To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Business operations in large organizations today involve massive, interactive, and layered networks of teams and personnel collaborating across hierarchies and countries on complex tasks. To optimize productivity, businesses need to know: what communication patterns do high-performing teams have in common? Is it possible to predict a team's performance before it starts work on a project? How can productive team behavior be fostered? This comprehensive review for researchers and practitioners in data mining and social networks surveys recent progress in the emerging field of network science of teams. Focusing on the underlying social network structure, the authors present models and algorithms characterizing, predicting, optimizing, and explaining team performance, along with key applications, open challenges, and future trends.
Social interaction in the twenty-first century involves dynamic use of multilingual and multimodal semiotic resources and is often characterized by the transient, momentary occurrence of creative features. This chapter aims to present Translanguaging as an analytical framework for such dynamic use and creative features in social interaction. The chapter begins with an outline of the diverse phenomena of dynamic and creative practices involving multiple languages and multimodal semiotic resources. Special attention is paid to new media mediated interaction. The characteristics of such practices are identified and discussed. And theoretical issues such as temporality and momentarity are addressed. The chapter then reviews the various analytic concepts, frameworks and approaches that may help to understand these practices, their characteristics and the theoretical issues herein. It focuses specifically on those that have the capacity to offer new insights into the dynamics at the interface of the temporal and spatial dimensions of human social interaction and the creativity of multilingual language users. Perspectives from social semiotics and multimodality, as well as the traditional sociolinguistic and discourse analytic approaches are included. Thus, concepts such as creativity and criticality are also critiqued. The theoretical motivations for the translanguaging perspective and the methodological implications of adopting such a perspective are then discussed and highlighted. It aims to show the added value of translanguaging as an analytic framework for social interaction in the linguistically and culturally diverse world today.
High carbohydrate diet could achieve protein sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilization ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by high carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate metabolic syndrome caused by high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1.19 ± 0.01 g) were supplied with 35% carbohydrate (CON), 45% carbohydrate (HC) and 45% carbohydrate + 5g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for ten weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with HC group, HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin downregulated genes related to lipogenesis and upregulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0.05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in HCI group compared with HC group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin in high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
The construction of halloysite spherical capsules (halloysite aerogels) was reported for the first time in our previous work. The excellent performance of the microcapsule in functional carrying was also found in our further research. In this work, the anti-icing surface was fabricated by using halloysite nanotubes and halloysite spherical microcapsules. The fabrication of the anti-icing coating was investigated, and the ice nucleation behavior of droplet on the coating surface was studied. The modified halloysite nanotubes (F-HNTs) and the modified halloysite microcapsules (F-HAs) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric, and pore size distribution. The results show that the introduction of F-HNTs and F-HAs have successfully formed a micro-nano structure on the coating surface with superhydrophobicity performance. The icing temperature of the coating has decreased 2.3 °C compared with bare glass, and the ice adhesion strength has decreased 82%. According to the ice dynamic mechanics, the ice nucleation rate on the coating is significantly reduced, thus the halloysite microcapsule coating has good icephobic performance.
This study examined how language knowledge and item properties (i.e., semantic relatedness and position) influenced Chinese missing logographeme effects. Eighty-four Chinese readers and 53 English readers were asked to search for the Chinese logographeme 口 while reading a Chinese prose passage. The target 口 appeared in five different positions (i.e., left, right, top, bottom, or inside), varying its degree of semantic relatedness to its embedded characters. The generalized linear mixed-effect model revealed a significant interaction between semantic relatedness and position in Chinese, but not in English, readers when visual complexity and frequency were controlled. For Chinese readers, a higher omission rate occurred when 口 appeared in the top and inside positions and exhibited low semantic relatedness with its embedded characters, whereas 口 was omitted more when it was positioned on the right and exhibited high semantic relatedness to its embedded characters. English readers exhibited a different omission pattern: 口 was omitted more when it appeared in the left or right position irrespective of semantic relatedness. In addition, 口 was omitted more in the inside, rather than the bottom, position. These findings suggest that the omission rate of the logographeme is determined by item properties at the sublexical level and the reader’s language knowledge.
Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in Hami. Thirty-seven new radiocarbon dates allowed us to establish a new and more accurate chronology for Tianshanbeilu. Our results showed that the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was used from approximately 2022–1802 cal BC and remained in use from 1093–707 cal BC. This indicates that Tianshanbeilu is the earliest and longest-used known cemetery in eastern Xinjiang. By incorporating the typology of artifacts and stratigraphic relationships, the development of the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was divided into four phases. The first phase was from 2011–1672 cal BC, the second phase was from 1660–1408 cal BC, the third phase was from 1385–1256 cal BC, and the fourth phase was from 1214–1029 cal BC.
This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on presentations to an acute hospital with self-harm.
All presentations to University Hospital Galway with self-harm were assessed during the peak period of the coronavirus crisis in Ireland, over the three months from 1st March to 31st May 2020. These data were compared with presentations in the same months in the three years preceding (2017-2019). Data were obtained from the anonymised service database.
This study found that in 2020, the rate of presentation with self-harm dropped by 35% from March to April and rose by 104% from April to May, peaking from mid-May. When trends over a four-year period were examined, there was a significantly higher lethality of attempt (p<0.001), and significant differences in diagnosis (p=0.031) in 2020 in comparison with the three previous years. The increased lethality of presentations remained significant after age and gender were controlled for (p=0.036). There were also significant differences in the underlying psychiatric diagnoses(p=0.018), notably with a significant increase in substance misuse disorders presenting during the 2020 study period.
COVID-19 showed a reduction in self-harm presentations initially, followed by a sharp increase in May 2020. If a period of economic instability follows as predicted, it is likely that this will further impact the mental health of the population, along with rates of self-harm and suicidal behaviours. There is a need for research into the longer-term effect of the restrictions and changes due to Covid-19, especially with respect to self-harm.
The effects of resistant starch on glycemic control are controversial. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of results from 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to illustrate the effects of resistant starch on glycemic control. A literature search was conducted on Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane electronic databases for related publications from inception to April 6th, 2020. Key inclusion criteria were: RCTs; resistant starch as intervention substances; reporting glucose and insulin related endpoints. Exclusion criteria were: using type I resistant starch or a mixture of resistant starch and other functional food ingredients as intervention; using substances other than digestible starch as controls. The effect of resistant starch on fasting plasma glucose was significant [effect size (ES): -0.09 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.13 mmol/L, -0.04 mmol/L), p=0.001] compared with digestible starch. Subgroup analyses revealed that the effect size was larger when the dosage of resistant starch was more than 28 g/d [ES: -0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.24 mmol/L, -0.08 mmol/L), p<0.001] or the intervention period was more than 8 weeks [ES: -0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI: (-0.18 mmol/L to -0.06 mmol/L), p<0.001]. The effect on HOMA-IR was significant [ES: -0.33, 95% CI: (-0.51, -0.14), p=0.001]. However, the effects on other insulin-related endpoints were not significant, including fasting plasma insulin, four endpoints from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, disposition index and glucose effectiveness) and HOMA-β. The current study indicated moderate effects of resistant starch on improving glycemic control.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
Fullerene dimers have attracted extensive attention due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. Here, fullerene dimer derivatives with four to six carbon atoms in the esters are designed and synthesized. The property differences that caused by the carbon number in the esters of the fullerene dimers are investigated by performing their electrochemical, optical, and photoelectric measurements. As the carbon atom numbers in the esters increase from four to five and six, the absorption intensities increase to 1.6- and 4.4-folds. The intensities of the fluorescence spectra increase to 1.8- and 5.2-folds. Their photocurrent increases to 2- and 7-folds under the irradiation of a 405-nm laser. The LUMO energy levels move downward slightly from −3.89 to −3.90 and −3.92 eV, respectively. Our results indicate that as the carbon number increases, the carbon chain lengths in the ester structures increase, very slight effects produced on the energy levels of the fullerene dimers, but strongly contribute to their chemical activities and thus the photoelectronic efficiencies.
To access the trends and focuses of publications on public health emergency preparedness in the timeframe 1997-2019.
Publications related to public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. Bibliometric analyses including output statistics, co-authorship analysis, citation analysis, co-citation analysis, and co-occurrence analysis were performed and mapped using VOSviewer.
A total of 1058 publications on PHEP were included in this study. There was an increasing trend of publication output and citations since 2002. A total of 4605 authors from 1587 institutes and 92 countries contributed to the publications, and the United States lead the field. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness was the most active and co-cited journal among 243 journals. The knowledge foundation mainly focused on the professionals’ capacity, education, and conceptions of PHEP. Epidemics, natural disasters, terrorism, education, and communication were the principle topics; while “vulnerable populations,” “disaster medicine,” and “hurricane” were the recent hotspots in this field.
Significant progresses had been achieved worldwide in the past 2 decades, however, improvement of research activity and international collaboration is still a need for most countries.
The process of recording, defining, and narrating the development of any given academic field most often results in an unfortunate reduction and reification of multiple streams, movements, and figures into a single story. The field of intercultural communications faces this challenge to a greater degree, as it involves remembering and recognizing the nuanced roots and unique influences of multiple fields of origin (linguistics, anthropology, psychology, linguistics, communication, education, and more). Recent scholarship has called for re-examining the genealogy of lines traced back to Edward T. Hall to better account for, affirm, and give agency to other perspectives in our complex history. Thus, this chapter seeks to answer the question: “Outside of the mainstream narrative, what are the historical contexts, events, people, places, theories, concepts, processes, and impacts that we cannot afford to forget as a field?” This Bordieuan-guided sociology of knowledge and praxis will be organized into three main areas: (1) influential philosophical thinking on culture and social relations (pre-1900s); (2) comparative and intercultural initiatives that provided conceptualizations, critiques, and applications of social and cultural theory (pre-Hall and pre-1970s); and (3) concurrent parallel tracks that formalized fields of cross- or intercultural studies, which continue to cross-over, contend, and realign to meet the needs of today’s complex cultural contexts (since the 1970s). By approaching the disciplinary history of the field(s) of intercultural studies in an intercultural (multiple-perspectival, reflective, context-sensitive) manner, both revived and new insights are garnered for grappling with and finding new approaches to the important issues facing inter-group relations and intercultural communication research and praxis today.
A novel ionic liquid/α-ZrP (C16MIM/α-ZrP) lamellar nanocomposite was fabricated via the electrostatic self-assembly deposition technique by using exfoliated α-ZrP nanosheets and guest molecules (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as building blocks under mild conditions. C16MIM/α-ZrP nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchronous thermal analyzer. The net interlayer spacing of α-ZrP determined by XRD confirmed that the C16MIM cations formed a monolayer arrangement between the α-ZrP nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of C16MIM/α-ZrP composite were observed using SEM and TEM. The C16MIM/α-ZrP modified glass carbon electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite in weak base media. The results obtained with differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the C16MIM/α-ZrP hybrid detected nitrite linearly in the concentration range from 7.3 μM to 1.25 mM with the detection limit of 1.26 μM (S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared sensor showed outstanding reproducibility, high stability, and anti-interference capability.
The effect of coffee consumption on functional disability has been scarcely investigated. Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between coffee consumption and functional disability in older American adults. Participants (≥60 years old, n 7704) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016. Coffee consumption was assessed through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Five domains of functional disability including lower extremity mobility (LEM), general physical activity (GPA), leisure and social activities (LSA), activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were self-reported. Age- and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline analyses were used. Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with LEM, GPA, LSA and IADL disability. Compared with non-drinkers of total coffee, those who consumed ≥2 cups/d reported lower odds of LEM (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·91), GPA (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·88), LSA (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·83) and IADL (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·78) disability. The dose–response analyses confirmed these relationships. Intake of ≥2 cups/d caffeinated coffee was also inversely linked to GPA (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), LSA (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·93) and IADL (OR 0·57, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·75) disability, whereas the inverse association of 2+ cups/d decaffeinated coffee was only on LEM (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·81) and LSA (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·94) disability. The present study suggested that coffee consumption was inversely associated with functional disability in older American adults. Those associations of diverse coffee types differed across domains of functional disability.
To investigate the behavior of restricted mean survival time (RMST) and designs of a two-state Markov microsimulation model through a 2 × 4 × 2 full factorial experiment.
By projecting patient-wise 15-year-post-trial survival, we estimated life-year-gained between an intervention and a control group using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies Study (COMPASS). Projections considered either in-trial events or post-trial medications. They were compared based on three factors: (i) choice of probability of death, (ii) lengths of cycle, and (iii) usage of half-a-cycle age correction. Three-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test compared means among factors.
When both in-trial events and post-trial study medications were considered, monthly, quarterly, or semiannually were not different from one other in projected life-year-gained. However, the annual one was different from the others: mean and 95 percent confidence interval 252.2 (190.5–313.9) days monthly, 251.8 (192.0–311.6) quarterly, 249.1 (189.7–308.5) semiannually, and 240.8 (178.5–303.1) annually. The other two factors also impacted life-year-gained: background probability (269.1 [260.3–277.9] days projected with REACH-based-probabilities, 227.7 [212.6–242.8] with a USA life table); half-a-cycle age correction (245.5 [199.0–292] with correction and 251.4 [209.1–293.7] without correction). When not considering post-trial medications, only the choice of probability of death appeared to impact life-year-gained.
For a large trial or cohort, to optimally project life-year-gained, one should consider using (i) annual projections, (ii) life table probabilities, (iii) in-trial events, and (iv) post-trial medication use.
We present the development of a regional dementia strategy in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. We worked with stakeholders in a regional health authority to develop a dementia strategy. We conducted interviews with persons with dementia and their care partners (n = 26) and health care administrators and policy makers (n = 33); and administered a priority-setting survey (n = 64). Both participant groups identified provider compassion, professionalism, and care in the early stages of dementia as system strengths. Both groups also highlighted a need for more integration and coordination, a need for more person-centred care, support for care partners, and more flexibility in the provision and receipt of services. The highest-ranked priorities were improving care partner support, improving access to care, and improving system-wide quality. We integrate these strengths, needs, and priorities in a strategic framework, “Whole Person, Whole Journey”. Organizations developing a dementia strategy may use this framework as a springboard for their own work.