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Treatment of the aneurysms comprising the aortic arch is challenging. Surgical reconstruction usually requires aortic cross-clamping, cardiac arrest, and even deep hypothermia for a bloodless field. In this report, we present our surgical technique providing normothermic ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal descending aorta replacement with selective cannulation and perfusion of the whole body.
One of the main problems in the implementation of Industry 4.0 is the assessment of the added technical and economic value of the new digital and other technological opportunities. This can already be observed during the elaboration of solution alternatives during the development of new industry 4.0 work systems. In order to support the developers of these systems in their decision-making, this contribution introduces a quantitative evaluation approach based on the combination of an extension of the CPM/PDD approach with an industry 4.0 maturity model and an identification scheme for process losses.
This article presents a qualitative analysis of profeminist Islamic women public figures’ discourses in the abortion debate in Turkey in 2012. The aim is to reveal the possibilities and limitations of achieving an intersectional and egalitarian profeminist collaboration on the Islamic-secular axis in contemporary Turkey. Drawing on recent feminist scholarship on coalition politics, the article exposes the fluctuations of meaning and the shifting frames of reference in these women's narratives and relates this hybrid, dynamic narrative quality to profeminist Islamic women's unique social location. It also elaborates on the blockage points in these narratives that hinder coalitional ways of thinking. Within this frame, this article suggests that in a social and political context that has witnessed a striking upsurge of antifeminist gender politics in the last decade, the building of coalitional profeminist politics beyond the Islamic-secular divide can be facilitated by shifting the focus from the apparently irreconcilable character of ideological positionings and lived experiences toward coalitional rhetorical strategies and intermediary narrative lines in profeminist subjects’ accounts.
Recently, mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio has emerged as a novel parameter of inflammation. No study has investigated the role of mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio in children with Kawasaki disease. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio and coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.
Between January 2008 and January 2017, a total of 58 children with Kawasaki disease and 42 healthy subjects matched for sex and age were enrolled. Before the treatment, transthoracic echocardiography for all children was performed. Clinical and laboratory results including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, red blood cell distribution width, and counts of platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were measured. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated as mean platelet volume divided by lymphocyte count.
Compared with healthy controls, mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly lower in the children with Kawasaki disease (p<0.01). A total of 14 patients (24.1%) had incomplete Kawasaki disease and 15 (25.8%) children with Kawasaki disease had coronary involvement. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly lower in patients with coronary artery abnormalities (p<0.01). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed for the prediction of coronary artery abnormalities, the best cut-off point for mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was 2.5 (area under curve=0.593, sensitivity 53.3%, specificity 51.1%).
It was first shown that the children with Kawasaki disease have lower mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio compared with control subjects. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio may be helpful in predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Paper-based cell culture platforms have emerged as a promising approach for a myriad of biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, disease models, cancer research, biotechnology, high-throughput testing, biosensing, and diagnostics. Paper enables the generation of highly flexible, biocompatible, inexpensive, porous, and three-dimensional (3D) constructs and devices. These systems have been used to culture mammalian cells, bacteria, algae, and fungi. Studies have shown that paper is an exceptional material for applications in life sciences, materials sciences, engineering, and medicine. Paper has been employed for creating biomimetic cell culture environments by folding or stacking it into the desired 3D shapes and structures. This review discusses the use of paper-based platforms for cellular applications and provides a diverse range of examples.
Recently, it has been remarked that dietary fatty acids and fatty acid receptors might be involved in the aetiology of diabetes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between dietary fatty acid pattern, fatty food preferences and soluble CD36 (sCD36) and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was carried out with thirty-eight newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients and thirty-seven healthy volunteers, aged 30–65 years. In the study, socio-demographic characteristics, dietary fat type and fatty acid pattern of individuals were recorded. After anthropometric measurements were taken, blood CD36, glucose, TAG and insulin levels were analysed. The results showed that although the type of fatty acid intake did not differ between the groups (P>0·05), the consumption of olive oil in the type 2 DM group was lower than the control group (P<0·05). Mean blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, TAG and sCD36 levels were determined to be higher in the type 2 DM group (P<0·05). However, there was no correlation between sCD36 levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value, blood insulin and TAG levels, waist circumference, dietary fatty acid pattern and food preferences in the type 2 DM group (P>0·05). Crucially, elevated sCD36 levels increased the type 2 DM risk (OR 1·21, P<0·05). In conclusion, sCD36 level may be a possible biomarker, independent from the dietary fatty acid pattern, for type 2 DM owing to its higher levels in these patients. Therefore, the new insights make CD36 attractive as a therapeutic target for diabetes.
When nanoparticles and nanofibers combined at the nanoscale, they could create new features in the material and therefore new areas of use. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing carbon nanoparticles produced by dense medium plasma technology have been fabricated via electrospinning technique for the first time, a new class of nanocomposite mat material has been prepared and evaluated for medical devices. A dense medium plasma technique is used for nanoparticles synthesis, which is novel, cost-efficient, and fast technology when is compared with other common nanoparticles synthesis techniques. Carbon based nanoparticles are synthesized from an arc sustained in benzene (purity, 99.5%) between iron electrodes by the lab-made dense medium plasma system. The study first mentions the production of nanoparticles by a pressure of 8 bar argon gas for glow discharge in a period of 9 seconds using a 0.5 cm electrode distance in a liquid environment (volume of benzene: 30 ml). Then, separated carbon nanoparticles are integrated with the PVP nanofibers produced by the electrospinning method. Processing parameters of PVP nanofibers containing carbon nanoparticle (nanocomposites) are optimized with various conditions such as polymer concentration: 7.8-8.0 %w/v, ratio of nanoparticle to polymer solution: 1-3.9 mg /ml, distance of electrode: 10-25 cm, processing time: 5-30 min. All samples are characterized by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At the same time, electrical conductivity of nanocomposite mats are tested for foreseeing usage in biomedical application. Results showed that carbon nanoparticles have diameters in 25 ± 5.4 nm. New nanocomposite material production is proven by transmission electron microscopy. It is a super hydrophilic mat material (static contact angle is lower than 10°). According to the optimization of processing parameters, the diameters of nanocomposite fibers reach down to 150 ±75 nm., Nanocomposite mat resistance is found to be dramatically higher than that for the bare PVP nanofiber mat resistance. According to these results, usage in biomedical application of new material was discussed. It has a great potential to use as biocompatible, light, insulator new material.
Although social harmony is one of the most important cultural values in many of Asian societies it has rarely been studied in the mainstream management literatures. Based on the group-value theory of justice we examined how group justice climates influence group effectiveness through group harmony. Analyses of data on 106 upper-level management teams from Chinese organizations showed that justice climates were positively associated with group harmony, which in turn was positively associated with team task performance and team helping behavior. Group harmony was found to significantly mediate the positive effect of both distributive and interactional justice climates on team helping behavior but only marginally on team task performance. Finally, in support of past research both at the group and individual level, procedural justice climate had the weakest effect on group processes and outcomes. By applying the group value theory on group harmony this paper aims to integrate Eastern and Western perspectives on one hand and the justice climates and group harmony research on the other. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
By using a metasurface (MS) structure, a linearly polarized wave is converted to circularly polarized waves. Both right- and left-handed circular polarizations (RHCPs and LHCP) are obtained by a simple configuration in the proposed structure which consists of 16 unit cells arranged in a 4 × 4 layout. Each unit cell contains five horizontal and parallel strips embedded in a rectangular frame in which a single diagonal strip is placed from one corner to the opposed one. It is shown that the orientation of the diagonal line determines the handedness of the converted signal to be either LHCP or RHCP. In order to show the working conditions of the MS structure, scattering parameters are found for both co-polarized and cross-polarized responses. Axial ratio, an indicator for polarization conversion, is then obtained by dividing cross-polar response to co-polar response to demonstrate the transformation. The structure works for horizontally and vertically polarized linear waves in a wide band frequency range which is approximately 510 MHz. Since the suggested MS model is composed of a simple geometry for polarization conversion, it can be easily adjusted in any desired frequency bands for a variety of applications from the defence industry to medical, education, or communication areas.
This paper introduces a rigorous framework for function modeling of complex multidisciplinary systems based on the system state flow diagram (SSFD). The work addresses the need for a consistent methodology to support solution-neutral function-based system decomposition analysis, facilitating the design, modeling, and analysis of complex systems architectures. A rigorous basis for the SSFD is established by defining conventions for states and function definitions and a representation scheme, underpinned by a critical review of existing literature. A set of heuristics are introduced to support the function decomposition analysis and to facilitate the deployment of the methodology with strong practitioner guidelines. The SSFD heuristics extend the existing framework of Otto and Wood (2001) by introducing a conditional fork node heuristic, to facilitate analysis and aggregation of function models across multiple modes of operation of the system. The empirical validation of the SSFD function modeling framework is discussed in relation to its application to two case studies: a benchmark problem (glue gun) set for the engineering design community; and an industrial case study of an electric vehicle powertrain. Based on the evidence from the two case studies presented in the paper, a critical evaluation of the SSFD function modeling methodology is discussed based on the function benchmarking framework established by Summers et al. (2013), considering the representation, modeling, cognitive, and reasoning characteristics. The significance of this paper is that it establishes a rigorous reference framework for the SSFD function representation and a consistent methodology to guide the practitioner with its deployment, facilitating its impact to industrial practice.
The present study aims to approach soft ‘g’, a highly disputable sound in Turkish phonetics and phonology, from a multidimensional perspective by (i) analysing its historical development, (ii) investigating its distribution in a dictionary of Modern Turkish, and (iii) studying its acoustic realization. In the Ottoman script soft ‘g’ was represented with two letters: <غ>, pronounced [ɣ], was used in the context of preceding back vowels Vback_(Vback, C); <گ>, pronounced [j], was used in the context of preceding front vowels Vfront_(Vfront, C). In 1928, due to a reform in orthography, these two vocalic contexts were obscured by replacing both <غ> and <گ> with <ğ>. Our investigation of the distribution of /ğ/ in the native vocabulary of Modern Turkish reveals that /ğ/ is in complementary distribution with /ɡ/: /ğ/ appears word-finally and word-medially (i.e. syllable-finally Vğ.C and intervocalically V.ğV), while /ɡ/ is found word-initially and word-medially (i.e. syllable-initially when following a consonant C.ğV). However, in loan words which are well assimilated into Turkish by means of phono-morphological rules the complementary distribution is not attested. Moreover, the behavior of soft ‘g’ in phonological processes strongly suggests that the sound is part of the phonemic inventory of Turkish. Finally, the results of our two acoustic experiments show that /ğ/ is phonetically manifested in the lengthening of the preceding vowel (/Vğ/ → [Vː]) independently of the surrounding vowel environment, word position, and participant age. In addition, the results indicate that speakers of Modern Turkish do not realize acoustic properties of a velar gesture.
Which scares you more: flying by plane or driving a motor vehicle? We expect you to answer “Flying, of course!” Why is this the case? One might predict that you would fear flying because you do it less regularly (you probably do not fly every day) and you are not able to have control over flying (how many of us are pilots?). Compare this with what most of us experience nearly every day, and feel we have understanding and some control over: driving. We feel more comfortable the more we drive, particularly because we (fortunately) do not regularly experience crashes, injuries, or fatalities. However, while the individual risk of road traffic crashes is low, the collective risk is rather high. Specifically, it has been estimated that more than 1 million people are killed worldwide on the roads each year, while 50 million people are injured (WHO, 2004). Within EU countries only, about 100,000 people die annually due to road traffic crashes (WHO, 2013), which is close to the population of some European cities, such as Exeter (England) or Linköping (Sweden). This chapter will argue why road traffic crashes are important to consider psychologically and discuss how social psychologists can contribute to a better understanding and reduction of such crashes.
It is clear that crashes are among the leading causes of injuries and fatalities around the world, and are thus a significant societal problem. An important question is: which factors predict crash likelihood? Is it insufficient road infrastructure? Or is it insufficient enforcement mechanisms? Is it fast-growing car use in developing nations? While all these factors certainly contribute to crash likelihood, human and behavioural factors are key predictors of crashes. Human and behavioural factors in traffic psychology refer to all factors that are initiated by road users sharing the traffic network. You are also a part of this network one way or another. Now think about your road-use behaviour. Have you ever entered the road as a pedestrian without waiting for the traffic light to turn green? Have you ever exceeded the speed limit when driving? Have you ever cycled without reflective clothing or a bike light at night?
This review provides a comparative analysis on the unenriched and alternative cage systems used in commercial egg production as required by the directive (99/74/EC) of the EU Council on animal welfare in terms of technical performance indicators, distribution of cost items, egg sales revenue, and profitability. Unenriched (conventional) cages are commonly used in Turkey. However these cages don't provide for the laying hens natural needs. The comparison was taken from data regarding Lohmann Brown Classic and Lohmann LSL Classic laying hybrids kept in two caging systems. The rearing period was composed of 399 days starting when 16-week-old commercial pullets were put into unenriched and alternative cage systems and ending at the end of their 73rd weeks of age when laying hens were removed from production. The average shares of the some important cost items in the total cost in the production period were calculated to be as follows for unenriched and alternative cage systems, respectively: pullet 22.17% and 21.17%; feed 61.31% and 58.29%; labour 2.67% and 2.55%; veterinary and health 0.74% and 0.98%; egg packaging 3.23% and 3.48%; maintenance and repair expenses 1.50% and 2.29%; and depreciation costs 5.48% and 8.35%. The average cost of producing one egg was found to be 0.094 US$ and 0.097 US$, respectively. It was determined that investment costs in alternative cage systems was 14.93% higher and the production cost per hen was 2.03% higher than that in unenriched cage systems. In Turkey, on January 1, 2023, all systems will be converted to alternative cages. Investment amounts and production costs for the alternative cage systems are very important in this transformation process. Therefore the present review is to examine the available information on the production data of laying hens reared in the unenriched and alternative cages and to make economic feasibility conclusions under Turkey conditions.
Mesna (i.e. sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; C2H5NaO3S2) has been used in otological surgery such as cholesteatoma dissection and tympanic membrane lateralisation in atelectatic ears. However, this study aimed to investigate its effect on cholesteatoma formation.
A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals. The right and left ears of control animals were treated with saline (saline control group; n = 10 ears) and propylene glycol plus saline (propylene glycol control group; n = 10 ears), respectively. In the mesna group, both ears were treated with propylene glycol plus mesna (n = 20 ears). On days 1, 8 and 15, the saline control group had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml saline and the propylene glycol control and mesna groups had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml 100 per cent propylene glycol. On day 22, the propylene glycol control group had a single intratympanic injection of 0.2 ml saline and the mesna group had a single intratympanic injection of 10 per cent mesna. Animals were killed 12 weeks after the last injection and the temporal bones were sent for histopathological evaluation.
The cholesteatoma formation rate was 88 per cent in the propylene glycol control group, but was significantly lower in the mesna group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in granulation tissue formation (p = 0.498), cyst formation in the bulla (p = 0.381), fibrosis (p = 0.072) and epithelial hyperplasia (p = 0.081) among experimental groups.
Intratympanic propylene glycol administration is an effective method of promoting experimental cholesteatoma formation. Administration of a single dose of intratympanic mesna inhibited cholesteatoma formation in an animal model.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume and the presence and severity of valvular involvement in patients with rheumatic heart disease.
Between April, 2012 and December, 2015, 151 patients who were admitted to the Pediatric Cardiology Unit with diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease and 148 healthy children were included to our study. Transthoracic echocardiography for all children was performed, and the values of red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume, besides other blood count parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were recorded.
Red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with rheumatic heart disease when compared with healthy controls (p<0.01). Red blood cell distribution width was positively correlated with both C-reactive protein (r=0.271, p=0.035) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.308, p=0.006). When single valve involvement was compared with both aortic valve and mitral valve involvement in the study group, red blood cell distribution width and platelet distribution width were higher in patients with double valve involvement; however, this was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
This is the first study in children with rheumatic heart disease that demonstrated significantly increased red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume levels, as well as evaluated all three parameters together. Furthermore, red blood cell distribution width values in the chronical period of acute rheumatic fever, due to the positive correlation with the other chronic inflammatory markers, may help make the diagnosis in children.