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Experimental measurements of the force and torque on freely settling fibres are compared with predictions of the slender-body theory of Khayat & Cox (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 209, 1989, pp. 435–462). Although the flow is viscous dominated at the scale of the fibre diameter, fluid inertia is important on the scale of the fibre length, leading to inertial torques which tend to rotate symmetric fibres toward horizontal orientations. Experimentally, the torque on symmetric fibres is inferred from the measured rate of rotation of the fibres using a quasi-steady torque balance. It is shown theoretically that fibres with an asymmetric radius or mass density distribution undergo a supercritical pitch-fork bifurcation from vertical to oblique settling with increasing Archimedes number, increasing Reynolds number or decreasing asymmetry. This transition is observed in experiments with asymmetric mass density and we find good agreement with the predicted symmetry breaking transition. In these experiments, the steady orientation of the oblique settling fibres provides a means to measure the inertial torque in the absence of transient effects since it is balanced by the known gravitational torque.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
Introduction: BACKGROUND: Recognition rates of delirium in older ED patients were reported between 13 to 25% in studies conducted in the U.S in the 1990's. Recently, there has been increased attention to delirium in Emergency Medicine, with the development of Geriatric curriculums in Canada specifically focused on delirium. However rates of delirium recognition have not been reassessed in Canadian ED's. OBJECTIVES: To assess the rate of delirium recognition by ED staff in a cohort of older ED patients assessed at a tertiary care Canadian ED. Methods: STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study at a Canadian teaching ED. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients were aged ≥70 years and older who had stayed in the ED for a minimum of 4 hours. We excluded patients who were critically ill, visually impaired or otherwise unable to communicate. DATA COLLECTION: Trained research assistants approached clinical staff prior to approaching patients to confirm that patients were delirium free. They then assessed demographics, ED length of stay (LOS) and cognition using the validated Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MOCA), mini-mental status exam (MMSE), delirium index and Richardson Agitation Scale (RASS) at baseline. Delirium was assessed using the validated Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). We report descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate. Results: We enrolled 203 patients of which 102 (50.3%) were female. Their mean age was 81.0 years, mean LOS was 16.3 hours, mean MOCA was 23.4 and mean MMSE was 26.7. RA's detected delirium using the CAM in 16/203 patients (7.9%, 95% CI 4.6 to 12.5%). Mean MOCA and MMSE for delirious patients was 13.4 and 18.3 and their mean DI was 6.4. All CAM positive patients were deemed to be delirium free by clinical staff. RA alerted clinical staff in all cases where patients had delirium, but 3/16 were discharged home (18.8%, 95% CI 4.1 to 45.7%). Conclusion: Our findings confirm previous low delirium recognition rates in a Canadian Tertiary ED. Future research should explore barriers and facilitators to recognizing delirium in the ED.
Many observers of the international relations (IR) discipline express concern about the decline in policy-relevant research within the academy. Some blame an academic culture and academic institutions that incentivize abstract, quantitative, or theoretical work that speaks to scholarly debates rather than real-world problems. This article asks how IR scholars value both scholarly and policy publications. Using data from the TRIP survey, we found that publications generally considered policy relevant are undervalued in academic tenure decisions. These findings hold regardless of whether faculty have attained tenure or whether they consider their own research to be policy relevant. However, scholars who consult, teach at colleges rather than research universities, or teach in Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs schools rather than political science departments are likely to believe: (1) that policy-relevant research products are currently valued more highly than their colleagues estimate; and (2) on the normative question, that these policy publications should be valued even more highly than they are. Overall, these results suggest an openness to increasing the value of policy-relevant research in tenure decisions as part of an effort to increase the amount of policy-focused work in the discipline.
In Ireland, the major causes of death are CVD. The current Irish healthy eating guidelines and food pyramid primarily advocate a low-fat diet. However, there is overwhelming scientific evidence for the benefits of a Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) in the prevention and management of metabolic disease as well as improving overall health and well-being. In the current commentary, the rationale to incorporate the principles of the Med Diet into the Irish dietary guidelines is presented.
Perspectives of authors.
Local and international.
Populations in Europe, North America and Australia.
Adopting components of the Med Diet presents a more evidence-based approach to updating the current Irish dietary guidelines. Experience and lessons from other non-Mediterranean countries show that it could be a feasible and effective solution to improving the dietary habits of the Irish population to prevent and mange chronic diseases.
Policies and programmes to address perceived barriers to the Med Diet’s implementation and uptake in non-Mediterranean countries should be promoted.
The current study examines the role of cognitive and perceptual individual differences (i.e., aptitude) in second language (L2) pronunciation learning, when L2 learners’ varied experience background is controlled for. A total of 48 Chinese learners of English in the UK were assessed for their sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech on explicit and implicit modes via behavioural (language/music aptitude tests) and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) measures. Subsequently, the participants’ aptitude profiles were compared to the segmental and suprasegmental dimensions of their L2 pronunciation proficiency analyzed through rater judgements and acoustic measurements. According to the results, the participants’ segmental attainment was associated not only with explicit aptitude (phonemic coding), but also with implicit aptitude (enhanced neural encoding of spectral peaks). Whereas the participants’ suprasegmental attainment was linked to explicit aptitude (rhythmic imagery) to some degree, it was primarily influenced by the quality and quantity of their most recent L2 learning experience.
The widespread replication of research findings in independent laboratories prior to publication is suggested as a complement to traditional replication approaches. The pre-publication independent replication approach further addresses three key concerns from replication skeptics by systematically taking context into account, reducing reputational costs for original authors and replicators, and increasing the theoretical value of failed replications.
The goal of this study was to assess the utility of serial electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of paediatric Marfan patients.
Children ⩽18 years who met the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome and received a 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram within a 3-month period were included. Controls were matched by age, body surface area, gender, race, and ethnicity, and consisted of patients assessed in clinic with a normal cardiac evaluation. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic data were collected.
A total of 45 Marfan patients (10.8 [2.4–17.1] years) and 37 controls (12.8 [1.3–17.1] years) were included. Left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy were more frequently present on 12-lead electrocardiogram of Marfan patients compared with controls (12 (27%) versus 0 (0%), p<0.001; and 8 (18%) versus 0 (0%), p=0.008, respectively); however, only two patients with left atrial enlargement on 12-lead electrocardiogram were confirmed to have left atrial enlargement by echocardiogram, and one patient had mild left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram, not appreciated on 12-lead electrocardiogram. QTc interval was longer in Marfan patients compared with controls (427±16 versus 417±22 ms, p=0.03), with four Marfan patients demonstrating borderline prolonged QTc intervals for gender.
While Marfan patients exhibited a higher frequency of left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy on 12-lead electrocardiograms compared with controls, these findings were not supported by echocardiography. Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of asymptomatic paediatric Marfan patients may be more appropriate for a subgroup of Marfan patients only, specifically those with prolonged QTc interval at their baseline visit.
Challenges posed to European integration by exercises of direct democracy at the national or sub-state level – EU response to referendums on internal constitutional matters – Greek, Scottish and Catalan referendum processes – Resilience of state nationalism and the complex pluralisation of identities below the level of the state
There are few examples of studies that view disasters through a social problems lens. Disasters are seldom constructed as social problems, and when they are, such collective definitions typically follow the occurrence of major disasters that are defined as revealing policy deficits. While recognizing the importance of symbolic processes surrounding disaster-related phenomena, most research proceeds from a realist stance that takes the occurrence and consequences of disasters as givens. Too little attention has been paid to how hazards and disasters are discursively framed and how their consequences are produced through institutional and elite action. At the same time, both research and real-world developments illustrate the extent to which claims regarding the genesis of disasters, the nature of the harms disasters produce, and responsibility for causing and ameliorating such harms shift and evolve. Constructions of disaster and other perils reveal the power dynamics and reigning ideologies within the societies in which they occur.
The Imaging Program at the 7th World Congress highlighted the versatility and diagnostic power of the current and upcoming imaging tools in Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Several experts presented interesting as well as practical data on the use of 2D and 3D Echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the fetus, child, and adult with congenital heart disease. Bridging sessions coupled use of these imaging modalities and screening practices in patients with acquired heart disease. Hot topics included nomenclature of ventricular septal defects, the challenging diagnosis of double outlet right ventricle, cardiac tumors, and imaging of aortapathies. Several talks concentrated on the quantitative assessment of ventricular function and reviewed numerous exciting new modalities that currently serve as research tools. In summary, Imaging Sessions truly represented how far we have advanced the field of Imaging in Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery.