is concluded that the higher-order statistics, especially the kurtosis, produced by the model are sensitive to the Prandtl number, while the mean temperature and turbulent heat flux do not show noticeable Prandtl number dependency.
The chapter presents Bergson as an underacknowledged yet first-rate social theorist, demonstrating that in Two Sources Bergson is in extensive, albeit implicit, dialogue with his two great predecessors in the tradition -Émile Durkheim and Auguste Comte - and that his encounter with them turns on three questions at the heart of sociology as a unique field of inquiry: first, what binds people together in society? second, what is the origin of society? and third, what is the nature of social change? By working through Bergson’s engagement with these key authors and themes, the chapter presents Bergson’s own original theory of society and sociability, which, as with all his work, centers on creativity, but this time in connection with personal and collective transformation.
Learning to Teach in a New Era prepares preservice teachers to embrace the opportunities and meet the challenges of teaching in the twenty-first century. Closely aligned with the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST) and the Australian Curriculum, this book is an invaluable resource for early childhood, primary and secondary preservice teachers that can be carried through their entire degree and into the workplace. The text is divided into three parts: professional knowledge, professional practice and professional engagement. Students will gain an understanding of the teaching profession and the policies and laws that govern it; develop practical skills in pedagogy, technology, curriculum, assessment and reporting, planning and classroom management; and learn vital skills in communication and ethical practice. Each printed text comes with a unique access code to the interactive ebook. Fully integrated with the print book, this enhanced version houses useful assessment tools such as questions and video resources.
The stigma associated with mental health problems leaves many feeling they have to ‘hide’ their difficulties. Supporting them in making disclosure decisions can potentially improve well-being, reduce self-stigma and support recovery processes. In this editorial we discuss the case for interventions designed for this purpose and present one prominent programme: Honest, Open, Proud.
The push to implement Open Access (OA) as the new standard for academic research dissemination is creating very real pressures on academic journals. In Canada, the Social Science and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) recently adopted a policy requiring that journals applying for its Aid to Scholarly Journals (ASJ) grant make their scholarly content freely accessible after no more than a 12-month delay. For journals such as the Canadian Journal of Political Science (CJPS) that not only publish high-quality, peer-reviewed articles to a specialized audience but also support the work of scholarly associations through the revenues they generate, the push to move to OA comes with a number of challenges. The Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) and the Société québécoise de science politique (SQSP) established a committee to chart the best course of action for the CJPS in light of this changing landscape. This article summarizes the key findings of the committee and underscores some of the challenges of OA for journals with a profile similar to the CJPS, as well as for the broader research ecosystem that they support.
The National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) program data underlies estimates of the volume of recreation use of the National Forest System. The data also enable estimation of both the local economic contributions and nonmarket benefits of that visitation. Applications include evaluating the effects of natural disasters, site characteristics, and climate change, as well as expenditure and benefit transfers. This article describes the history and science background of the NVUM program, outlines the methods used in estimating market and nonmarket economic outcomes, and lists some examples of results found in the literature.
William Tecumseh Sherman’s capture of Atlanta on September 2, 1864 delivered a massive blow to the rapidly diminishing hopes of the Confederacy. The city’s fall practically ensured Lincoln’s reelection, who maintained a vigorous war against the Confederacy. In the wake of the city’s fall, its defenders, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, withdrew to the railhead of the West Point railroad at Palmetto Station, Georgia, about 25 miles south west of Atlanta. There, its controversial commander, the one-legged Lieutenant General John Bell Hood, took stock of the situation. He rested, restructured, and repaired his army, which had been engaged almost constantly since the beginning of the campaign in May. Conditions were bleak, the army’s officer corps was decimated, and heavy losses in the ranks made many of his regiments mere shadows of their former selves. Morale was at an all-time low. With this poor outlook, he decided on a new plan of action, proposing to strike at Sherman’s supply lines in north Georgia. With this in mind he learned that President Jefferson Davis was on his way to inspect the army and confer with him and his corps commanders about future operations, as well as to inspire the army and the civilian population. Davis also came to investigate allegations about failures in Hood’s leadership, notably from one of his corps commanders, General William J. Hardee. Upon his arrival he met with Hardee, who leveled an ultimatum that either he or Hood had to go, so Davis transferred Hardee to departmental command, giving command of his corps to General Frank Cheatham. Davis also met with other officers and delivered several encouraging speeches while inspecting the army. Finally, Davis met with Hood to talk about the army’s future course of action.
On his way to his inauguration in Washington, DC, in February 1861, Abraham Lincoln stopped at Independence Hall in Philadelphia to raise a flag. “I have never had a feeling politically that did not spring from the sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence,” he told the assembled crowd. The president-elect went on to say that the Declaration was not written merely to justify the separation of the colonies from Great Britain, but to give “liberty, not alone to the people of this country, but hope to the world, for all future time. It was that which gave promise that in due time the weights should be lifted from the shoulders of all men, and that all should have an equal chance. This is a sentiment embodied in that Declaration of Independence.” Lincoln continued that if the nation could not be saved on the basis of the Declaration, it would be “truly awful.” And, as he was speaking off the cuff, he said, “I was about to say I would rather be assassinated on this spot than surrender it.”
To examine the relationship between unit-wide Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) susceptibility and inpatient mobility and to create contagion centrality as a new predictive measure of CDI.
Retrospective cohort study.
A mobility network was constructed using 2 years of patient electronic health record data for a 739-bed hospital (n = 72,636 admissions). Network centrality measures were calculated for each hospital unit (node) providing clinical context for each in terms of patient transfers between units (ie, edges). Daily unit-wide CDI susceptibility scores were calculated using logistic regression and were compared to network centrality measures to determine the relationship between unit CDI susceptibility and patient mobility.
Closeness centrality was a statistically significant measure associated with unit susceptibility (P < .05), highlighting the importance of incoming patient mobility in CDI prevention at the unit level. Contagion centrality (CC) was calculated using inpatient transfer rates, unit-wide susceptibility of CDI, and current hospital CDI infections. The contagion centrality measure was statistically significant (P < .05) with our outcome of hospital-onset CDI cases, and it captured the additional opportunities for transmission associated with inpatient transfers. We have used this analysis to create easily interpretable clinical tools showing this relationship as well as the risk of hospital-onset CDI in real time, and these tools can be implemented in hospital EHR systems.
Quantifying and visualizing the combination of inpatient transfers, unit-wide risk, and current infections help identify hospital units at risk of developing a CDI outbreak and, thus, provide clinicians and infection prevention staff with advanced warning and specific location data to inform prevention efforts.
The mean dynamics in oscillatory channel flow is examined to investigate the dynamical mechanisms underlying the transition to turbulence in oscillatory wall-bounded flow. The analyses employ direct numerical simulation data acquired at three Stokes Reynolds numbers:
, 801 and 1009, where the lower
flow is transitional over the entire cycle and the two higher
flows exhibit flow characteristics similar to steady turbulent wall-bounded flow during part of the cycle. The flow evolution over a half-period of oscillation for all three
is as follows: near-wall streamwise velocity streaks develop during the early accelerating portion of the cycle; then at some later point in the cycle that depends on
, the near-wall streaks breakdown (demarking the onset of the nonlinear development stage), and the near-wall Reynolds stress grows explosively; the Reynolds stress remains elevated for part of the cycle before diminishing (yet remaining finite) during the late decelerating portion of the cycle. This process is then repeated indefinitely. The present findings demonstrate that transition to turbulence occurs when the nonlinear development stage begins during the accelerating portion of the cycle. This crucially leads to the diminishing importance of the centreline momentum source, the emergence of a locally accelerating/decelerating internal layer centred about the edge of the Stokes layer and the wall-normal rearrangement of the mean forces prior to the start of the decelerating portion of the cycle. The rearrangement of mean forces culminates in a four layer structure in the mean balance of forces. This is significant on a number of accounts since empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the formation of a four layer structure is an important characteristic of a self-similar hierarchal structure that underlies logarithmic dependence of the mean velocity profile in steady turbulent wall-bounded flows (Klewicki et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 638, 2009, pp. 73–93). When the nonlinear development stage begins during the decelerating portion of the cycle (i.e. at
), a four layer structure is not observed in the mean balance of forces and the flow remains weakly transitional over the entire cycle.
To estimate the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of youth and young adults in major Canadian cities with self-reported vegetarian dietary practices and examine efforts to alter their diets.
Data were collected in autumn 2016 via web-based surveys. Respondents reported vegetarian dietary practices (vegan, vegetarian or pescatarian) and efforts in the preceding year to consume more or less of several nutrients, food groups and/or foods with particular attributes. Logistic regression models examined sociodemographic correlates of each vegetarian dietary practice and differences in other eating practices by diet type.
Participants were recruited from five major Canadian cities.
Youth and young adults, aged 16–30 years (n 2566).
Overall, 13·6 % of respondents reported vegetarian dietary practices: 6·6 % vegetarian, 4·5 % pescatarian and 2·5 % vegan. Sex, race/ethnicity, self-reported frequency of using the Nutrition Facts table and health literacy were significantly correlated with self-reported vegetarian dietary practice (P < 0·01 for all). Efforts to consume more fruits and vegetables (66·8 %) and protein (54·8 %), and less sugar (61·3 %) and processed foods (54·7 %), were prevalent overall. Respondents with vegetarian dietary practices were more likely to report efforts to consume fewer carbohydrates and animal products, and more organic, locally produced, ethically sourced/sustainably sourced/fair trade and non-GM foods (P < 0·01 for all), compared with those without these reported dietary practices.
Nearly 14 % of the sampled youth and young adults in major Canadian cities reported vegetarian dietary practices and may be especially likely to value and engage in behaviours related to health-conscious diets and sustainable food production.
This analysis focuses on the institutional talk of sea-kayak guides and their clients in order to understand how guides negotiate the interactional balance of giving orders to maintain a safe and timely excursion while facilitating a fun and recreational experience. Using a mixed-method analysis including Conversation Analysis, ethnography, and statistics, this study examines 576 instances of directives found in video recordings of twenty-five Alaskan kayaking ecotourism excursions and explores the practices guides use in their talk to maintain control of an excursion while not coming across as domineering. By systemically examining directives’ design, directives are found to reveal both their temporal urgency in addition to the precipitating events that necessitate them, such as client behaviors or environmental stimuli. This study's analysis contributes to our understanding of how interactants mitigate face-threatening actions and focuses attention on the interactional work that directives and their accounts achieve in an institutional setting currently underinvestigated (Directives, mixed-methods, Conversation Analysis, ethnography, ecotourism)*