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Although bariatric surgery is approved for a woman of child-bearing age with an interest in subsequent pregnancy, reports of in utero growth issues during pregnancy have garnered a closer look at the impact of maternal surgical weight loss on the pre- and postpartum periods. Offspring of dams having received vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are born small-for-gestational age and have increased risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. Here, we aimed to determine whether the postnatal catch-up growth trajectory of bariatric offspring may be affected by milk composition. Milk samples were collected at postnatal day 15/16 from dams having received VSG surgery and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (H-VSG), Sham surgery and fed chow (C-Sham), or Sham surgery and fed HFD (H-Sham). Milk obtained from H-VSG dams had elevated glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly reduced triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Milk from H-Sham dams had the lowest amount of milk protein (P < 0.05). Fatty acid composition measured by fractionation was largely not affected by surgery but rather maternal diet. No difference was observed in milk leptin levels; however, insulin, adiponectin, and growth hormone levels were significantly increased in milk from H-VSG animals. H-Sham had the lowest level of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, whereas IgG was significantly reduced in H-VSG. Taken together, the quality of milk from H-VSG dams suggests that milk composition could be a factor in reducing the rate of growth during the lactation period.
In the past twenty years, scholars have spilled a great deal of ink debating the role of armed forces in political development. A variety of views have been expressed—and, not unexpectedly, the field lacks a scholarly paradigm. As this paper will indicate, Africa has received its share of studies of the military, notably since the eruption of coups d'etat in late 1965-early 1966 made clear that the presumably “nonpolitical” heritage of colonial armies was quickly being supplanted by direct, extensive political involvement on the part of officers. This essay attempts both to summarize the results of a score of years and several score of studies, and to indicate new directions for research in coming years.
A 2018 workshop on the White Mountain Apache Tribe lands in Arizona examined ways to enhance investigations into cultural property crime (CPC) through applications of rapidly evolving methods from archaeological science. CPC (also looting, graverobbing) refers to unauthorized damage, removal, or trafficking in materials possessing blends of communal, aesthetic, and scientific values. The Fort Apache workshop integrated four generally partitioned domains of CPC expertise: (1) theories of perpetrators’ motivations and methods; (2) recommended practice in sustaining public and community opposition to CPC; (3) tactics and strategies for documenting, investigating, and prosecuting CPC; and (4) forensic sedimentology—uses of biophysical sciences to link sediments from implicated persons and objects to crime scenes. Forensic sedimentology served as the touchstone for dialogues among experts in criminology, archaeological sciences, law enforcement, and heritage stewardship. Field visits to CPC crime scenes and workshop deliberations identified pathways toward integrating CPC theory and practice with forensic sedimentology’s potent battery of analytic methods.
Plastic deformation of metals produces a state characterized by the presence of residual elastic strains, small domains which diffract X-rays coherently, and often stacking faults; these effects may be studied with X-ray diffraction techniques. Changes in the lattice parameter, shifts in the relative positions of diffraction lines, and the broadening of diffraction lines were used to study the state of coldwork resulting in Cu-6.6 at.%Si-1.2 at.%Mn after deformation by filing, wiredrawing, and uniaxial tension at room temperature.
Both filing and wire-drawing produce large root-mean-square strains and stacking faults, whereas deformation by tension up to 22% extension fails to produce any clear evidence of faulting or root-mean-square strains. Tensile deformation causes fragmentation of coherent domains to an average dimension of 250 Å after 22% extension, and results in a radial, tensile, residual macrostrain arising from a smaller rate of work hardening in the surface layers than in the interior. Wire drawing also results in a residual macrostrain system. Deformation appears to enhance diffusion and promote solute clustering at room temperature.
Three novel methods of x-ray spectrometry have been developed in recent years at Texas Tech University. These are:
1. Three crystal spectrometer
2. Two curved crystal spectrometer
3. Spherically bent crystal spectrometer.
In this paper the new design features, and experimental results will be discussed to indicate the usefulness of the new instruments. The three crystal spectrometer is a modified two crystal instrument. A third crystal is used to analyze the output of the two crystal spectrometer. The first two crystals are operated as a standard two crystal spectrometer. The third crystal is swept through the spectrum transmitted by the first two crystals for each setting of the first two crystals. The peak intensity of the third crystal sweep corresponds to the energy setting of the two crystal spectrometer, and is the intensity used to plot the spectral lines. The two curved crystal spectrometer utilizes two transmission spectrographs with radii having a 2:1 ratio in series, the crystal with the smaller radius being set so that its focal point falls on the Rowland circle of the larger radius crystal, This instrument has a very low background intensity and is suitable for precision scattering and diffraetion work. The spherically bent crystal spectrometer makes use of high light gathering power and high orders of reflection to allow high resolution studies of weak spectral lines. It also has the advantage of ease of alignment and operation.
Among the Yoruba people of S. W. Nigeria, there are innumerable poetic genres, or manners of intonation, rigidly prescribed by ritual convention (labelled simply “chant” in the West). Some of these genres—notably Ijálá and Rárà—have already been treated by scholars at the textual and/or linguistic levels. Śangó praise-poetry has hitherto received attention only from the literary standpoint. In a recent classification of indigenous poetic genres (Olatunji), the rendering of ritual praise-poetry with a particular intonation is given the name Pípé Òrìşá: for each órìşá, or deity, Pìpè has its own characteristic intonation. Thus, a sub-genre of Pìpè Òrìşá (the religious counterpart to the aforementioned secular Rárá chanting) is here referred to as Şángó-Pìpé. Literally, pìpè (pronounced KPEE-KPAY) means “to call or summon;” the indigenous term pìpè òrìşà derives from a specific moment in a cult ceremony when the priest or priestess invokes the òrìşá.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
We generalise the α-Ramsey cardinals introduced in Holy and Schlicht (2018) for cardinals α to arbitrary ordinals α, and answer several questions posed in that paper. In particular, we show that α-Ramseys are downwards absolute to the core model K for all α of uncountable cofinality, that strategic ω-Ramsey cardinals are equiconsistent with remarkable cardinals and that strategic α-Ramsey cardinals are equiconsistent with measurable cardinals for all α > ω. We also show that the n-Ramseys satisfy indescribability properties and use them to provide a game-theoretic characterisation of completely ineffable cardinals, as well as establishing further connections between the α-Ramsey cardinals and the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced in Gitman (2011), Feng (1990), and Sharpe and Welch (2011).