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The risk of cross infection in a busy emergency department (ED) is a serious public health concern, especially in times of pandemic threats. We simulated cross infections due to respiratory diseases spread by large droplets using empirical data on contacts (ie, close-proximity interactions of ≤1m) in an ED to quantify risks due to contact and to examine factors with differential risks associated with them.
Health workers (HCWs) and patients.
A busy ED.
Data on contacts between participants were collected over 6 months by observing two 12-hour shifts per week using a radiofrequency identification proximity detection system. We simulated cross infection due to a novel agent across these contacts to determine risks associated with HCW role, chief complaint category, arrival mode, and ED disposition status.
Cross-infection risk between HCWs was substantially greater than between patients or between patients and HCWs. Providers had the least risk, followed by nurses, and nonpatient care staff had the most risk. There were no differences by patient chief complaint category. We detected differential risk patterns by arrival mode and by HCW role. Although no differential risk was associated with ED disposition status, 0.1 infections were expected per shift among patients admitted to hospital.
These simulations demonstrate that, on average, 11 patients who were infected in the ED will be admitted to the hospital over the course of an 8-week local influenza outbreak. These patients are a source of further cross-infection risk once in the hospital.
This chapter examines environmental problems from a sociological perspective. It traces the evolution of the two most prominent sociological approaches to conceptualizing environmental problems: realism and constructivism. Realists analyze environmental problems in terms of material changes to the environment that disrupt biophysical and social processes. Constructivists focus on the ways in which social, cultural, and political forces produce shared subjective perceptions of environmental problems. In comparing these two perspectives, this chapter illustrates the need for both realist and constructivist conceptualizations to account for the dialectical relationship between the social and biophysical forces that constitute environmental problems. This is further complicated in the examination of environmental problems in a global context. The chapter concludes by suggesting an approach to studying environmental problems that accounts for the relationship between local and global dynamics of socioenvironmental dialectics: a place-based sociology of environmental problems.
The collection of four Latin bucolics ascribed to one Martius Valerius was only published in the twentieth century; they have been widely considered as twelfth-century compositions. Picking up on suggestions proposed by François Dolbeau, this study presents evidence that Martius drew directly on the bucolics of Theocritus, and that his poems are late antique, not medieval, literary productions, probably written in the sixth century. Such a conclusion will require a revision of the history of post-Virgilian Latin bucolic poetry.
The Keck II Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) is a general purpose, faint object, multi-slit, double-beam spectrograph which offers wide spectral coverage, high spectral resolution, high throughput, and long slit length on the sky. This powerful instrument will be the principal optical spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. DEIMOS is optimized for faint-object spectroscopy of individual point sources, low-surface-brightness extended objects, or widely distributed samples of faint objects on the sky. To obtain high resolution (∼ 1 å) and wide spectral coverage (up to 5000 å) the spectrograph uses wide angle cameras and large CCD detectors with many pixels.
This paper describes some of the work being carried out to obtain the CCD detectors required for the DEIMOS spectrograph. In addition, results are presented on the fabrication and characterization of a 4k × 2k three-side buttable CCD produced by Orbit Semiconductor, a silicon foundry in San Jose, California. This CCD was fabricated to test the ability of Orbit to produce high quality scientific CCDs with the characteristics required for detectors to be used in DEIMOS and other optical instruments of the Keck Observatory.
The renaissance of Apuleian studies of the past few decades shows no signs of abating.1 The summer of 2014 may well be the highest watermark yet recorded in the tide of interest in Apuleius: June and July alone saw the release of two monographs, one each from Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press, and one edited conference volume, from Routledge.2 The clearest sign that the sophist of Madauros has come into his own is his admission into the exclusive club of the Oxford Classical Texts: the first volume of his complete works containing the Metamorphoses edited by Maaike Zimmerman came out in 2012. One of the most salutary effects of this renewed interest has been the reappraisal of the ‘whole Apuleius’: Apuleius has more to offer than just the Metamorphoses, and recent scholarship on the rhetorica and the philosophica have shown not only how these opera minora can help us understand the opus maius, but also how they are important and interesting documents in their own right.3
The only two authoritative manuscripts of Ammianus Marcellinus to survive to the present day were produced in Germany in the first half of the ninth century: Vaticanus Latinus 1873 from Fulda (V), and a fragmentary manuscript from Hersfeld now preserved in Kassel (M). This article challenges the consensus that V is a copy of M. Taking into account recently uncovered fragments of M (new transcriptions of which are offered in the Appendix), we argue that both are copies of the same damaged original, and discuss the implications for the editing of Ammianus and for our understanding of Carolingian scholarship.
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of dwarf novae are presented. The data were obtained during an international program of multiwavelength observations, held in 1986 February at several observatories, of dwarf novae during the first and subsequent days of outburst. During the campaign numerous dwarf novae were monitored in order to catch them in outburst. Preliminary results and analysis of some objects are reported elsewhere. A total of 30 dwarf novae were observed in the northern and southern hemispheres. Among them 37% were caught in outburst, including 10% on the rise to outburst and 17% in decline. Photometric observations were carried out in the UBVRI system and colour indexes were calculated.
Two ancient pastoral poems were published by Hermann Hagen in 1869 from a manuscript at Einsiedeln and were soon dated to the reign of Nero. In this study, I show that these poems are related to the Bucolicon Olybrii listed in a library catalogue of Murbach from around 850, and demonstrate on internal and external grounds that the poems were likely composed around the end of the fourth century by Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius, the consul of 395. This attribution enhances our understanding of the literary culture of the age of Claudian and contributes to the on-going debate on the extent and import of Neronian literature.
Children's observed effortful control (EC) at 30, 42, and 54 months (n = 145) was predicted from the interaction between mothers' observed parenting with their 30-month-olds and three variants of the solute carrier family C6, member 3 (SLC6A3) dopamine transporter gene (single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron8 and intron13, and a 40 base pair variable number tandem repeat [VNTR] in the 3′-untranslated region [UTR]), as well as haplotypes of these variants. Significant moderating effects were found. Children without the intron8-A/intron13-G, intron8-A/3′-UTR VNTR-10, or intron13-G/3′-UTR VNTR-10 haplotypes (i.e., haplotypes associated with the reduced SLC6A3 gene expression and thus lower dopamine functioning) appeared to demonstrate altered levels of EC as a function of maternal parenting quality, whereas children with these haplotypes demonstrated a similar EC level regardless of the parenting quality. Children with these haplotypes demonstrated a trade-off, such that they showed higher EC, relative to their counterparts without these haplotypes, when exposed to less supportive maternal parenting. The findings revealed a diathesis–stress pattern and suggested that different SLC6A3 haplotypes, but not single variants, might represent different levels of young children's sensitivity/responsivity to early parenting.
We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val158Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and 84 months) and internalizing symptoms (assessed at 24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months) in a sample of 146 children (79 male). Although the pattern for all three variants was very similar, Val158Met explained more variance in both outcomes than did intron1, the 3′-untranslated region, or a haplotype that combined all three catechol-O-methyltransferase variants. In separate models, there were significant three-way interactions among each of the variants, parenting, and sex, predicting the intercepts of inhibitory control and internalizing symptoms. Results suggested that Val158Met indexes plasticity, although this effect was moderated by sex. Parenting was positively associated with inhibitory control for methionine–methionine boys and for valine–valine/valine–methionine girls, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms for methionine–methionine boys. Using the “regions of significance” technique, genetic differences in inhibitory control were found for children exposed to high-quality parenting, whereas genetic differences in internalizing were found for children exposed to low-quality parenting. These findings provide evidence in support of testing for differential susceptibility across multiple outcomes.
For a complete, finite volume real hyperbolic n-manifold M, we investigate the map between homology of the cusps of M and the homology of M. Our main result provides a proof of a result required in a recent paper of Frigerio, Lafont and Sisto.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) is unique because it is the first international criminal tribunal to allow victims of alleged crimes to act as civil parties at trial. This means that victims can have a role at the ECCC beyond being called as witnesses. After presenting the history of victim participation in national and international war crimes trials, this article examines how civil party participation shaped the trial proceedings at the ECCC, and how the civil parties viewed their interactions with the court. It concludes by reflecting on the positive and negative aspects of civil party participation in the Duch trial, and what implications such participation may have for future trials at the ECCC and other international criminal courts.