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This chapter covers the nascent state of the theorization affect in landscape studies, the need to distinguish between emotions and affect, and explains why the latter is of greater analytical value as part of our attempts to better understand the ideological structuring of semiotic landscapes,
This chapter examines the ways in which areas such as luxury housing projects and enclaves are structured as luxurious, desirable and valuable by virtue of being unattainable by the general public. The nature of such “Veblen goods” is primarily to confer preeminent stature upon the owner; as such, they have to be strictly demarcated as being both desired by the majority of people, and also distinctly out of their reach. The chapter shows how dialectical tension between strong desire and distinct unattainability relies on a complex semiotics combining some of the elements of conviviality (safety, acceptance, comfort and well-being) with quite different elements of awe, superiority and rejection.
This chapter describes the ways in which a set of ‘romance’ signs create a landscape as the site of an individual adventure, journey of growth, and path to fulfilment. The structuring of romance affects is not only prolific in literature and folk tales, but has all kinds of implications for geophysical landscapes as well: from touristic discourses which describe specific destinations as sites of ‘romance’ and ‘adventure,’ to film narratives which intersect with tourism by leveraging on viewer fandom to popularize certain film locations, to the semiotics of amusement parks and other attractions.
This multimodal approach to linguistic landscapes examines the role of linguistic and semiotic regimes in constructing landscape affect. Affect, as distinct from emotion, is object-oriented, and can be analysed in terms of structures of language and signs which operate on individuals and groups in specific spatial settings. Analysing a series of landscape types - including 'kawaii', 'reverenced', 'romance', 'friendly', 'luxury' and 'digital' landscapes - Lionel Wee and Robbie B. H. Goh explore how language plays a crucial role in shaping affective responses to, and interactions with, space. This linguistic and semiotic construction of different spaces also involves cultural contestations and modulations in spatial responses, and the book offers an account of the different conditions under which 'affective economies' gain or lose momentum.
Chapter 4 looks at the ways in which sites such as places of worship construct affective responses of reverence, respect and awe. The multimodal nature of these sites is particularly instructive, being in many cases a combination of architecture and spatial organization, linguistic signposting or instruction, and communal behavior (“ritual,” broadly understood). Reverence as a semiotic affect can also be seen in quasi-religious sites and landscapes such as memorials to persons or events of consequence to a nation or community, certain sites of office or power, even certain popular and grand natural phenomena.
This chapter addresses the broad question what it means to talk about a semiotic landscape in the era of late modernity, given the complexities observed and arguments presented in the preceding chapters. It identifies three possible lines of future research that are likely to only gain in significance and urgency: the digitalization of third places, the experience economy, and the dynamics of affective regimes.
This chapter addresses the question of how the study of affect in the semiotic landscape can be done in a theoretically coherent way that can lead to insightful analytical payoffs. The chapter outlines a theoretical framework that serves to provide a concrete theorization of Wissinger’s (2007) description of affect as socially ‘contagious energy’. The actual mechanisms by which affect is materialized, circulates and becomes ‘whipped up or dampened’ are systematically articulated.
This chapter focuses on communication that takes place via new communicative technologies, particularly social media. The chapter begins with a discussion of the R-word campaign, which analyses some of the strategies and techniques that are being used to mobilize affect on the Internet. This is followed by a detailed analysis of trolling and cyber bullying, and attempts to combat it by calling for ‘safer, friendlier internet’. The key issue being examined in this chapter is the relationship between online behavior and the real world, since it is the presumed demarcation between the two domains that allows trolls and bullies to act as they do.
This chapter addresses the issue of boundaries: how are the boundaries established between one site where a particular kind of affect is being fostered and another site where some other affect is either encouraged or where the affect fostered by the former site is no longer a relevant concern? The chapter begins with a brief consideration of various attempts to demarcate specific sites as ‘friendly’. This gives a sense of what the semiotics of conviviality might look like. The latter half of the chapter comprises a detailed case study of a ‘dementia-friendly’ neighborhood in Singapore.
Chapter 3 illustrates what might be considered a relatively transparent attempt at regulating affect: the use of figures that are considered kawaii, a Japanese term meaning ‘cute’ or ‘adorable’. An examination of how kawaii figures are employed by various municipal authorities in Tokyo brings to light just how affect works when linguistic and non-linguistic modalities are combined. The use of kawaii in public signage, especially in the form of cartoon figures, brings to light and helps exemplify Ahmed’s (2004a, b) claim that affect circulates via the use of characters that tend to evoke specific cultural stereotypes.
The importance of the hippocampus and amygdala for disrupted emotional memory formation in depression is well-recognized, but it remains unclear whether functional abnormalities are state-dependent and whether they are affected by the persistence of depressive symptoms.
Thirty-nine patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls were included from the longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sub-study of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during fMRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up measurement. At baseline, all patients were in a depressed state. We investigated state-dependency by relating changes in brain activation over time to changes in symptom severity. Furthermore, the effect of time spent with depressive symptoms in the 2-year interval was investigated.
Symptom change was linearly associated with higher activation over time of the left anterior hippocampus extending to the amygdala during positive and negative word-encoding. Especially during positive word encoding, this effect was driven by symptomatic improvement. There was no effect of time spent with depression in the 2-year interval on change in brain activation. Results were independent of medication- and psychotherapy-use.
Using a longitudinal within-subjects design, we showed that hippocampal–amygdalar activation during emotional memory formation is related to depressive symptom severity but not persistence (i.e. time spent with depression or ‘load’), suggesting functional activation patterns in depression are not subject to functional ‘scarring’ although this hypothesis awaits future replication.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Determine the effectiveness of a curriculum designed to teach doctoral students to use implementation science theories, models and frameworks in optimizing scientific, social, political, cultural and organizational impact METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Analysis of Integrated Final Projects across three cohorts of doctoral students (N=30) to identify sub-disciplinary knowledge integration and application. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Integrated Final Projects indicate that the integration of IS, Program Theory and Research design within semester two yields application of integrated, sub-disciplinary knowledge to research design, identification of mechanisms of action and the address of barriers and facilitators to implementation of findings. Future analysis will be conducted to determine the degree to which dissertations reflect a similar level of sub-disciplinary integration and focus on implementation within the appropriate service setting. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Training future translational researchers to understand and use implementation science theories, models and frameworks can potentially result in narrowing the science-to-service gap.